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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10667-10677, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483636

RESUMO

This study investigated the modulatory effects of Decaisnea insignis seed oil (DISO), which was rich in palmitoleic acid (55.25%), palmitic acid (12.25%), and oleic acid (28.74%), on alcohol-induced metabolism disorder in mice. Fifty mice were orally administered with 38% alcohol (0.4 mL/day) and without or with DISO (3, 6, and 12 g/kg) for consecutive 12 weeks. DISO inhibited the alcohol-induced weight loss and liver function abnormality (p < 0.01) and shifted the profiles of cecal microbiome: elevating the abundance of Lactobacillus, Ruminoccoceae_UCG_004 (p < 0.05) and decreasing abundance of Parabacteroides (p < 0.05). This treatment also regulated metabolome response of amino acid and lipid metabolism in cecal content: upregulating 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (p < 0.05), 6-hydroxynicotinic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, nicotinamide, and nicotinic acid (p < 0.1) and downregulating androsterone, tryptophan, and indole-3-acetamide (p < 0.05). DISO protected against alcoholic liver injury and gut microbiota dysbiosis by enriching the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, which was positively associated with the improvement of intestinal permeability and tryptophan metabolism.


Assuntos
Álcoois/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/microbiologia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química
2.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 44, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1) is G-protein coupled receptor predominantly expressed in pancreatic ß-cells that is activated by a variety of free fatty acids (FFAs). Once activated, it promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, increased levels of FFAs lead to lipotoxicity, inducing loss of ß-cell function. FFAR1 plays a key role in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and previous studies have indicated the importance of developing anti-diabetic therapies against FFAR1, although its role in the regulation of ß-cell function remains unclear. The present study investigated the role of FFAR1 under lipotoxic conditions using palmitic acid (PA). The rat insulinoma 1 clone 832/13 (INS-1 832/13) cell line was used as a model as it physiologically resembles native pancreatic ß-cells. Key players of the insulin signaling pathway, such as mTOR, Akt, IRS-1, and the insulin receptor (INSR1ß), were selected as candidates to be analyzed under lipotoxic conditions. RESULTS: We revealed that PA-induced lipotoxicity affected GSIS in INS-1 cells and negatively modulated the activity of both IRS-1 and Akt. Reduced phosphorylation of both IRS-1 S636/639 and Akt S473 was observed, in addition to decreased expression of both INSR1ß and FFAR1. Moreover, transient knockdown of FFAR1 led to a reduction in IRS-1 mRNA expression and an increase in INSR1ß mRNA. Finally, PA affected localization of FFAR1 from the cytoplasm to the perinucleus. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study suggests a novel regulatory involvement of FFAR1 in crosstalk with mTOR-Akt and IRS-1 signaling in ß-cells under lipotoxic conditions.


Assuntos
Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Palmítico/toxicidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16589, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464893

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Lipid deposition on the cornea without previous infection, inflammation, vascularization, or trauma is idiopathic lipid keratopathy. In vivo laser confocal microscopy (IVCM) and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) are 2 noninvasive methods that can help identify the structures and morphological characteristics of the focus. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 63-year-old woman with ipsilateral corneal lipid deposits developing from a small white spot into a yellow-white superotemporal elliptic shape within a year. AS-OCT showed peripheral deep stromal deposits. IVCM showed hyper-reflective material with typical crystalline-like or needle-like structures in the superotemporal area. DIAGNOSIS: Idiopathic lipid degeneration. INTERVENTIONS: Topical steroids eye drops 3 times a day for a month and further consultation every 3 months. OUTCOMES: This patient of idiopathic lipid keratopathy was observed every 3 months and till now we have reviewed this patient twice. Topical steroids eye drops were only used during the first month. No further development was observed about the lesion and the patient's visual acuity remained good. CONCLUSION: IVCM and AS-OCT can help identify the characteristic crystalline-like or needle-like hyper-reflective material that could help diagnosis of idiopathic lipid degeneration.


