Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.450
Filtrar
1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 494, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gmelina arborea Roxb is a fast-growing tree species of commercial importance for tropical countries due to multiple industrial uses of its wood. Wood is primarily composed of thick secondary cell walls of xylem cells which imparts the strength to the wood. Identification of the genes involved in the secondary cell wall biosynthesis as well as their cognate regulators is crucial to understand how the production of wood occurs and serves as a starting point for developing breeding strategies to produce varieties with improved wood quality, better paper pulping or new potential uses such as biofuel production. In order to gain knowledge on the molecular mechanisms and gene regulation related with wood development in white teak, a de novo sequencing and transcriptome assembly approach was used employing secondary cell wall synthesizing cells from young white teak trees. RESULTS: For generation of transcriptome, RNA-seq reads were assembled into 110,992 transcripts and 49,364 genes were functionally annotated using plant databases; 5071 GO terms and 25,460 SSR markers were identified within xylem transcripts and 10,256 unigenes were assigned to KEGG database in 130 pathways. Among transcription factor families, C2H2, C3H, bLHLH and MYB were the most represented in xylem. Differential gene expression analysis using leaves as a reference was carried out and a total of 20,954 differentially expressed genes were identified including monolignol biosynthetic pathway genes. The differential expression of selected genes (4CL, COMT, CCoAOMT, CCR and NST1) was validated using qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: We report the very first de novo transcriptome of xylem-related genes in this tropical timber species of commercial importance and constitutes a valuable extension of the publicly available transcriptomic resource aimed at fostering both basic and breeding studies.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Madeira , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Metabolismo Secundário , Transcriptoma , Xilema
2.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(6): 2127-2146, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227299

RESUMO

Streptomyces are major sources of bioactive natural products. Genome sequencing reveals that Streptomyces have great biosynthetic potential, with an average of 20-40 biosynthetic gene clusters each strain. However, most natural products from Streptomyces are produced in low yields under regular laboratory cultivation conditions, which hamper their further study and drug development. The production of natural products in Streptomyces is controlled by the intricate regulation mechanisms. Manipulation of the regulatory systems that govern secondary metabolite production will strongly facilitate the discovery and development of natural products of Streptomyces origin. In this review, we summarize progresses in pathway-specific regulators from Streptomyces in the last five years and highlight their role in improving the yields of corresponding natural products.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Streptomyces , Família Multigênica , Metabolismo Secundário , Streptomyces/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206964

RESUMO

Populus trees meet continuous difficulties from the environment through their life cycle. To warrant their durability and generation, Populus trees exhibit various types of defenses, including the production of secondary metabolites. Syntheses derived from the shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway are a varied and plentiful class of secondary metabolites manufactured in Populus. Amongst other main classes of secondary metabolites in Populus are fatty acid and terpenoid-derivatives. Many of the secondary metabolites made by Populus trees have been functionally described. Any others have been associated with particular ecological or biological processes, such as resistance against pests and microbial pathogens or acclimatization to abiotic stresses. Still, the functions of many Populus secondary metabolites are incompletely understood. Furthermore, many secondary metabolites have therapeutic effects, leading to more studies of secondary metabolites and their biosynthesis. This paper reviews the biosynthetic pathways and therapeutic impacts of secondary metabolites in Populus using a genomics approach. Compared with bacteria, fewer known pathways produce secondary metabolites in Populus despite P. trichocarpa having had its genome sequenced.


Assuntos
Populus/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Metaboloma , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202180

RESUMO

In nature, plants usually produce secondary metabolites as a defense mechanism against environmental stresses. Different stresses determine the chemical diversity of plant-specialized metabolism products. In this study, we applied an abiotic elicitor, i.e., NaCl, to enhance the biosynthesis and accumulation of phenolic secondary metabolites in Melissa officinalis L. Plants were subjected to salt stress treatment by application of NaCl solutions (0, 50, or 100 mM) to the pots. Generally, the NaCl treatments were found to inhibit the growth of plants, simultaneously enhancing the accumulation of phenolic compounds (total phenolics, soluble flavonols, anthocyanins, phenolic acids), especially at 100 mM NaCl. However, the salt stress did not disturb the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and proper functioning of the PS II photosystem. Therefore, the proposed method of elicitation represents a convenient alternative to cell suspension or hydroponic techniques as it is easier and cheaper with simple application in lemon balm pot cultivation. The improvement of lemon balm quality by NaCl elicitation can potentially increase the level of health-promoting phytochemicals and the bioactivity of low-processed herbal products.


