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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111873, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418157

RESUMO

Food availability represents a major worldwide concern due to population growth, increased demand, and climate change. Therefore, it is imperative to identify compounds that can improve crop performance. Plant biostimulants have gained prominence because of their potentials to increase germination, productivity and quality of a wide range of horticultural and agronomic crops. Phosphite (Phi), an analog of orthophosphate, is an emerging biostimulant used in horticulture and agronomy. The aim of this study was to uncover the molecular mechanisms through which Phi acts as a biostimulant with potential effects of overall plant growth. Field and greenhouse experiments, using 4 potato cultivars, showed that following Phi applications, plant performance, including several physio-biochemical traits, crop productivity, and quality traits, were significantly improved. RNA sequencing of control and Phi-treated plants of cultivar Xingjia No. 2, at 0 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after the Phi application for 24 h revealed extensive changes in the gene expression profiles. A total of 2856 differentially expressed genes were identified, suggesting that multiple pathways of primary and secondary metabolism, such as flavonoids biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, were strongly influenced by foliar applications of Phi. GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) enrichment analyses associated with defense responses revealed significant effects of Phi on a plethora of defense mechanisms. These results suggest that Phi acted as a biostimulant by priming the plants, that was, by triggering dynamic changes in gene expression and modulating metabolic fluxes in a way that allowed plants to perform better. Therefore, Phi usage has the potential to improve crop yield and health, alleviating the challenges posed by the need of feeding a growing world population, while minimizing the agricultural impact on human health and environment.


Assuntos
Fosfitos/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111301, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949933

RESUMO

Cadmium is one of the most common heavy metals in contaminated aquatic environments and one of the most toxic contaminants for phytoplankton. Nevertheless, there are not enough studies focused on the effect of this metal in algae. Through a proteomic approach, this work shows how Cd can alter the growth, cell morphology and metabolism of the microalga Chlorella sorokiniana. Using the sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra mass spectrometry (SWATH-MS), we concluded that exposure of Chlorella sorokiniana to 250 µM Cd2+ for 40 h caused downregulation of different metabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, TCA cycle and ribosomal proteins biosynthesis. However, photorespiration, antioxidant enzymes, gluconeogenesis, starch catabolism, and biosynthesis of glutamate, cysteine, glycine and serine were upregulated, under the same conditions. Finally, exposure to Cd also led to changes in the metabolism of carotenoids and lipids. In addition, the high tolerance of Chlorella sorokiniana to Cd points to this microalga as a potential microorganism to be used in bioremediation processes.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chlorella/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Chlorella/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteômica
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 230: 105705, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310672

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities have led to the enrichment of cadmium in freshwater systems where it is a contaminant of concern for fisheries and aquaculture as it has no known biological function and is toxic at trace concentrations. Yet, knowledge gaps remain regarding effects of chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations on freshwater fish. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess chronic impacts of cadmium on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) including how tissue-specific bioaccumulation patterns relate to functions of those tissues over time. We focused on liver and kidneys, and expression of genes related to cellular stress, glucose metabolism, and steroidogenesis. Catfish were exposed to concentrations of 0.5 (control), 2 (low), and 6 (high) µg L-1 Cd from fertilization to six months. Cadmium exposure negatively impacted channel catfish growth and was linked to bioaccumulation of tissue Cd, which followed a dose-related response, where concentrations in trunk kidney > liver = head kidney >> muscle. Differences in tissue Ca, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations were also observed between treatments. Following 3 months of exposure, expression of metallothionein (MT) and heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 & 90 increased relative to controls; however, no differences were detected at 6 months, suggesting compensation. Conversely, there were no differences in expression patterns for key genes in steroidogenesis, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and cytochrome P450scc (P450), which supports the observation that Cd did not affect the secondary stress response, evaluated via plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations following a low water stress event. As a function of length and weight, the high Cd treatment yielded fish that were significantly smaller than controls. In addition to the cellular responses in MT and HSPs noted, reduced growth in the high Cd treatment was likely due, at least in part, to elevated energetic demands. This is supported by observations of the upregulation of genes necessary for glucose metabolism. Hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were significantly elevated in the high treatment relative to controls at 3 months of exposure. Over the study period, exposure also reduced survival of channel catfish from 3 to 6 months. Reduced fitness, as a consequence of cadmium exposure, could be visible at the population level through altered life histories and growth patterns.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Ictaluridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Aquicultura , Cádmio/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Água Doce/química , Ictaluridae/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113398, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971162