Assuntos
Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Córnea/metabolismo , Doenças da Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Córnea/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Confocal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esteroides/farmacologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual
4.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(7): 634-639, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257318

RESUMO

The mango tree (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical, perennial, woody evergreen plant belonging to the Anacardiaceae. In traditional medicine, dried mango tree leaves were considered useful in treating diabetes and respiratory infections. In this paper, we review the phytochemical research on mango leaves and the mechanisms of benzophenones in lipid metabolism regulation. Thirty-six benzophenones have been isolated from mango leaves; among them, mangiferin is the major compound. Structure-activity relationships of benzophenones in lipid accumulation and the mechanisms of action of mangiferin in lipid metabolism are summarized. After oral administration, mangiferin is partly converted to its active metabolite, northyariol, which contributes to the activation of sirtuin-1 and liver kinase B1 and increases the intracellular AMP level and AMP/adenosine triphosphate ratio, followed by AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, leading to increased phosphorylation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c. Current evidence supports ethnopharmacological uses of mango leaves in diabetes and points toward potential future applications.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/química , Mangifera/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Benzofenonas/isolamento & purificação , Benzofenonas/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mangifera/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xantonas/administração & dosagem , Xantonas/química , Xantonas/metabolismo , Xantonas/farmacologia
5.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(6): 406-418, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have indicated that the plasticizer di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects lipid accumulation; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. We aim to clarify the effect of DEHP on lipid metabolism and the role of TYK2/STAT1 and autophagy. METHODS: In total, 160 Wistar rats were exposed to DEHP [0, 5, 50, 500 mg/(kg•d)] for 8 weeks. Lipid levels, as well as mRNA and protein levels of TYK2, STAT1, PPARγ, AOX, FAS, LPL, and LC3 were detected. RESULTS: The results indicate that DEHP exposure may lead to increased weight gain and altered serum lipids. We observed that DEHP exposure affected liver parenchyma and increased the volume or number of fat cells. In adipose tissue, decreased TYK2 and STAT1 promoted the expression of PPARγ and FAS. The mRNA and protein expression of LC3 in 50 and 500 mg/(kg•d) groups was increased significantly. In the liver, TYK2 and STAT1 increased compensatorily; however, the expression of FAS and AOX increased, while LPL expression decreased. Joint exposure to both a high-fat diet and DEHP led to complete disorder of lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that DEHP induces lipid metabolism disorder by regulating TYK2/STAT1. Autophagy may play a potential role in this process as well. High-fat diet, in combination with DEHP exposure, may jointly have an effect on lipid metabolism disorder.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/induzido quimicamente , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , TYK2 Quinase/metabolismo
6.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(9): 829-840, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304808

RESUMO

Introduction: Efficient antiretroviral-treatment (ART) generally allows control of HIV infection. However, persons-living-with-HIV (PLWH), when aging, present a high prevalence of metabolic diseases. Area covered: Altered adiposity, dyslipidemias, insulin resistance, diabetes, and their consequences are prevalent in PLWH and could be partly related to ART. Expert opinion: At first, personal and lifestyle factors are involved in the onset of these complications. The persistence of HIV in tissue reservoirs could synergize with some ART and enhance metabolic disorders. Altered fat repartition, diagnosed as lipodystrophy, has been related to first-generation nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors (NRTIs) (stavudine zidovudine) and some protease inhibitors (PIs). Recently, use of some integrase-inhibitors (INSTI) resulted in weight/fat gain, which represents a worrisome unresolved situation. Lipid parameters were affected by some first-generation NRTIs, non-NRTIs (efavirenz) but also PIs boosted by ritonavir, with increased total and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Insulin resistance is common associated with abdominal obesity. Diabetes incidence, high with first-generation-ART (zidovudine, stavudine, didanosine, indinavir) has declined with contemporary ART close to that of the general population. Metabolic syndrome, a dysmetabolic situation with central obesity and insulin resistance, and liver steatosis are common in PLWH and could indirectly result from ART-associated fat gain and insulin resistance. All these dysmetabolic situations increase the atherogenic cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Metabólicas/induzido quimicamente , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Life Sci ; 232: 116622, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271767