Assuntos
Melissa/fisiologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Biomassa , Melissa/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3531, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112794

RESUMO

Camptothecin and its derivatives are widely used for treating malignant tumors. Previous studies revealed only a limited number of candidate genes for camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata, and it is still poorly understood how its biosynthesis of camptothecin has evolved. Here, we report a high-quality, chromosome-level C. acuminata genome assembly. We find that C. acuminata experiences an independent whole-genome duplication and numerous genes derive from it are related to camptothecin biosynthesis. Comparing with Catharanthus roseus, the loganic acid O-methyltransferase (LAMT) in C. acuminata fails to convert loganic acid into loganin. Instead, two secologanic acid synthases (SLASs) convert loganic acid to secologanic acid. The functional divergence of the LAMT gene and positive evolution of two SLAS genes, therefore, both contribute greatly to the camptothecin biosynthesis in C. acuminata. Our results emphasize the importance of high-quality genome assembly in identifying genetic changes in the evolutionary origin of a secondary metabolite.


Assuntos
Camptotheca/metabolismo , Camptotecina/metabolismo , Cromossomos/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Camptotheca/enzimologia , Camptotheca/genética , Camptotecina/biossíntese , Cromossomos/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes Duplicados , Genômica , Iridoides/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH , Filogenia , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/genética , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Vimblastina/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3718, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140479

RESUMO

Identification of small molecules is a critical task in various areas of life science. Recent advances in mass spectrometry have enabled the collection of tandem mass spectra of small molecules from hundreds of thousands of environments. To identify which molecules are present in a sample, one can search mass spectra collected from the sample against millions of molecular structures in small molecule databases. The existing approaches are based on chemistry domain knowledge, and they fail to explain many of the peaks in mass spectra of small molecules. Here, we present molDiscovery, a mass spectral database search method that improves both efficiency and accuracy of small molecule identification by learning a probabilistic model to match small molecules with their mass spectra. A search of over 8 million spectra from the Global Natural Product Social molecular networking infrastructure shows that molDiscovery correctly identify six times more unique small molecules than previous methods.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Algoritmos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Benchmarking , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos , Humanos , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Estatísticos , Plantas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Software
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073951

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s), heme-thiolate proteins, are well-known players in the generation of chemicals valuable to humans and as a drug target against pathogens. Understanding the evolution of P450s in a bacterial population is gaining momentum. In this study, we report comprehensive analysis of P450s in the ancient group of the bacterial class Alphaproteobacteria. Genome data mining and annotation of P450s in 599 alphaproteobacterial species belonging to 164 genera revealed the presence of P450s in only 241 species belonging to 82 genera that are grouped into 143 P450 families and 214 P450 subfamilies, including 77 new P450 families. Alphaproteobacterial species have the highest average number of P450s compared to Firmicutes species and cyanobacterial species. The lowest percentage of alphaproteobacterial species P450s (2.4%) was found to be part of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), compared other bacterial species, indicating that during evolution large numbers of P450s became part of BGCs in other bacterial species. Our study identified that some of the P450 families found in alphaproteobacterial species were passed to other bacterial species. This is the first study to report on the identification of CYP125 P450, cholesterol and cholest-4-en-3-one hydroxylase in alphaproteobacterial species (Phenylobacterium zucineum) and to predict cholesterol side-chain oxidation capability (based on homolog proteins) by P. zucineum.