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chiang-Da, Gymnema inodorum (Lour.) Decne. (GI), is an ethnomedicinal plant that has been used for diabetic treatment since ancient times. One of the anti-diabetic mechanisms is possibly related to the actions of triterpene glycoside, (3ß, 16ß)-16,28-dihydroxyolean-12-en-3-yl-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-ß-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (GIA1) in decreasing carbohydrate digestive enzymes and intestinal glucose absorption in the gut system. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To observe the amount of GIA1 in GI leaf extracts obtained from different ethanol concentrations and to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic mechanisms of the extracts and GIA1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The crude extracts were prepared using 50%v/v to 95%v/v ethanol solutions and used for GIA1 isolation. The anti-hyperglycemic models included in our study examined the inhibitory activities of α-amylase/α-glucosidase and intestinal glucose absorption related to sodium glucose cotransporter type 1 (SGLT1) using Caco-2 cells. RESULTS: GIA1 was found about 8%w/w to 18%w/w in the GI extract depending on ethanol concentrations. The GI extracts and GIA1 showed less inhibitory activities on α-amylase. The extracts from 75%v/v and 95%v/v ethanol and GIA1 significantly delayed the glycemic absorption by lowering α-glucosidase activity and glucose transportation of SGLT1. However, the 50%v/v ethanolic extract markedly decreased the α-glucosidase activity than the SGLT1 function. CONCLUSION: Differences in the GIA1 contents and anti-glycemic properties of the GI leaf extract was dependent on ethanol concentrations. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of the 75%v/v and 95%v/v ethanolic extracts on α-glucosidase and SGLT1 were relevant to GIA1 content.


Assuntos
Gymnema/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 111011, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800236

RESUMO

Boron (B) deficiency and surplus are the main factors that affect plant growth and yield. A better understanding of the response mechanisms of plant reproductive organs to stress induced by B deficiency and surplus could provide new insights to potential strategies for improving seed yield and quality. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms of tolerance to B-induced stress in the reproductive organs of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. 'Aohan'). We initially used five B concentrations (0 mg B L-1, 400 mg B L-1, 800 mg B L-1, 1200 mg B L-1, and 1600 mg B L-1) to determine the B deficient, sufficient, and surplus levels in the field. Secondly, we examined changes in metabolite profiles of alfalfa 'Aohan' reproductive organs in response to B deficiency (0 mg B L-1), B sufficiency (800 mg B L-1), and B surplus (1600 mg B L-1) conditions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Flowers and seeds from alfalfa 'Aohan' showed different metabolite profiles and resistance capacity under B deficiency and surplus conditions. B deficiency led to the excessive accumulation of sugars and phenolic compounds in alfalfa 'Aohan' and seeds, respectively, thus causing abscission or the abortion of reproductive organs. In contrast, B surplus severely reduced the levels of metabolites associated with amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in the flowers falling and, therefore, low seed yield. Overall, B deficiency predominantly reduced seed yield and quality of alfalfa 'Aohan', while B surplus mainly affected seed yield of alfalfa 'Aohan'.


Assuntos
Boro/deficiência , Boro/toxicidade , Células Germinativas Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicago sativa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Células Germinativas Vegetais/metabolismo , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Sementes/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(4): 439-452, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698159

RESUMO

Objective: Combining conjugated estrogens (CE) with the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene (BZA) is a novel, orally administered menopausal therapy. We investigated the effect of CE/BZA on insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and serum metabolome in postmenopausal women with obesity. Design: Randomized, double-blind, crossover pilot trial with washout was conducted at Pennington Biomedical Research Center. Eight postmenopausal women (age 50-60 years, BMI 30-40 kg/m2) were randomized to 8 weeks CE/BZA or placebo. Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp). Secondary outcomes included body composition (DXA); resting metabolic rate (RMR); substrate oxidation (indirect calorimetry); ectopic lipids (1H-MRS); fat cell size, adipose and skeletal muscle gene expression (biopsies); serum inflammatory markers; and serum metabolome (LC/MS). Results: CE/BZA treatment produced no detectable effect on insulin sensitivity, body composition, ectopic fat, fat cell size, or substrate oxidation, but resulted in a non-significant increase in RMR (basal: P = 0.06; high-dose clamp: P = 0.08) compared to placebo. CE/BZA increased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. CE/BZA also increased serum diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG) species containing long-chain saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) and decreased long-chain acylcarnitines, possibly reflecting increased hepatic de novo FA synthesis and esterification into TAGs for export into very low-density lipoproteins, as well as decreased FA oxidation, respectively (P < 0.05). CE/BZA increased serum phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, ceramides, and sphingomyelins, possibly reflecting the increase in serum lipoproteins (P < 0.05). Conclusions: A short treatment of obese postmenopausal women with CE/BZA does not alter insulin action or ectopic fat but increases serum markers of hepatic de novo lipogenesis and TAG production.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Indóis/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos Piloto , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110943, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678750