RESUMO

AIMS: This study was designed to compare the effects of empagliflozin monotherapy and its combination with metformin on glucose and lipid modulations in T2DM mice. MAIN METHODS: Nine-week-old male C57BLKS/J db/db mice (n = 32) were used as T2DM model, and their age-matched C57BLKS/J db/m mice (n = 8) were used as normal control. A total of 32 db/db mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8/group): the DMT1 group, treated with metformin (250 mg/kg/day); the DMT2 group, treated with metformin (250 mg/kg/day) plus empagliflozin (10 mg/kg/day); the DMT3 group, treated with empagliflozin (10 mg/kg/day); the T2DM control group (DM), received 0.5% Natrosol. The db/m mice received same administration as DM group. KEY FINDINGS: After four-week treatments, compared with T2DM control (DM), the empagliflozin or its combination with metformin dramatically increased the levels of plasma HDL-C (139.6% and 154.9%, respectively), with significant decrease in plasma TC (22.9% and 13.7%, respectively) and plasma TG (26% and 19.7%, respectively) and in hepatic TG (30.3% and 28.6%, respectively). The protein expressions of SREBP1c (75.3% and 54.0%, respectively) and APOC-III (51.2% and 50.2%, respectively) were reduced, while CPT1A (304.0% and 221.4%, respectively) and ApoA1 levels (90.0% and 85.3%, respectively) were enhanced. Although both interventions improve above-mentioned lipid homeostasis, there were no statistic differences between two groups (p > 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrated that current dose of combination therapy may have no higher amelioration than empagliflozin monotherapy for glucose and lipid metabolism in male T2DM mice when it followed a treatment shorter than that expected during clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metformina/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Food Chem ; 298: 125030, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260978

RESUMO

Plant extracts from rosemary (RE), green tea (GTE), and maté (ME) were compared for the protection against iron-induced oxidation in porcine homogenates at total phenolic concentrations from 25 to 250 ppm. Lipid oxidation as indicated by TBARS was in all cases sufficiently suppressed, especially for RE. Hydrophobic RE retarded overall oxidation in the homogenates with an inverted dose-dependent response. Optimum delay of oxygen consumption was found at the lowest concentration applied, similar to protection against thiols and formation of protein radicals as measured by ESR, whereas the high concentration increased oxygen consumption and caused additionally thiol loss possibly due to thiol-quinone interactions, generating protein-phenol complexes. Hydrophilic ME or GTE increased the initial oxygen consumption rate as an indication of prooxidant activities at elevated concentrations. However, they were found to protect myoglobin and protein at those high concentrations with GTE being more efficient, possibly due to better chelation effect.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Ferro/química , Ferro/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mioglobina/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rosmarinus/química , Suínos , Chá/química
9.
Life Sci ; 232: 116644, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301418

RESUMO

AIMS: (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) is a triptolide analog with excellent capability against cancers, cerebral ischemic injury and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we discovered its hepatoprotective effects in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by ameliorating liver lipid accumulation. MAIN METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat/high-fructose (HFHFr) diet for 29 weeks to induce the pathological phenomena of NAFLD. Then the mice were treated with LLDT-8 (0.5mg/kg and 1mg/kg) or Vehicle for 8 weeks. Finally, the serum biochemical indexes, liver histological features, fatty acids (FAs) profile and related gene expression in liver were detected to investigate the effect of LLDT-8 on lipid accumulation and its possible mechanism. KEY FINDINGS: LLDT-8 treatment significantly inhibited hepatic injury featured by the decrease of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), the lessening of hepatic ballooning and macrovesicular steatosis. Moreover, LLDT-8 could downregulate the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), which further led to the lower ratios of C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0 and thus inhibited lipid synthesis. LLDT-8 treatment also could upregulate liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acadl) and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acadm) expression levels involved in fatty acids oxidation (FAO) and markedly promoted lipolysis. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide a novel application of LLDT-8 in improving NAFLD.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Oxirredução , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7040-7049, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199141

