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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232516

RESUMO

Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Pushkarmula), a perennial Himalayan herb known for its aromatic and phytopharmaceutical attributes, is not yet explored at genomic/transcriptomic scale. In this study, efforts were made to unveil the global transcriptional atlas underlying organ-specific specialized metabolite biosynthesis by integrating RNA-Seq analysis of 433 million sequenced reads with the phytochemical analysis of leaf, stem, and root tissues. Overall, 7242 of 83,772 assembled nonredundant unigenes were identified exhibiting spatial expression in leaf (3761), root (2748), and stem (733). Subsequently, integration of the predicted transcriptional interactome network of 2541 unigenes (71,841 edges) with gene ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed isoprenoid, terpenoid, diterpenoid, and gibberellin biosynthesis with antimicrobial activities in root tissue. Interestingly, the root-specific expression of germacrene-mediated alantolactone biosynthesis (GAS, GAO, G8H, IPP, DMAP, and KAO) and antimicrobial activities (BZR1, DEFL, LTP) well-supported with both quantitative expression profiling and phytochemical accumulation of alantolactones (726.08 µg/10 mg) and isoalantolactones (988.59 µg/10 mg), which suggests "roots" as the site of alantolactone biosynthesis. A significant interaction of leaf-specific carbohydrate metabolism with root-specific inulin biosynthesis indicates source (leaf) to sink (root) regulation of inulin. Our findings comprehensively demonstrate the source-sink transcriptional regulation of alantolactone and inulin biosynthesis, which can be further extended for upscaling the targeted specialized metabolites. Nevertheless, the genomic resource created in this study can also be utilized for development of genome-wide functionally relevant molecular markers to expedite the breeding strategies for genetic improvement of I. racemosa.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Diterpenos , Inula , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Diterpenos/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Inula/química , Inulina/metabolismo , Lactonas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Melhoramento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos de Eudesmano , Terpenos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 365: 128140, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252761

RESUMO

Micro-aeration is considered a new strategy for improving volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production of agricultural waste. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of micro-aeration of air and oxygen (O2) on VFAs production from swine manure. The results showed that Air-micro-aeration had the most significant improvement effect, with the highest VFAs of 8.21 g/L, which was increased by 22.4%. Moreover, the mixing effects of different micro-aeration were limited, and the microbial communities significantly varied. Firmicutes and Bacteroidota were the dominant hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria, and Air-micro-aeration preferentially promoted electron transfer activity and energy generation. Methanosarcina, Methanocorpusculum, and Methanobrevibacter can adapt to environmental changes according to their different oxygen tolerance, and the consumption and conversion of VFAs by methanogens were slow under Air-micro-aeration condition. This study revealed mechanism of micro-aeration for improving VFAs production from swine manure, providing a theoretical basis for micro-aeration regulation optimization.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Esterco , Suínos , Animais , Oxigênio , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Bactérias , Fermentação , Reatores Biológicos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
4.
Subcell Biochem ; 100: 3-65, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301490

RESUMO

Altered metabolism has become an emerging feature of cancer cells impacting their proliferation and metastatic potential in myriad ways. Proliferating heterogeneous tumor cells are surrounded by other resident or infiltrating cells, along with extracellular matrix proteins, and other secretory factors constituting the tumor microenvironment. The diverse cell types of the tumor microenvironment exhibit different molecular signatures that are regulated at their genetic and epigenetic levels. The cancer cells elicit intricate crosstalks with these supporting cells, exchanging essential metabolites which support their anabolic processes and can promote their survival, proliferation, EMT, angiogenesis, metastasis and even therapeutic resistance. In this context, carbohydrate metabolism ensures constant energy supply being a central axis from which other metabolic and biosynthetic pathways including amino acid and lipid metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway are diverged. In contrast to normal cells, increased glycolytic flux is a distinguishing feature of the highly proliferative cancer cells, which supports them to adapt to a hypoxic environment and also protects them from oxidative stress. Such rewired metabolic properties are often a result of epigenetic alterations in the cancer cells, which are mediated by several factors including, DNA, histone and non-histone protein modifications and non-coding RNAs. Conversely, epigenetic landscapes of the cancer cells are also dictated by their diverse metabolomes. Altogether, this metabolic and epigenetic interplay has immense potential for the development of efficient anti-cancer therapeutic strategies. In this book chapter we emphasize upon the significance of reprogrammed carbohydrate metabolism in regulating the tumor microenvironment and cancer progression, with an aim to explore the different metabolic and epigenetic targets for better cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Glicólise/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Histonas/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275342, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301967