RESUMO

High temperature damage impairs the growth of tall fescue by inhibiting secondary metabolites. Little is known about the regulation pattern of the fatty acids and carbohydrate metabolism at the whole-transcriptome level in tall fescue under high temperature stress. Here, two tall fescue genotypes, heat tolerant PI578718 and heat sensitive PI234881 were subjected to high temperature stress for 36 h. PI 578718 showed higher SPAD chloroplast value, lower EL and leaf injury than PI 234881 during the first 36 h high-temperature stress. Furthermore, by transcriptomic analysis, 121 genes were found to be induced during the second energy production phase in tall fescue exposed to high-temperature conditions, indicating that there may be one energy-sensing system in cool-season turfgrass to adapt high-temperature conditions. PI 578718 showed higher differentially expressed unigenes involved in fatty acids and carbohydrate metabolism compared with PI 234881 for 36 h heat stress. Interestingly, a metabolomic analysis using GC-MS uncovered that the sugars and sugar alcohol accounted for more than 65.06% of the total 41 metabolites content and high-temperature elevated the rate to 82.89-91.16% in PI 578718. High-temperature damage decreased the rate of fatty acid in the total 41 metabolites content and PI 578718 showed lower content than in PI 234881, which might be attributed to the down-regulated genes in fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in tall fescue. The integration of deep transcriptome and metabolome analyses provides systems-wide datasets to facilitate the identification of crucial regulation factors in cool-season turfgrass in response to high-temperature damage.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Festuca , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Festuca/genética , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Festuca/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
8.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(7): 912-931, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594380

RESUMO

Influence of arsenic (As) in As tolerant and sensitive rice genotypes based chloroplastic pigments, leaf gas exchange attributes and their influence on carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in the present study. As retards growth of crop plants and increase several health ailments by contaminating food chain. Photosynthetic inhibition is known to be the prime target of As toxicity due to over-production of ROS. Hydroponically grown rice seedlings of twelve cultivars were exposed to 25, 50, and 75 µM arsenate (AsV) that exerted negative impact on plastidial pigments content and resulted into inhibition of Hill activity. Internal CO2 concentration lowered gradually due to interference of As with stomatal conductance and transpiration rate that subsequently led to drop in net photosynthesis. Twelve contrasting rice genotypes responded differentially to As(V) stress. Present study evaluated As tolerant and sensitive rice cultivars with respect to As(V) imposed alterations in pigments content, photosynthetic attributes along with sugar metabolism. Starch contents, the principle carbohydrate storage declined differentially among As(V) stressed test cultivars, being more pronounced in cvs. Swarnadhan, Tulaipanji, Pusa basmati, Badshabhog, Tulsibhog and IR-20 compared to cvs. Bhutmuri, Kumargore, Binni, Vijaya, TN-1 and IR-64. Therefore, the six former cultivars tried to adapt defensive mechanisms by accumulating higher levels of reducing and non-reducing sugars to carry out basal metabolism to withstand As(V) induced alterations in photosynthesis. This study could help to screen As tolerant and sensitive rice genotypes based on their photosynthetic efficiency in As polluted agricultural fields to reduce As contamination assisted ecotoxicological risk.