Assuntos
Alphaproteobacteria/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Família Multigênica , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Mineração de Dados , Evolução Molecular , Firmicutes/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Filogenia , Streptomyces/genética
8.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110940, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134852

RESUMO

Jasmonate restricts accumulation of constitutive and fungus-induced root soluble sugars at flowering stage, and thus reduces root beneficial fungal colonization, but little is known about how these are achieved. To determine whether jasmonate-mediated depletion of soluble sugars is the result of direct phytohormonal cross-talk or indirect induced defensive secondary metabolism, we first profiled soluble sugar and tryptophan (Trp)-derived defensive secondary metabolites in the roots of wild-type and jasmonate signaling-impaired Arabidopsis thaliana at flowering upon a beneficial fungus Phomopsis liquidambaris inoculation. Next, jasmonate and gibberellin signaling were manipulated to determine the relationship between jasmonate and gibberellin, and to quantify the effects of these phytohormones on fungal colonization degree, soluble sugar accumulation, Trp-derived secondary metabolites production, and sugar source-sink transport and metabolism. Gibberellin complementation increased Ph. liquidambaris colonization and rescued jasmonate-dependent root soluble sugar depletion and phloem sugar transport and root invertase activity without influencing jasmonate-induced Trp-derived secondary metabolites production at flowering. Furthermore, jasmonate signaling antagonized gibberellin biosynthesis in Ph. liquidambaris-inoculated roots. Our results suggest a phytohormonal antagonism model that jasmonate signaling restricts root soluble sugar accumulation through antagonizing gibberellin biosynthesis rather than through promoting Trp-derived secondary metabolites production and thus drives beneficial fungal colonization decline at flowering.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos/genética , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Açúcares/metabolismo , Simbiose
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3864, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162873

RESUMO

Genetically encoded small molecules (secondary metabolites) play eminent roles in ecological interactions, as pathogenicity factors and as drug leads. Yet, these chemical mediators often evade detection, and the discovery of novel entities is hampered by low production and high rediscovery rates. These limitations may be addressed by genome mining for biosynthetic gene clusters, thereby unveiling cryptic metabolic potential. The development of sophisticated data mining methods and genetic and analytical tools has enabled the discovery of an impressive array of previously overlooked natural products. This review shows the newest developments in the field, highlighting compound discovery from unconventional sources and microbiomes.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica/métodos , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Metabolismo Secundário/genética
10.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069197

RESUMO

Ageratum conyzoides L. (Family-Asteraceae) is an annual aromatic invasive herb, mainly distributed over the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It owns a reputed history of indigenous remedial uses, including as a wound dressing, an antimicrobial, and mouthwash as well as in treatment of dysentery, diarrhea, skin diseases, etc. In this review, the core idea is to present the antifungal potential of the selected medicinal plant and its secondary metabolites against different fungal pathogens. Additionally, toxicological studies (safety profile) conducted on the amazing plant A. conyzoides L. are discussed for the possible clinical development of this medicinal herb. Articles available from 2000 to 2020 were reviewed in detail to exhibit recent appraisals of the antifungal properties of A. conyzoides. Efforts were aimed at delivering evidences for the medicinal application of A. conyzoides by using globally recognized scientific search engines and databases so that an efficient approach for filling the lacunae in the research and development of antifungal drugs can be adopted. After analyzing the literature, it can be reported that the selected medicinal plant effectively suppressed the growth of numerous fungal species, such as Aspergillus, Alternaria, Candida, Fusarium, Phytophthora, and Pythium, owing to the presence of various secondary metabolites, particularly chromenes, terpenoids, flavonoids and coumarins. The possible mechanism of action of different secondary metabolites of the plant against fungal pathogens is also discussed briefly. However, it was found that only a few studies have been performed to demonstrate the plant's dosage and safety profile in humans. Considered all together, A. conyzoides extract and its constituents may act as a promising biosource for the development of effective antifungal formulations for clinical use. However, in order to establish safety and efficacy, additional scientific research is required to explore chronic toxicological effects of ageratum, to determine the probability of interactions when used with different herbs, and to identify safe dosage. The particulars presented here not only bridge this gap but also furnish future research strategies for the investigators in microbiology, ethno-pharmacology, and drug discovery.