RESUMO

The entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis indica, is a popular biocontrol agent of high commercial significance. It possesses tremendous genetic architecture to survive desiccation stress by undergoing anhydrobiosis to increase its lifespan-an attribute exploited in the formulation technology. The comparative transcriptome of unstressed and anhydrobiotic H. indica revealed several previously concealed metabolic events crucial for adapting towards the moisture stress. During the induction of anhydrobiosis in the infective juveniles (IJ), 1584 transcripts were upregulated and 340 downregulated. As a strategy towards anhydrobiotic survival, the IJ showed activation of several genes critical to antioxidant defense, detoxification pathways, signal transduction, unfolded protein response and molecular chaperones and ubiquitin-proteasome system. Differential expression of several genes involved in gluconeogenesis - ß-oxidation of fatty acids, glyoxylate pathway; glyceroneogenesis; fatty acid biosynthesis; amino-acid metabolism - shikimate pathway, sachharopine pathway, kyneurine pathway, lysine biosynthesis; one-carbon metabolism-polyamine pathway, transsulfuration pathway, folate cycle, methionine cycle, nucleotide biosynthesis; mevalonate pathway; and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were also observed. We report the role of shikimate pathway, sachharopine pathway and glyceroneogenesis in anhydrobiotes, and seven classes of repeat proteins, specifically in H. indica for the first time. These results provide insights into anhydrobiotic survival strategies which can be utilized to strengthen the development of novel formulations with enhanced and sustained shelf-life.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Transcriptoma , Animais , Dessecação , Nematoides/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293272

RESUMO

The reconfiguration of the primary metabolism is essential in plant-pathogen interactions. We compared the local metabolic responses of cucumber leaves inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans (Psl) with those in non-inoculated systemic leaves, by examining the changes in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides pools, the concentration of soluble carbohydrates and activities/gene expression of carbohydrate metabolism-related enzymes, the expression of photosynthesis-related genes, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle-linked metabolite contents and enzyme activities. In the infected leaves, Psl induced a metabolic signature with an altered [NAD(P)H]/[NAD(P)+] ratio; decreased glucose and sucrose contents, along with a changed invertase gene expression; and increased glucose turnover and accumulation of raffinose, trehalose, and myo-inositol. The accumulation of oxaloacetic and malic acids, enhanced activities, and gene expression of fumarase and l-malate dehydrogenase, as well as the increased respiration rate in the infected leaves, indicated that Psl induced the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The changes in gene expression of ribulose-l,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large unit, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were compatible with a net photosynthesis decline described earlier. Psl triggered metabolic changes common to the infected and non-infected leaves, the dynamics of which differed quantitatively (e.g., malic acid content and metabolism, glucose-6-phosphate accumulation, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity) and those specifically related to the local or systemic response (e.g., changes in the sugar content and turnover). Therefore, metabolic changes in the systemic leaves may be part of the global effects of local infection on the whole-plant metabolism and also represent a specific acclimation response contributing to balancing growth and defense.