Assuntos
Arseniatos/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Genótipo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110822, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534334

RESUMO

Boron (B) toxicity is an important abiotic constraint that limits crop productivity mainly in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. High levels of B in soil disturbs several physiological and biochemical processes in plant. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of melatonin (Mel) in the regulation of carbohydrate and proline (Pro) metabolism, photosynthesis process and antioxidant system of wheat seedlings under B toxicity conditions. High levels of B inhibited net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), content of chlorophyll (Chl) a, b, δ-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and increased accumulation of B, Chl degradation and activity of chlorophyllase (Chlase; a Chl degrading enzyme), and downregulated the activity of enzymes (δ-ALAD; δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) involved in the biosynthesis of photosynthesis pigments, photosynthesis (carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) and carbohydrate metabolism (cell wall invertase, CWI) in wheat seedlings. Also, high levels of B caused oxidative damage by increasing the content of malondialdehyde, superoxide anion and H2O2, and activity of glycolate oxidase (an H2O2-producing enzyme) in leaves of seedlings. However, foliar application of Mel significantly improved photosynthetic pigments concentration by increasing δ-ALA, δ-ALAD and decreasing Chl degradation and Chlase activity and led to an increase of plant growth attributes under both B toxicity and non-toxicity conditions. Under normal and B toxicity conditions, exogenous Mel also improved content of N, P, total soluble carbohydrates (TSCs) and Pro, and upregulated activity of CWI and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase. Mel significantly suppressed the adverse effects of excess B by alleviating cellular oxidative damage through enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging by superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lipoxygenase, and content of total phenolic compounds (TPC), ascorbate and reduced glutathione. These results postulate that Mel induced plant defense mechanisms by enhancing Pro, TSCs, TPC, nutrients (N and P) uptake and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Boro/toxicidade , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
10.
J Biotechnol ; 318: 68-77, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416108

RESUMO

Unprecedented anthropogenic activities have led to contamination of soil and water with toxic metals that present a great threat to crop yields. This situation has compelled researchers to understand metal toxicity responses in order to develop strategies to curtail toxic metal-mediated losses in crop yields. Past decade has witnessed tremendous developments with regard to the role of nitric oxide (NO) in regulating abiotic stresses including toxic metal in crop plants. However, mechanisms related with NO-mediated mitigation of metal toxicity are still less known, and thus investigation in this domain remains underway. Therefore, in this study potential of NO along with its mechanisms of action in mitigating hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] toxicity in tomato roots were investigated. Root length and dry weight were declined by Cr(VI) which coincided with increased accumulation of Cr. Major amount of Cr was in the cell wall fraction followed by soluble (including vacuoles) and cell organelles fraction and thus, leading to the cell death in roots. Further, Cr(VI) also declined endogenous NO by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase like activity, and down-regulated ascorbate-glutathione cycle and glutathione biosynthesis, but stimulated oxidative stress markers. In contrast, exogenous addition of NO (as a sodium nitroprusside) reduced toxic effects of Cr(VI) in tomato roots by decreasing Cr accumulation as well as triggering sequestration of Cr into vacuoles and thus collectively protect root from cell death. Moreover, NO also up-regulated ascorbate-glutathione cycle and glutathione biosynthesis, and stimulated phytochelatins, but greatly declined oxidative stress markers. Interestingly, addition of 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) further worsened Cr(VI) toxicity, and Cr(VI) toxicity alleviatory effect of NO was partly reversed by the addition of c-PTIO, suggesting that NO has a crucial role in rendering Cr(VI) toxicity tolerance in tomato roots. Collectively, results suggest that NO mitigates Cr(VI) toxicity in tomato roots by reducing Cr and oxidative stress markers accumulation, triggering sequestration of Cr into vacuoles, and up-regulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle and glutathione biosynthesis, and phytochelatins.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Cromo/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromo/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Vacúolos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacúolos/metabolismo
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 151: 579-588, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330838