Assuntos
Ageratum/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ageratum/classificação , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Antifúngicos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063025

RESUMO

Understanding the toxicity and production rates of the various secondary metabolites produced by Gambierdiscus and cohabitating benthic dinoflagellates is essential to unravelling the complexities associated with ciguatera poisoning. In the present study, a sulphated cyclic polyether, gambierone, was purified from Gambierdiscus cheloniae CAWD232 and its acute toxicity was determined using intraperitoneal injection into mice. It was shown to be of low toxicity with an LD50 of 2.4 mg/kg, 9600 times less toxic than the commonly implicated Pacific ciguatoxin-1B, indicating it is unlikely to play a role in ciguatera poisoning. In addition, the production of gambierone and 44-methylgambierone was assessed from 20 isolates of ten Gambierdiscus, two Coolia and two Fukuyoa species using quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Gambierone was produced by seven Gambierdiscus species, ranging from 1 to 87 pg/cell, and one species from each of the genera Coolia and Fukuyoa, ranging from 2 to 17 pg/cell. The production of 44-methylgambierone ranged from 5 to 270 pg/cell and was ubiquitous to all Gambierdiscus species tested, as well as both species of Coolia and Fukuyoa. The relative production ratio of these two secondary metabolites revealed that only two species produced more gambierone, G. carpenteri CAWD237 and G. cheloniae CAWD232. This represents the first report of gambierone acute toxicity and production by these cohabitating benthic dinoflagellate species. While these results demonstrate that gambierones are unlikely to pose a risk to human health, further research is required to understand if they bioaccumulate in the marine food web.


Assuntos
Ciguatoxinas/toxicidade , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Éteres/toxicidade , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Éteres/administração & dosagem , Éteres/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Dose Letal Mediana , Camundongos , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
12.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065799

RESUMO

Colibactin is a secondary metabolite encoded by the pks gene island identified in several Enterobacteriaceae, including some pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) commonly enriched in mucosal tissue collected from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. E. coli harboring this biosynthetic gene cluster cause DNA damage and tumorigenesis in cell lines and pre-clinical models, yet fundamental knowledge regarding colibactin function is lacking. To accurately assess the role of pks+ E. coli in cancer etiology, the biological mechanisms governing production and delivery of colibactin by these bacteria must be elucidated. In this review, we will focus on recent advances in our understanding of colibactin's structural mode-of-action and mutagenic potential with consideration for how this activity may be regulated by physiologic conditions within the intestine.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Mutagênicos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Peptídeos/toxicidade , Policetídeos/toxicidade , Metabolismo Secundário
13.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063513

RESUMO

Chemical compositions of plants are affected by the initial nutrient contents in the soil and climatic conditions; thus, we analyzed for the first time the effects of soil and leaf nutrients on the compositions of the essential oils (EOs) of Siparuna muricata in four different localities in Ecuador. EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Enantiomeric distribution by GC/MS was determined, modifying the enantiomeric separation of ß-pinene, limonene, δ-elemene, ß-bourbonene, cis-cadina-1 (6), 4-diene and atractylone. A total of 44 compounds were identified. The most representative for L1 were guaiol, atractylone and 4-diene; for L2, cis-cadina-1(6),4-diene and myrcene; for L3, atractylone, myrcene and germacrene B; and finally, L4 germacrene B, myrcene and cis-cadina-1(6),4-diene. Correlations between soil- leaf chemical elements such as Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, N and Si in the different localities were significant with chemical composition of the essential oil of Siparuna muricata; however, correlations between soil and leaf K, P, and Na were not significant. Cluster and NMDS analysis showed high dissimilarity values of secondary metabolites between four localities related with changes in soil- leaf nutrients. Thus, the SIMPER routine revealed that not all secondary metabolites contribute equally to establishing the differences in the four localities, and the largest contributions are due to differences in guaiol, cis-cadina-1(6),4-diene, atractylone and germacrene. Our investigation showed for the first time the influences of altitude and soil- leaf chemical elements in the chemical composition of the EOs of S. muricata.