Assuntos
Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases , Cucumis sativus , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/genética , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Rafinose/metabolismo , Trealose/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Fumarato Hidratase , Glucose-6-Fosfato/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Sacarose/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Inositol/metabolismo , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases/metabolismo , Niacinamida/metabolismo , Adenina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo
7.
Artigo em Inglês, Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252189

RESUMO

Despite the improvement of treatment methods, survival of patients with glioblastoma is still low. Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor. OBJECTIVE: To study carbohydrate metabolism in patients with glioblastoma during adjuvant external beam radiation therapy and its impact on survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 66 patients with glioblastoma (Karnofsky score ≥80%) who underwent hypofractionated adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (single focal dose 2.5-3Gr). Patients received dexamethasone 4-8 mg daily throughout the entire course of irradiation. RESULTS: High level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was observed in 33.3% of patients with glioblastoma undergoing irradiation. Cumulative survival was 17 months (95% CI 13.7-20.3). Two indicators had a significant negative impact on cumulative survival: age of patients (HR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.08; p=0.02) and level of HbA1c (HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.23-3.06; p=0.005). Cumulative survival was significantly (p=0.022) higher in patients younger 53 years compared to older people (18 months and 14 months, respectively). Cumulative survival was 20 months among patients whose HbA1c did not exceed the upper reference value (<5.8%). Survival was higher (p=0.017) in these ones compared to patients with HbA1c ≥5.8% (13 months). According to multivariate Cox regression model, high HbA1c was the only significant negative predictor of cumulative survival (HR 3.35; 95% CI 1.14-9.81; p=0.027). CONCLUSION: High HbA1c is unfavorable predictor of cumulative survival in patients with glioblastoma and Karnofski score ≥80% undergoing adjuvant hypofractionated irradiation regardless their age.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232688

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-the most frequent form of adult blood cancer-is characterized by heterogeneous mechanisms and disease progression. Developing an effective therapeutic strategy that targets metabolic homeostasis and energy production in immature leukemic cells (blasts) is essential for overcoming relapse and improving the prognosis of AML patients with different subtypes. With respect to metabolic regulation, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) is a gluconeogenic enzyme that is vital to carbohydrate metabolism, since gluconeogenesis is the central pathway for the production of important metabolites and energy necessary to maintain normal cellular activities. Beyond its catalytic activity, FBP1 inhibits aerobic glycolysis-known as the "Warburg effect"-in cancer cells. Importantly, while downregulation of FBP1 is associated with carcinogenesis in major human organs, restoration of FBP1 in cancer cells promotes apoptosis and prevents disease progression in solid tumors. Recently, our large-scale sequencing analyses revealed FBP1 as a novel inducible therapeutic target among 17,757 vitamin-D-responsive genes in MV4-11 or MOLM-14 blasts in vitro, both of which were derived from AML patients with FLT3 mutations. To investigate FBP1's anti-leukemic function in this study, we generated a new AML cell line through lentiviral overexpression of an FBP1 transgene in vitro (named FBP1-MV4-11). Results showed that FBP1-MV4-11 blasts are more prone to apoptosis than MV4-11 blasts. Mechanistically, FBP1-MV4-11 blasts have significantly increased gene and protein expression of P53, as confirmed by the P53 promoter assay in vitro. However, enhanced cell death and reduced proliferation of FBP1-MV4-11 blasts could be reversed by supplementation with post-glycolytic metabolites in vitro. Additionally, FBP1-MV4-11 blasts were found to have impaired mitochondrial homeostasis through reduced cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX2 or MT-CO2) and upregulated PTEN-induced kinase (PINK1) expressions. In summary, this is the first in vitro evidence that FBP1-altered carbohydrate metabolism and FBP1-activated P53 can initiate leukemic death by activating mitochondrial reprogramming in AML blasts, supporting the clinical potential of FBP1-based therapies for AML-like cancers.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Células Precursoras de Granulócitos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mitocôndrias , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Apoptose , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Frutose/farmacologia , Frutose-Bifosfatase/genética , Frutose-Bifosfatase/metabolismo , Glicólise , Células Precursoras de Granulócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142525