RESUMO

Obesity is a metabolic syndrome worldwide that causes many chronic diseases. Recently, we found an antiobesity effect of flaxseed polysaccharide (FP), but the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, rats were first induced to develop obesity by being fed a high-fat diet. The obese rats were then fed a control diet, AIN-93M (group HFD), or a 10% FP diet (group FPD). The body weight, body fat, adipose tissue and liver sections, serous total triglycerides, levels of fasting blood glucose in serum, serous insulin, inflammatory cytokines in serum, and serous proteins within the leptin-neuropeptide Y (NPY) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway were determined and analyzed. FP intervention significantly reduced body weight and abdominal fat from 530 ± 16 g and 2.15% ± 0.30% in group HFD to 478 ± 10 g and 1.38% ± 0.48% in group FPD, respectively. This effect was achieved by removing leptin resistance possibly by inhibiting inflammation and recovering satiety through the significant downregulation of NPY and the upregulation of glucagon-like peptide 1. Adiponectin was then significantly upregulated probably via the gut-brain axis and further activated the AMPK signaling pathway to improve lipid metabolism including the improvement of lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation and the suppression of lipogenesis. This is the first report of the proposed antiobesity mechanism of FP, thereby providing a comprehensive understanding of nonstarch polysaccharides and obesity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Linho/química , Leptina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/psicologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 142: 613-619, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232348

RESUMO

Trophodynamics and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in organisms from the Zhoushan fishing ground (ZFG), China were studied. Σ22PCBs varied from 1.36 to 36.75 ng/g wet weight, which were far below the maximum residue levels allowed in fishery products. However, estimated daily intake and hazard ratio calculations present possible adverse effects due to PCB pollution. Significantly positive correlations appeared between wet-weighted concentrations of target chemicals and trophic levels (TLs) of the organisms, with trophic magnification factors (TMFs) from 1.15 to 9.72. The TMF values first increased with an increase of compound's KOW values, and then decreased, with log KOW around 7.0 as an inflection point. TL is suggested as the key factor controlling contaminant burden among the species for only PCBs 105, 138, 153, and 171. For the remaining PCBs, lipid content of the organism or metabolite capacity of the compound may be more important influence on their bioaccumulation.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Biotransformação , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
12.
J Plant Physiol ; 239: 71-82, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212099

RESUMO

Cryopreservation is a process whereby biological structures are preserved in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) without losing their viability. Many cryopreservation techniques use the Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) for cryoprotection. This study will therefore evaluate the influence of different exposure times to the cryoprotectant PVS2 and discuss the importance of the mobilization of reserves and the antioxidant metabolism during the germination of cryopreserved Passiflora ligularis embryos. The composition of P. ligularis seeds was analytically determined. We tested the germination capacity and the Germination Speed Index (GSI) of embryos (that is, seeds without external tegument) which were exposed to different PVS2 exposure times (0, 30, 60 and 120 min) at 30 days after thawing. Proline content, hydrogen peroxide, activity of isocitrate lyase (ICL), malate synthase (MSy), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, APX) were measured at 7, 14 and 21 days after cryopreservation. The germination from cryopreserved embryos was maximal (85%) after 60 min PVS2 exposure with a GSI of 0.6. At 60 min, the highest activity of the enzymes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ICL and MSy were recorded. We hypothesize that a 60 min exposure to PVS2 accelerates the reserve mobilization which correlates positively with germination. Until 60 min, there was a positive correlation between the PVS2 exposure time and the proline content, as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX), and a negative correlation with the lipid peroxidation. This study enables us to optimize the long-term conservation of this species. In conclusion, fundamental research is necessary to optimize the cryopreservation procedure, and this study offers an effective and efficient workflow which can be extrapolated to other (oil-rich) species.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Crioprotetores/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Passiflora/fisiologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Criopreservação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20180589, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241701