Assuntos
Laurales/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Solo/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/análise , Equador , Ionização de Chama , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limoneno/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Sesquiterpenos/análise
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 165: 228-238, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077875

RESUMO

In grape cell cultures cv. Gamay Fréaux var. Teinturier, Ca was shown to decrease cell pigmentation through the inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis, while stimulating stilbenoids accumulation. Because methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a well-known inducer of secondary metabolism in grape cells, and Ca antagonizes its stimulatory effect over several enzymes of core metabolic branches, in the present study we hypothesized that Ca and MeJA signaling pathways interact to regulate specific secondary metabolism routes. Grape cultured cells were elicited with MeJA or with MeJA + Ca and an UPLC-MS-based targeted metabolomic method was implemented to characterize their polyphenolic profiles. Results were compared with the profile of cells elicited with Ca only, previously reported. Data was complemented with gene expression analysis, allowing the assembly of a metabolic map that unraveled routes specifically regulated by both elicitors. MeJA + Ca specifically boosted E-resveratrol and E-ε-viniferin levels by 180% and 140%, respectively, in comparison to cells treated with MeJA only, while the stimulatory effect of MeJA over flavonoid synthesis was inhibited by Ca. In parallel, Ca downregulated most flavonoid pathway genes, including LAR1, ANS, BAN and ANR. Ca was able to mimic or potentiate the effect of MeJA on the expression of JA signaling genes, including JAR1, PIN and PR10. Transcript/metabolite correlation networks exposed the central influence of FLS1,STS,CDPK17 and COI1 in polyphenolic biosynthetic routes. This study highlights the potential of the MeJA-Ca combination for diverting polyphenolic metabolism towards the production of specific metabolites of interest, highly relevant in a biotechnological perspective.


Assuntos
Vitis , Acetatos/farmacologia , Cálcio , Cromatografia Líquida , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitis/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063053

RESUMO

Increased soil salinity, and therefore accumulation of ions, is one of the major abiotic stresses of cultivated plants that negatively affect their growth and yield. Among Medicago species, only Medicago truncatula, which is a model plant, has been extensively studied, while research regarding salinity responses of two important forage legumes of Medicago sativa (M. sativa) and Medicago arborea (M. arborea) has been limited. In the present work, differences between M. arborea, M. sativa and their hybrid Alborea were studied regarding growth parameters and metabolomic responses. The entries were subjected to three different treatments: (1) no NaCl application (control plants), (2) continuous application of 100 mM NaCl (acute stress) and (3) gradual application of NaCl at concentrations of 50-75-150 mM by increasing NaCl concentration every 10 days. According to the results, M. arborea maintained steady growth in all three treatments and appeared to be more resistant to salinity. Furthermore, results clearly demonstrated that M. arborea presented a different metabolic profile from that of M. sativa and their hybrid. In general, it was found that under acute and gradual stress, M. sativa overexpressed saponins in the shoots while M. arborea overexpressed saponins in the roots, which is the part of the plant where most of the saponins are produced and overexpressed. Alborea did not perform well, as more metabolites were downregulated than upregulated when subjected to salinity stress. Finally, saponins and hydroxycinnamic acids were key players of increased salinity tolerance.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Medicago/metabolismo , Medicago/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Tolerância ao Sal , Metabolismo Secundário , Análise de Variância , Medicago/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Componente Principal
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063704

RESUMO

Carnivorous plants are exemplary natural sources of secondary metabolites with biological activity. However, the therapeutic antimicrobial potential of these compounds is limited due to intrinsic resistance of selected bacterial pathogens, among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents an extreme example. The objective of the study was to overcome the intrinsic resistance of P. aeruginosa by combining silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with secondary metabolites from selected carnivorous plant species. We employed the broth microdilution method, the checkerboard titration technique and comprehensive phytochemical analyses to define interactions between nanoparticles and active compounds from carnivorous plants. It has been confirmed that P. aeruginosa is resistant to a broad range of secondary metabolites from carnivorous plants, i.e., naphthoquinones, flavonoids, phenolic acids (MBC = 512 µg mL-1) and only weakly sensitive to their mixtures, i.e., extracts and extracts' fractions. However, it was shown that the antimicrobial activity of extracts and fractions with a significant level of naphthoquinone (plumbagin) was significantly enhanced by AgNPs. Our studies clearly demonstrated a crucial role of naphthoquinones in AgNPs and extract interaction, as well as depicted the potential of AgNPs to restore the bactericidal activity of naphthoquinones towards P. aeruginosa. Our findings indicate the significant potential of nanoparticles to modulate the activity of selected secondary metabolites and revisit their antimicrobial potential towards human pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Planta Carnívora/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Naftoquinonas/efeitos adversos , Naftoquinonas/química , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
17.
Gene ; 791: 145713, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979682