RESUMO

Heat stress that occurs during the flowering stage severely decreases the rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed-setting rate. This damage can be reversed by abscisic acid (ABA), through effects on reactive oxygen species, carbohydrate metabolism, and heat shock proteins, but the exact role of trehalose and ATP in this process remains unclear. Two rice genotypes, namely, Zhefu802 (heat-resistant plant, a recurrent parent) and its near-isogenic line (faded green leaf, Fgl, heat-sensitive plant), were subjected to 38 °C heat stress after being sprayed with ABA or its biosynthetic inhibitor, fluridone (Flu), at the flowering stage. The results showed that exogenous ABA significantly increased the seed-setting rate of rice under heat stress, by 14.31 and 22.40% in Zhefu802 and Fgl, respectively, when compared with the H2O treatment. Similarly, exogenous ABA increased trehalose content, key enzyme activities of trehalose metabolism, ATP content, and F1Fo-ATPase activity. Importantly, the opposite results were observed in plants treated with Flu. Therefore, ABA may improve rice thermo-tolerance by affecting trehalose metabolism and ATP consumption.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Oryza , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Trealose/metabolismo
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(9): 2431-2440, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131659

RESUMO

To understand the development mechanism of the epiphyllous bud of waterlily, we examined the morphological anatomy of the leaf-navel epiphyllous bud by paraffin section technique at four stages, and compared the differences of carbohydrate metabolism between viviparous and non-viviparous waterlily leaves. Three tropical waterlily cultivars of Brachyceras were used, including two viviparous cultivars Nymphaea 'Margaret Mary', Nymphaea 'Ruby', and a non-viviparous cultivar Nymphaea 'Pink Star'. The results showed that parenchyma cells below the epidermis of leaf-navel divided and grew continuously after the leaf unfolded, forming a closely arranged cell cluster in viviparous waterlily and raised upward to a spherical shape. In contrast, no change was observed in leaf-navel of non-viviparous waterlily with the expansion of leaves. With the development of leaves, the contents of all physiological variables except sucrose and enzyme activities in the leaves of viviparous waterlily showed a first increase and then a decrease, which was significantly higher than those of non-viviparous waterlily. The carbohydrate contents in different parts showed the order of leaf > leaf-navel > petiole (except for starch content, which was highest in the leaf-navel). The activities of sucrose synthase (SS) and acid invertase (AI) were higher than those of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and neutral invertase (NI). The activities of SPS and NI in different tissues of viviparous waterlily were significantly higher than those in non-viviparous one, but SS and AI did not show pronounced cultivar advantage in viviparous cultivars. AI activity varied greatly among cultivars, whereas NI activity varied less and was at a low level in different tissues. The sucrose of Nymphaea 'Ruby' leaves was positively correlated with the SPS and AI, and significantly associated with NI. The accumulation of sucrose content increased the activities of SS and NI of waterlily leaves, which was conducive to promoting the formation of epiphyllous buds.


Assuntos
Nymphaea , beta-Frutofuranosidase , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Nymphaea/metabolismo , Parafina/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
11.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 56(5): 441-450, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102235

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: Assessment of potential effect of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on glucose metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). CLINICAL RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: Although a valuable alternative to pharmacotherapy in advanced PD, STN-DBS is thought to negatively affect the cardiometabolic profile of patients (including body mass, lipid profile). Exacerbation of glucose metabolism dysregulation after DBS could therefore be assumed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups of patients with Parkinson's disease were included: 20 treated pharmacologically (PHT) and 20 newly qualified for STN-DBS (DBS) - with the first assessment prior to surgery, and the second 11 months after surgery on average. Body mass index (BMI), plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and glucose levels during a three-point oral glucose tolerance test were measured three times (median intervals between visits 12 and 14 months respectively). RESULTS: Significant differences between the two groups were noted with respect to changes in BMI, and serum concentration of TG and HDL-C over the course of the study. In the DBS group, a significant increase in BMI (26.42 vs. 27.24 kg/m2, p = 0.03) and TG level (103.8 vs. 142.8 mg/dL, p < 0.001) with a simultaneous decrease in HDL-C level (54.4 vs. 46 mg/dL, p < 0.01) was observed. Mean glucose level after oral glucose administration was lower in the DBS than in the PHT group (147.4 vs. 120.2 mg/dL, p = 0.03 after one hour and 109.9 vs. 82.3 mg/dL, p < 0.01 after two hours) during the second visit. Also inter-visit changes in fasting glucose levels (8.4 mg/dL in the PHT group and -5.8 mg/dL in the DBS group, p = 0.02) differed over the study duration. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations are similar to previous ones indicating less favourable changes in BMI and some lipid fractions in patients treated surgically. Interestingly, such a trend was not observed for glucose metabolism parameters, suggesting that mechanisms other than simple body mass changes are involved in early biochemical changes after STN-DBS in PD patients. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The metabolic consequences of DBS require further investigation as an additional factor potentially affecting the outcome of therapy, and routine patient follow-up should not be limited to neurological and psychological assessments.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/uso terapêutico , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Lipídeos/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/uso terapêutico
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(40): e2122770119, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161928