RESUMO

Although exogenous melatonin can enhance the drought tolerance of plants, reports on the role of melatonin in drought tolerance in male reproductive organs are limited. To explore this, a pot experiment was conducted with cotton cultivar Yuzaomian 9110 to study the effects of exogenous melatonin (100, 200, and 1000 µM) on male fertility and related carbohydrate metabolism in anther under drought. Results showed that drought inhibited the translocation of carbon assimilates to anthers, however, melatonin application (100 and 200 µM) significantly improved the translocation of carbon assimilates to drought-stressed anthers. Drought reduced the deposition of starch, the hydrolysis of sucrose into hexoses, the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in anthers, restricting pollen viability and germination. Nevertheless, the appropriate melatonin concentrations (100 and 200 µM) increased the starch accumulation by enhancing ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and soluble starch synthases activities and accelerated the hydrolysis of sucrose by increasing sucrose synthase, acid and alkaline invertases activities in drought-stressed anthers. Appropriate melatonin concentrations (100 and 200 µM) also could help to generate more ATP for reproductive activities of drought-stressed anthers, finally increasing the pollen viability and germination of drought-stressed plants. These findings suggest that drought inhibited male fertility of cotton, but a precise melatonin application could regulate the carbohydrate balance of drought-stressed anthers to improve male fertility. This is the first report demonstrating the important role of exogenous melatonin in improving male fertility under drought conditions by regulating the carbohydrate metabolism in the male part of cotton.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Secas , Gossypium , Melatonina , Pólen , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Pólen/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5713, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235887

RESUMO

Imidacloprid (IMI) is one of the most frequently used neonicotinoid insecticides, but recent studies have shown adverse effects on mammals. IMI was found to be neurotoxic and hepatotoxic. In the present study, the effects of repeated oral administration of two doses of IMI (5 and 20 mg/kg/day) for 28 days on hippocampus and liver of female KM mice were studied. The histopathological and biochemical experiments indicated obvious damages to the hippocampus and liver of mice in the high-dose group (20 mg/kg/day). Using a high-throughput metabolomics platform based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS), we studied effects of IMI on metabolic profiles in the hippocampus and liver of mice. Significant differences among the control group, the low-dose group and the high-dose group were clearly presented using multivariate analysis. The changed metabolic profile in the low-dose group (5 mg/kg/day) revealed that the metabolic disturbance in the hippocampus and liver of mice had been induced by low-dose of IMI, although no significant histopathological changes were observed in the low-dose group. Six differential metabolites in the hippocampus and 10 differential metabolites in the liver were identified as the possible biomarkers to distinguish IMI exposure from the control group using the variable importance in projection (VIP) value and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The metabolism disturbances of important biochemical pathways in the hippocampus and liver of mice in the exposed groups were elucidated, mostly concentrated in lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy metabolism (p < 0.05). Such investigations give out a global view of IMI-induced damages in the hippocampus and liver of mice and imply a health risk associated with early metabolic damage in mice.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Camundongos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348327

RESUMO

Reducing carbohydrates digestion by having a low glycaemic index (GI) foods has been linked to weight loss. Inhibiting related enzymes is an alternative way to decrease carbohydrate digestion. RCM-107 (Slimming Plus), an eight-herb formula that is modified from RCM-104, indicated significant weight-loss action in clinical trials. However, no published research has studied its mechanism of action on reducing carbohydrate absorption via suppressing the activities of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA). In this paper, we used fluorescence PPA inhibition assay to investigate the inhibitory effects of RCM-107 and the individual herbs present in this herbal mixture on amylase activity. Subsequently, molecular docking predicted the key active compounds that may be responsible for the enzyme inhibition. According to our results, both the RCM-107 formula and several individual herbs displayed α-amylase inhibitory effects. Also, marginal synergistic effects of RCM-107 were detected. In addition, alisol B, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and plantagoside have been predicted as the key active compounds that may be responsible for the α-amylase inhibition effect of RCM-107 according to inter-residue contact analysis. Finally, Glu233, Gln63, His305, Asp300 and Tyr151 are predicted to be markers of important areas with which potential amylase inhibitors would interact. Therefore, our data has provided new knowledge on the mechanisms of action of the RCM-107 formula and its individual herbal ingredients for weight loss, in terms of decreasing carbohydrate digestion via the inhibition of pancreatic alpha-amylase.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , alfa-Amilases Pancreáticas/antagonistas & inibidores , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Colestenonas/química , Colestenonas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Flavanonas/química , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Obesidade/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases Pancreáticas/química , alfa-Amilases Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Suínos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324780

RESUMO

Melatonin (MT) has many important functions in plants. In this study, different concentrations of MT (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 µmol/L) were sprayed on grape seedlings, and its effects on plant growth and sucrose metabolism were determined. The results show that there was a mutual influence and promotional relationship between growth and sugar metabolism in grape seedlings. The MT treatments promoted the development and growth of grape seedlings by increasing their biomass and promoting the photosynthetic performance of leaves. This resulted in increased nutrient absorption and a greater ability to compete for resources. The increase in photosynthesis resulted in greater sucrose production. The MT treatments increased the activities of enzymes related to sucrose metabolism, so that a large amount of sucrose was hydrolysed into glucose and fructose to meet the rapid growth requirements of grape seedlings. The increased total soluble sugars contents and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes resulted in greater resistance of grape seedlings, and greater adaptability to environmental changes. In general, MT treatments had beneficial effects on grape seedling growth, glucose metabolism, and resistance. Under these conditions, foliar spraying with MT at 150 µmol/L had the best effects.