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of subcutaneous calcium administration in post-partum dairy cows with respect to carbohydrate, protein and lipids metabolism, as well as its effects on milk composition. Twenty post-partum dairy cows were randomly divided into two groups (n=10): a control and a treated group with a single dose (150 mL) of calcium. Blood collection was performed on post-partum days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10. In addition, we measured serum levels of total calcium, total proteins, albumin, globulins, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, as well as creatine kinase (CK) activity. We determined milk composition on post-partum days 5, 10 and 20. Serum total calcium levels was higher on post-partum days 3 and 7 in the treated group. Serum urea (day 3) and triglycerides (days 7 and 10) levels were higher in the treated group, as were CK activity levels at post-partum days 2 and 3. Serum glucose and cholesterol levels were lower on post-partum day 2 in treated animals. Fat (day 20) and lactose (day 10) content in milk samples were higher than in the treated animals. We concluded that treatment with calcium in cows during the post-partum period changes biochemical variables related to metabolism.


Assuntos
Cálcio/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Período Pós-Parto , Proteínas/metabolismo
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 353-361, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207574

RESUMO

Fatty liver is widely observed during Takifugu fasciatus production, but the mechanisms underlying fatty liver formation remain unknown. The present study was conducted to determine the potential effects of copper (Cu) on hepatic lipid deposition and metabolism in T. fasciatus after 21 days of exposure to Cu (levels: 0, 20 and 100 µg/L). Copper exposure decreased the weight gain rate (WG) in T. fasciatus, but increased the values of the viscerosomatic index (VSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared with the control. The time-dependent Cu accumulation in tissues increased as the Cu concentration increased. The order of Cu accumulation was liver > intestine > muscle. The lipid content, triglyceride (TG) content and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity increased after Cu exposure compared with the control. In addition, more lipid droplets and greater vacuolization were observed in the liver after exposure to 20 µg/L Cu than after 100 µg/L Cu. The expression of genes involved in lipogenesis (g6pd, 6pgd, lpl, fas and acc), lipolysis (hsl and cpt 1) and transcription (ppar α and ppar ©) was dependent on Cu. An analysis of the intestinal microbiome community showed that the highest values of the Chao 1 index, ACE, Shannon index and Simpson index were obtained in fish exposed to 20 µg/L Cu, whereas the lowest values were obtained after the 100 µg/L Cu treatment. The Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) plots of the data revealed structural differences in the groups treated with Cu compared with the control group. At the phylum level, the intestinal microbiota in the Cu-treated and control fish were dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio was observed in fish treated with 20 µg/L Cu compared with other groups, while the lowest ratio was observed in fish exposed to 100 µg/L Cu. Our study revealed the mechanisms by which Cu exposure altered (i) lipid deposition in the body and (ii) the intestinal microbiome, which may contribute to maintain the health status of T. fasciatus for the aquaculture.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Takifugu , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cobre/farmacocinética , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Takifugu/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Takifugu/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(27): 7726-7737, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203627

RESUMO

Fructose as a daily sweetener is widely recognized as a risk catalyst for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of current study is to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanism by which polyphenol-rich loquat fruit extract (LFP) prevents NAFLD in mice fed 30% fructose water (HF) for 8 weeks. Administration of LFP to HF-fed mice mitigated abnormal body weight, disordered lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation through a mechanism regulated by the AKT, ChREBP/SREBP-1c, Nrf2, and TLR4/MyD88/TRIF pathways. LFP caused a significant decrease in the endotoxin content (16.67-12.7 EU/mL) in the liver of HF-fed mice. LFP not only improved HF-induced breakage of the intestinal barrier via interacting with tight junction proteins (ZO-1, occludin), mucin, and immunoreaction in the colon but also maintained normal colonic Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios and the relative abundance of Veillonella in HF-fed mice. Our results suggest that LFP may serve as a nutritional agent for protecting liver in HF-fed mice.