RESUMO

Cellulose biosynthesis in sessile bacterial colonies originates in the membrane-integrated bacterial cellulose synthase (Bcs) AB complex. We utilize optical tweezers to measure single-strand cellulose biosynthesis by BcsAB from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Synthesis depends on uridine diphosphate glucose, Mg2+, and cyclic diguanosine monophosphate, with the last displaying a retention time of ∼80 min. Below a stall force of 12.7 pN, biosynthesis is relatively insensitive to force and proceeds at a rate of one glucose addition every 2.5 s at room temperature, increasing to two additions per second at 37°. At low forces, conformational hopping is observed. Single-strand cellulose stretching unveiled a persistence length of 6.2 nm, an axial stiffness of 40.7 pN, and an ability for complexes to maintain a tight grip, with forces nearing 100 pN. Stretching experiments exhibited hysteresis, suggesting that cellulose microstructure underpinning robust biofilms begins to form during synthesis. Cellohexaose spontaneously binds to nascent single cellulose strands, impacting polymer mechanical properties and increasing BcsAB activity.


Assuntos
Rhodobacter sphaeroides , Uridina Difosfato Glucose , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Celulose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolismo , Uridina Difosfato Glucose/metabolismo
13.
Plant Sci ; 325: 111476, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174800

RESUMO

Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide in plant biomass. It is a crucial component of cell wall structure as well as a significant factor contributing to biomass recalcitrance. Xylan consists of a linear chain of ß-1,4-linked xylosyl residues that are often substituted with glycosyl side chains, such as glucuronosyl/methylglucuronosyl and arabinofuranosyl residues, and acetylated at O-2 and/or O-3. Xylan from gymnosperms and dicots contains a unique reducing end tetrasaccharide sequence that is not detected in xylan from grasses, bryophytes and seedless vascular plants. Grass xylan is heavily decorated at O-3 with arabinofuranosyl residues that are frequently esterified with hydroxycinnamates. Genetic and biochemical studies have uncovered a number of genes involved in xylan backbone elongation and acetylation, xylan glycosyl substitutions and their modifications, and the synthesis of the unique xylan reducing end tetrasaccharide sequence, but some outstanding issues on the biosynthesis of xylan still remain unanswered. Here, we provide a brief overview of xylan structure and focus on discussion of the current understanding and open questions on xylan biosynthesis. Further elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms underlying xylan biosynthesis will not only shed new insights into cell wall biology but also provide molecular tools for genetic modification of biomass composition tailored for diverse end uses.


Assuntos
Parede Celular , Xilanos , Xilanos/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Poaceae , Biomassa , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo
14.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111640, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076376

RESUMO

The potential probiotic function of Latilactobacills curvatus has attracted the attention of researchers. To explore the differences in the genomes of L. curvatus, nine strains were isolated from various sources, including feces and fermented vegetables and compared with 25 strains from the NCBI database. The findings indicated that the average genome size, GC content, and CDS of L. curvatus were 1.94 MB, 41.9%, and 1825, respectively. Its core genome is associated with transcription, translation, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and defense functions. The pan-genome of L. curvatus was in a closed state. The genetic diversity of L. curatus is mainly manifested in its ability to use carbohydrates, antibiotic resistance, bacteriocin operon, and polymeric regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas for bacterial immunity. The CRISPR system of 34 strains of L. curvatus was predominantly found to be of the IIA type with a few IIC and IE types. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of this species.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Bacteriófagos , Bacteriocinas/genética , Bacteriófagos/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(9)2022 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36140797