Assuntos
Melatonina/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/metabolismo , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
15.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(9): 2881-2894, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026273

RESUMO

The transcriptomic response of green microalga Chlorella sorokiniana exposure to environmentally relevant concentration of cadmium(II) (Cd) and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) was compared in the present study. Cd and 4-n-NP exposure showed a similar pattern of dys-regulated pathways. The photosystem was affected due to suppression of chlorophyll biosynthesis via down-regulation of Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase subunit ChlD (CHLD) and divinyl chlorophyllide a 8-vinyl-reductase (DVR) in Cd group and via down-regulation of DVR in 4-n-NP group. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be induced through down-regulation of solanesyl diphosphate synthase 1 (SPS1) and homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT) in Cd group and via down-regulation of HPT in 4-n-NP group. Additionally, Cd and 4-n-NP would both cause the dys-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and protein synthesis. On the other hand, there are some different responses or detoxification mechanism of C. sorokiniana to 4-n-NP stress compared to Cd exposure. The increased ROS would cause the DNA damage and protein destruction in Cd exposure group. Simultaneously, the RNA transcription was dys-regulated and a series of changes in gene expressions were observed. This included lipid metabolism, protein modification, and DNA repair, which involved in response of C. sorokiniana to Cd stress or detoxification of Cd. For 4-n-NP exposure, no effect on lipid metabolism and DNA repair was observed. The nucleotide metabolism including pyrimidine metabolism and purine metabolism was significantly up-regulated in the 4-n-NP exposure group, but not in the Cd exposure group. In addition, 4-n-NP would induce the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and proteasomal degradation to diminish the misfolded protein caused by ROS and down-regulation of heat shocking protein 40. In sum, the Cd and 4-n-NP could cause the same toxicological effects via the common pathways and possess similar detoxification mechanism. They also showed different responses in nucleotide metabolism, lipid metabolism, and DNA repair.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chlorella/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorella/genética , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Chlorella/metabolismo , Ecotoxicologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Microalgas/genética , Microalgas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079131

RESUMO

The review collects together some recent information on the identity and pharmacological properties of magnoflorine, a quaternary aporphine alkaloid, that is widely distributed within the representatives of several botanical families like Berberidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Papaveraceae, or Menispermaceae. Several findings published in the scientific publications mention its application in the treatment of a wide spectrum of diseases including inflammatory ones, allergies, hypertension, osteoporosis, bacterial, viral and fungal infections, and some civilization diseases like cancer, obesity, diabetes, dementia, or depression. The pharmacokinetics and perspectives on its introduction to therapeutic strategies will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Aporfinas/química , Aporfinas/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antialérgicos/química , Antialérgicos/farmacocinética , Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/química , Antidepressivos/farmacocinética , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aporfinas/farmacocinética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Plantas/química
17.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028716

RESUMO

Wild foods constitute an essential component of people's diets around the world. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), over 100 million people in the EU consume wild foods, while 65 million collect some form of wild food themselves. The Mediterranean basin is a biodiversity hotspot of wild edible species. Nowadays, due to the renewed interest in alimurgic plants and the recent findings on the beneficial role of their phytochemical constituents, these species have been defined as "new functional foods". Research on natural products has recently regained importance with the growing understanding of their biological significance. Botanical food supplements marketed for weight and fat loss in obese subjects will be one of the most important items in marketed nutraceuticals. The aim of this report was to review the phytochemical compounds of Mediterranean wild edible species and their therapeutic potential against obesity and its related disorders. Results on the in vitro and in vivo activity of the most interesting plant extracts and their bioactive components are presented and discussed. The most interesting discoveries on their mechanisms of action are reported as well. Overall, this contribution highlights the importance and beneficial health roles of wild edible species.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Adipogenia , Biodiversidade , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipase/metabolismo , Região do Mediterrâneo , Estrutura Molecular , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 138: 111202, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084495