Assuntos
Eriobotrya , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dieta , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Frutas/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105220, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202166

RESUMO

Tamoxifen (TAM) is an antiestrogenic agent and can enter the aquatic environment in wastewater. It has been reported that TAM can induce hepatic steatosis in vertebrates, however, the effects of TAM exposure on lipid metabolism of hepatopancreas in crustaceans remains unclear. In this study, four TAM concentrations (0, 6.7, 13.4 and 20 µg g-1 crab body weight) were injected into the swimming-leg of swimming crabs Portunus trituberculatus, as a means of evaluating the effects of TAM on the expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes, lipid composition, and hepatopancreas histology. The results showed that the mRNA levels of three lipogenic related genes (diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acyl desaturase (FAD)) decreased significantly in the 6.7 µg g-1 and 20 µg g-1 TAM treatments compare to the control. The mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner as TAM concentration increased. The mRNA levels of two lipid catabolism-related genes (acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX) and fatty acid transport protein (FATP)) were down-regulated among the three TAM treatments, while the enzyme activity and mRNA level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) was up-regulated by TAM treatments. Compared to the control, the lowest levels of total lipids and phospholipids were detected in the 6.7 µg g-1 TAM treatment, while the 20 µg g-1 TAM treatment had the lowest free fatty acids concentration. The 6.7 µg g-1 TAM treatment had the lowest percentages of 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9, 18:1n-7 and total monounsaturated fatty acids (∑MUFA), whilst simultaneously recording the highest percentages of 18:2n-6 and 20:2n-6 in this treatment. Moreover, histological observations indicated that TAM caused the walls of the hepatopancreatic tubules to become brittle, with a concurrent increase in the number of blister-like cells. These results suggest that TAM damages the hepatopancreas and leads to a reduction in hepatopancreatic lipid deposition in P. trituberculatus.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/patologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Natação , Tamoxifeno/toxicidade , Animais , Braquiúros/efeitos dos fármacos , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Feminino , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Oxirredução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
Food Chem ; 297: 124955, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253342

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on membrane lipids metabolism and its relation to pulp breakdown development of longan fruit during postharvest storage. Compared to the control longans, H2O2-treated longans showed higher pulp breakdown index, cell membrane permeability, and activities of phospholipase D (PLD), lipase and lipoxygenase (LOX). Moreover, H2O2-treated longans maintained higher levels of pulp phosphatidic acid (PA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, H2O2-treated longans exhibited lower levels of pulp phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and unsaturated fatty acids (USFA), lower index of unsaturated fatty acids (IUFA), and lower ratio of USFA to SFA (U/S). These findings demonstrated that H2O2 caused the increased activities of enzymes involving in membrane lipids degradation and the accelerated decompositions of membrane USFA and phospholipids in longan pulp, which eventually triggered the destruction of the pulp cell membrane structure and the development of pulp breakdown in longans during storage.