RESUMO

Gomphus purpuraceus (Iwade) Yokoyama is a species of wild fungi that grows in southwest China, considered an edible and medicinal fungus with potential commercial prospects. However, the detailed mechanisms related to the development of mycelium and the formation of the fruiting body are unclear. To obtain a comprehensive overview of genetic features, whole-genome and comparative genomics analyses of G. purpuraceus were performed. High-quality DNA was extracted from the mycelium, which was isolated from a fresh fruiting body of G. purpuraceus. The DNA sample was subjected to sequencing using Illumina and Oxford Nanopore sequencing platforms. A genome assembly totaling 40.15 Mb in 50 contigs with an N50 length of 2.06 Mb was generated, and 8705 putative predicted genes were found. Subsequently, phylogenetic analysis revealed a close evolutionary relationship between G. purpuraceus and Gomphus bonarii. Moreover, a total of 403 carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) were identified in G. purpuraceus, which included 147 glycoside hydrolases (GHs), 85 glycosyl transferases (GTs), 8 polysaccharide lyases (PLs), 76 carbohydrate esterases (CEs), 57 auxiliary activities (AAs) and 30 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Compared with the other 13 fungi (Laccaria bicolor, Russula virescens, Boletus edulis, etc.), the number and distribution of CAZymes in G. purpuraceus were similar to other mycorrhizal fungi. Furthermore, the optimization of culture medium for G. purpuraceus showed the efficient utilization of disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose. The genome of G. purpuraceus provides new insights into its niche, food applications and potential artificial domestication.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Ascomicetos , Agaricales/genética , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Domesticação , Esterases/genética , Genômica , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Maltose , Filogenia , Polissacarídeo-Liases/genética , Sacarose , Transferases/genética
16.
Curr Biol ; 32(16): R894-R896, 2022 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998602

RESUMO

Starch metabolism is linked to plant growth, yet blocking its biosynthesis has species-specific consequences. In a new study, plastidial phosphoglucomutase is knocked out in aspen trees using CRISPR-Cas9, limiting starch production and altering photosynthesis, but growth, bud break and wood production proceed unaffected.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Amido , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Folhas de Planta , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Árvores
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 940602, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35959374

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, as the most common bacterium and fungus in the oral cavity respectively, are considered microbiological risk markers of early childhood caries. S. mutans membrane vesicles (MVs) contain virulence proteins, which play roles in biofilm formation and disease progression. Our previous research found that S. mutans MVs harboring glucosyltransferases augment C. albicans biofilm formation by increasing exopolysaccharide production, but the specific impact of S. mutans MVs on C. albicans virulence and pathogenicity is still unknown. In the present study, we developed C. albicans biofilms on the surface of cover glass, hydroxyapatite discs and bovine dentin specimens. The results showed that C. albicans can better adhere to the tooth surface with the effect of S. mutans MVs. Meanwhile, we employed C. albicans biofilm-bovine dentin model to evaluate the influence of S. mutans MVs on C. albicans biofilm cariogenicity. In the S. mutans MV-treated group, the bovine dentin surface hardness loss was significantly increased and the surface morphology showed more dentin tubule exposure and broken dentin tubules. Subsequently, integrative proteomic and metabolomic approaches were used to identify the differentially expressed proteins and metabolites of C. albicans when cocultured with S. mutans MVs. The combination of proteomics and metabolomics analysis indicated that significantly regulated proteins and metabolites were involved in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. In summary, the results of the present study proved that S. mutans MVs increase bovine dentin demineralization provoked by C. albicans biofilms and enhance the protein and metabolite expression of C. albicans related to carbohydrate metabolism.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Streptococcus mutans , Animais , Biofilmes , Candida albicans , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Bovinos , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Proteômica , Virulência
18.
Plant J ; 112(1): 115-134, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942603