RESUMO

Rumex dentatus L. is a flowering plant with promising therapeutic effects. This study investigated the antioxidant efficacy of phenolic compounds isolated from R. dentatus L. in vitro and by conducting density function theory (DFT) studies to explore the mechanisms of action. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects of polyphenols-rich R. dentatus extract (RDE) were investigated in type 2 diabetic rats. Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of R. dentatus resulted in the isolation of one new and seven known compounds isolated for the first time from this species. All isolated phenolics showed in vitro radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant activity of the compounds could be oriented by the hydrogen atom transfer and sequential proton loss electron transfer mechanisms in gas and water phases, respectively. In diabetic rats, RDE attenuated hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and liver injury and improved carbohydrate metabolism. RDE suppressed oxidative stress and inflammation and upregulated PPARγ. In silico molecular docking analysis revealed the binding affinity of the isolated compounds toward PPARγ. In conclusion, the computational calculations were correlated with the in vitro antioxidant activity of R. dentatus derived phenolics. R. dentatus attenuated hyperglycemia, liver injury, inflammation and oxidative stress, improved carbohydrate metabolism and upregulated PPARγ in diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rumex/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Conformação Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2902, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076010

RESUMO

The experimental approach for the study of cardiometabolic disorders requires the use of animal models fed with commercial diets whose composition differs notably, even between diets used for control groups. While chow diets are usually made of agricultural by-products, purified low-fat diets (LF) contain a higher percentage of easy metabolizable carbohydrates, together with a reduced amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, micronutrients and fiber, all associated with metabolic and vascular dysfunction. We hypothesize that the LF diet, commonly used in control animals, could promote adverse vascular and metabolic outcomes. To address this issue, 5-week-old male C57BL6J mice were fed with a standard (Chow) or a LF diet for 6 weeks. Changes in body weight, adiposity, biochemical parameters, systemic and aortic insulin sensitivity and endothelial function were recorded. LF diet did not modify body weight but significantly impaired systemic glucose tolerance and increased triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Endothelial function and aortic insulin sensitivity were significantly impaired in the LF group, due to a reduction of NO availability. These findings highlight the importance of selecting the proper control diet in metabolic studies. It may also suggest that some cardiometabolic alterations obtained in experimental studies using LF as a control diet may be underestimated.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/fisiologia , Dieta , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Insulina/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fenilefrina/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Gordura Subcutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(4): E504-E513, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069071

RESUMO

We hypothesized that probiotic supplementation (PRO) increases the absorption and oxidation of orally ingested maltodextrin during 2 h endurance cycling, thereby sparing muscle glycogen for a subsequent time trial (simulating a road race). Measurements were made of lipid and carbohydrate oxidation, plasma metabolites and insulin, gastrointestinal (GI) permeability, and subjective symptoms of discomfort. Seven male cyclists were randomized to PRO (bacterial composition given in methods) or placebo for 4 wk, separated by a 14-day washout period. After each period, cyclists consumed a 10% maltodextrin solution (initial 8 mL/kg bolus and 2 mL/kg every 15 min) while exercising for 2 h at 55% maximal aerobic power output, followed by a 100-kJ time trial. PRO resulted in small increases in peak oxidation rates of the ingested maltodextrin (0.84 ± 0.10 vs. 0.77 ± 0.09 g/min; P = 0.016) and mean total carbohydrate oxidation (2.20 ± 0.25 vs. 1.87 ± 0.39 g/min; P = 0.038), whereas fat oxidation was reduced (0.40 ± 0.11 vs. 0.55 ± 0.10 g/min; P = 0.021). During PRO, small but significant increases were seen in glucose absorption, plasma glucose, and insulin concentration and decreases in nonesterified fatty acid and glycerol. Differences between markers of GI damage and permeability and time-trial performance were not significant (P > 0.05). In contrast to the hypothesis, PRO led to minimal increases in absorption and oxidation of the ingested maltodextrin and small reductions in fat oxidation, whereas having no effect on subsequent time-trial performance.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Probióticos/farmacologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Carboidratos da Dieta , Método Duplo-Cego , Exercício Físico , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicerol/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Polissacarídeos/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
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