RESUMO

Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav (A. dahurica) is a famous Chinese herb known for the production of coumarins, important secondary metabolites with wide-ranging pharmacological activities. In particular, the methoxylated coumarins like those produced by A. dahurica are known for their anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidant pharmacological effects. However, the molecular mechanism of coumarin biosynthesis in A. dahurica has not been studied. Such investigation could help scientists harness the biosynthesis potential of methoxylated coumarins. Here we present, three transcriptomes corresponding to leaf, root, and stem tissues of A. dahurica. A total of 114,310 unigenes with an average length of 1118 bp were de novo assembled, and 81,404 (71.21%) of those unigenes were annotated. Then, 181 unigenes encoding the seven key enzymes involved were identified, for which COMT (Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) was spatially used in a phylogenetic analysis, and some of these key enzyme genes were verified by qRT-PCR. Differentially expressed genes and root-specific-expressed genes were identified, by comparing genes' profile activity between roots and other tissues. Furthermore, multiple genes encoding key enzymes or transcription factors related to coumarin biosynthesis were identified and analyzed. This study is the first to report comprehensive gene information of A. dahurica at the transcriptional level, and to distinguish candidate genes related to its biosynthesis of coumarin, thus laying a foundation for this pathway's further exploration in A. dahurica.


Assuntos
Angelica/genética , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Angelica/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Cumarínicos/análise , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(W1): W29-W35, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978755

RESUMO

Many microorganisms produce natural products that form the basis of antimicrobials, antivirals, and other drugs. Genome mining is routinely used to complement screening-based workflows to discover novel natural products. Since 2011, the "antibiotics and secondary metabolite analysis shell-antiSMASH" (https://antismash.secondarymetabolites.org/) has supported researchers in their microbial genome mining tasks, both as a free-to-use web server and as a standalone tool under an OSI-approved open-source license. It is currently the most widely used tool for detecting and characterising biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in bacteria and fungi. Here, we present the updated version 6 of antiSMASH. antiSMASH 6 increases the number of supported cluster types from 58 to 71, displays the modular structure of multi-modular BGCs, adds a new BGC comparison algorithm, allows for the integration of results from other prediction tools, and more effectively detects tailoring enzymes in RiPP clusters.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Genoma Microbiano , Software , Bactérias/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Fungos/genética , Metabolismo Secundário/genética
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2296: 195-207, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977449

RESUMO

Penicillium chrysogenum, recently re-identified as Penicillium rubens, is the microorganism used for the industrial production of penicillin. This filamentous fungus (mold) probably represents the best example of adaptation of a microorganism to industrial production conditions and therefore, it can be considered as a model organism for the study of primary and secondary metabolism under a highly stressful environment. In this regard, biosynthesis and production of benzylpenicillin can be used as an interesting phenotypic trait for those studies. In this chapter, we describe P. chrysogenum culture procedures for the production of benzylpenicillin and the process of antibiotic quantitation either by bioassay or by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).


Assuntos
Fermentação/fisiologia , Penicilina G/química , Penicilina G/metabolismo , Penicillium chrysogenum/metabolismo , Penicillium chrysogenum/fisiologia , Bioensaio/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Metabolismo Secundário/fisiologia
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2296: 209-216, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977450

RESUMO

This chapter describes the process of fermenting actinomycetes in flask and the generation of extracts from these broths. A medium for secondary metabolite production and a general procedure for flask fermentation are specified. Directions are given to reproduce aeration when using different flasks. The generation of extracts is based on a solvent mixture that could be varied in order to improve the extraction of products with different polarity. These extracts are then stored in a 96-well microtube format to facilitate their usage for the screening of bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Meios de Cultura/química , Fermentação/fisiologia , Reatores Biológicos , Metabolismo Secundário/fisiologia , Solventes/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...