RESUMO

Vegetative propagation (VP) is an important practice for production in many horticultural plants. Sugar supply constitutes the basis of VP in bulb flowers, but the underlying molecular basis remains elusive. By performing a combined sequencing technologies coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry approach for metabolic analyses, we compared two Lycoris species with contrasting regeneration rates: high-regeneration Lycoris sprengeri and low-regeneration Lycoris aurea. A comprehensive multi-omics analyses identified both expected processes involving carbohydrate metabolism and transcription factor networks, as well as the metabolic characteristics for each developmental stage. A higher abundance of the differentially expressed genes including those encoding ethylene responsive factors was detected at bulblet initiation stage compared to the late stage of bulblet development. High hexose-to-sucrose ratio correlated to bulblet formation across all the species examined, indicating its role in the VP process in Lycoris bulb. Importantly, a clear difference between cell wall invertase (CWIN)-catalyzed sucrose unloading in high-regeneration species and the sucrose synthase-catalyzed pathway in low-regeneration species was observed at the bulblet initiation stage, which was supported by findings from carboxyfluorescein tracing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Collectively, the findings indicate a sugar-mediated model of the regulation of VP in which high CWIN expression or activity may promote bulblet initiation via enhancing apoplasmic unloading of sucrose or sugar signals, whereas the subsequent high ratio of hexose-to-sucrose likely supports cell division characterized in the next phase of bulblet formation.


Assuntos
Lycoris , Transcriptoma , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Etilenos , Lycoris/genética , Lycoris/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Sacarose/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
19.
Exp Cell Res ; 419(2): 113321, 2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985499

RESUMO

Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a highly expressed protein in ß cells and has been implicated in ß cells' viability and function, however, the role of UCH-L1 in ß cells remains unclear. Herein, we examined the functions of UCH-L1 in ß cells by utilizing the Drosophila melanogaster model. Our results showed that specific knockdown of dUCH (D.melanogaster homolog of UCH-L1) in Drosophila Insulin-producing cells (D.melanogaster homolog of ß cells) induced mitochondria fusion, IPCs death/degeneration, interfered with DILP2 secretion, and triggered the rise of glycogen storage and body weight. Strikingly, the impairment in IPCs cellular activities can be rescued by vitamin C- a strong antioxidant compound, which suggested the relationship between knockdown dUCH and oxidative stress in IPCs; and the potential of this model in screening compounds for ß cells function moderation. Since carbohydrate metabolism is an important function of beta cells, we continued to examine the ability to regulate carbohydrate metabolism of knockdown dUCH flies. Our results showed that knockdown dUCH caused the decline of IPCs number under a high-sucrose diet, which finally led to metabolic and physiological disturbances, including total lipid rise, glycogen storage reduction, circulating carbohydrate increase, and weight loss. These symptoms could be early indications of metabolic disorders, particularly ß cell dysfunction-related diseases. Taken together, our results indicate that dUCH is essential in the viability and functions of IPCs through the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in the Drosophila model.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Insulinas , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Insulinas/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo
20.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 138, 2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant floral nectars contain natural sugars such as fructose, which are a primary energy resource for adult mosquitoes. Despite the importance of carbohydrates for mosquito metabolism, a limited knowledge is available about the pathways involved in sugar assimilation by mosquitoes and their associated microbiota. To this end, we used 13C-metabolomic and stable isotope probing approaches coupled to high-throughput sequencing to reveal fructose-related mosquito metabolic pathways and the dynamics of the active gut microbiota following fructose ingestion. RESULTS: Our results revealed significant differences in metabolic pathways between males and females, highlighting different modes of central carbon metabolism regulation. Competitive and synergistic interactions of diverse fungal taxa were identified within the active mycobiota following fructose ingestion. In addition, we identified potential cross-feeding interactions between this. Interestingly, there is a strong correlation between several active fungal taxa and the presence of fructose-derived metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results provide novel insights into mosquito carbohydrate metabolism and demonstrate that dietary fructose as it relates to mosquito sex is an important determinant of mosquito metabolism; our results also further highlight the key role of active mycobiota interactions in regulating the process of fructose assimilation in mosquitoes. This study opens new avenues for future research on mosquito-microbiota trophic interactions related to plant nectar-derived sugars. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Aedes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Feminino , Frutose , Masculino
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