Assuntos
Enzimas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/química , Enzimas/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Lipase/química , Lipase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoxigenase/química , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sapindaceae/metabolismo
18.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 97, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) has been observed in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The primary management of MetS involves lifestyle modifications and treatment of its individual components with drugs all of which have side effects. Thus, it would be of advantageous if natural products would be used as adjuncts or substitutes for conventional drugs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of standardized aqueous extract of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) 250 mg and 500 mg twice daily on ED, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and lipid profile in subjects with MetS. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study endothelial function was measured by calculating reflection index (RI) using digital plethysmograph. Oxidative stress biomarkers used were nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Systemic inflammation was measured by determining high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and dyslipidemia by lipid profile. ANOVA, paired and unpaired t-test were used. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Out of 65 screened subjects all 59 enrolled completed the study. P. emblica aqueous extract (PEE), 250 mg and 500 mg twice daily dosing, showed significant reduction in mean RI, measure of endothelial function, at 8 and 12 weeks (p <  0.001) compared to baseline and placebo. Significant mean % change was seen in oxidative stress biomarkers, NO (+ 41.89%, + 50.7%), GSH (+ 24.31%, + 53.22%) and MDA (- 21.02%, - 31.44%), and systemic inflammation biomarker, hsCRP (- 39.68%, - 53.77%) (p <  0.001) at 12 weeks with 250 mg and 500 mg twice daily dosage respectively. Significant mean % change was also seen at 12 weeks with TC (- 7.71%, - 11.11%), HDL-C (+ 7.33% + 22.16%, p <  0.05), LDL-C (- 11.39%, - 21.8%) and TG (- 9.81%, - 19.22%) respectively with 250 mg and 500 mg twice daily (p <  0.001). PEE 500 mg twice daily was significantly more efficacious than the 250 mg twice daily and placebo. No participant discontinued the study because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: P.emblica aqueous extract significantly improved endothelial function, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and lipid profile at both dosages tested, but especially at 500 mg twice daily. Thus, this product may be used as an adjunct to conventional therapy (lifestyle modification and pharmacological intervention) in the management of metabolic syndrome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with Clinical Trials Registry - India (CTRI) with the registration number of CTRI/2017/09/009606 . The study was registered retrospectively on 4th September 2017.


Assuntos
Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Phyllanthus emblica , Extratos Vegetais , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Feminino , Frutas/química , Glutationa/sangue , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1981, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040273

RESUMO

Cardiovascular and metabolic disease (CMD) remains a main cause of premature death worldwide. Berberine (BBR), a lipid-lowering botanic compound with diversified potency against metabolic disorders, is a promising candidate for ameliorating CMD. The liver is the target of BBR so that liver-site accumulation could be important for fulfilling its therapeutic effect. In this study a rational designed micelle (CTA-Mic) consisting of α-tocopheryl hydrophobic core and on-site detachable polyethylene glycol-thiol shell is developed for effective liver deposition of BBR. The bio-distribution analysis proves that the accumulation of BBR in liver is increased by 248.8% assisted by micelles. Up-regulation of a range of energy-related genes is detectable in the HepG2 cells and in vivo. In the high fat diet-fed mice, BBR-CTA-Mic intervention remarkably improves metabolic profiles and reduces the formation of aortic arch plaque. Our results provide proof-of-concept for a liver-targeting strategy to ameliorate CMD using natural medicines facilitated by Nano-technology.


Assuntos
Berberina/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(15): 3257-3268, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089788

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that triterpenes in Alismatis rhizoma (Zexie in Chinese, ZX) contributed to the lipid-lowering effect on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Alisol B 23-acetate, one of the abundant triterpenes in ZX, was used as the marker of quality control for ZX in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, while it could not reflect the lipid-lowering effect because other triterpenes in ZX also had prominent medicinal efficacy. To identify the significantly bioactive triterpenes in ZX, a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based characteristic chemical profile (CCP)-support vector machine (SVM) model was used to explore the relationship between triterpenes and lipid-lowering effect of ZX. Firstly, the content of 87 targeted triterpenes was quantified by the MRM-based CCP using UHPLC-QTRAP-MS/MS. Secondly, the lipid-lowering effect of 30 ZX samples was assessed by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Thirdly, 9 of the 87 triterpenes possessing high mean impact value were identified to have significant lipid-lowering effect via the particle swarm-optimized SVM model. The new SVM model constructed by the 9 triterpenes showed good prediction performance and the overall prediction accuracy reached 81.94%. Finally, the real activity of these triterpenes was partly confirmed and was consistent with the prediction of SVM. These results showed that the method for discovery of triterpenes with prominent lipid-lowering activity in ZX was reliable. The proposed method is expected to provide an efficient and rapid approach for screening of active component and drug discovery in traditional herbs. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/química , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/análise , Camundongos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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