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2.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 70(1): 18-25, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Long-term monitoring of the mutual effects of chronic viral hepatitis C (VHC) treatment and tailored addiction treatment. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) published an action plan to eliminate viral hepatitis C globally by 2030. People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key population that needs increased attention and care. Two decades before the announcement of the WHO plan for the global elimination of HCV (hepatitis C virus), the Remedis Medical Facility, where the study was conducted, established a “Comprehensive Care Program for patients with substance use disorders and addictive behaviour”. METHODS: We evaluated all patients who were in the methadone program as of 1 March 2020, regardless of OST duration, OST dosage, age or gender. Their epidemiological and demographic data obtained during a structured clinical interview and laboratory test results were analysed. RESULTS: Of 24 patients on methadone substitution therapy, 12 (50%) were anti-HCV negative before starting OST. None of them became newly infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during OST. The remaining 12 of the study patients were anti-HCV positive. Ten of them have already undergone successful treatment for viral hepatitis. Two patients were re-infected with HCV. CONCLUSION: The presented work confirms the high efficacy of chronic VHC treatment among PWID in inducing suitable conditions. We consider combination of HCV infection treatment and targeted tailored addiction treatment as a starting point for achieving control over the HCV epidemic in the Czech Republic, with a possible positive impact on other blood-borne infections related to risky behaviour.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , República Tcheca , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108617, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly altered treatment delivery for opioid treatment programs (OTPs) dispensing medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD). We aimed to identify patterns of substance use among MOUD patients and examine whether COVID-19-related impacts on access to healthcare varied across subgroups. METHODS: This analysis was embedded within a type 3 hybrid trial that enrolled patients across eight OTPs at the start of the pandemic. Enrolled patients reported on past-30 day use of multiple substances during their baseline assessment. Participants re-contacted in May-July 2020 completed a survey about COVID-19-related impacts on various life domains. Using latent class analysis we identified patient subgroups, and then examined group differences on a set of negative and positive COVID-19 impacts related to healthcare access. RESULTS: Of the 188 trial participants, 135 (72 %) completed the survey. Latent class analysis identified three MOUD patient subgroups: minimal use (class probability: 0.25); opioid use (class probability: 0.34); and polysubstance use (class probability: 0.41). Compared to the minimal use group, the polysubstance use group reported increased substance use and difficulty accessing sterile needles, naloxone, and preferred substance. The opioid use group reported increased substance use and difficulty accessing their preferred substance. There were no significant group differences related to accessing routine or specialized healthcare or medication; or paying attention to their health. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19, many MOUD patients reported challenges accessing care, particularly harm reduction services for patients with polysubstance use. Additional efforts, like providing wraparound support, may be necessary to serve the needs of MOUD patients.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Redução do Dano , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , New England/epidemiologia , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/tendências
4.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 124: 108283, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771282

RESUMO

Despite its proven efficacy, buprenorphine remains dramatically underutilized for management of opioid use disorder largely due to onerous barriers to treatment initiation. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many substance use disorder treatment facilities have reduced their hours and services, exacerbating existing barriers. To this end, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration adjusted their guidelines to allow for new buprenorphine prescriptions following audio-only telehealth encounters, no longer requiring an in-person evaluation prior to treatment initiation. Under this new guidance, we established a 24/7 telephone hotline to function as a "tele-bridge" clinic where people with opioid use disorder can be linked with a buprenorphine prescriber in real-time for OUD assessment and unobserved buprenorphine initiation with connection to follow-up if appropriate. Additionally, we developed an ED callback protocol to reach patients recently seen for opioid overdose and facilitate their entry into care if interested. In this commentary we describe our hotline and ED callback protocols, discuss theoretical and anecdotal benefits to this approach, and advocate for continuation of current regulatory changes post-COVID-19 to maintain expanded access to novel treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Telemedicina , Buprenorfina/provisão & distribução , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Metadona/provisão & distribução , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Rhode Island
5.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 124: 108288, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, opioid treatment programs (OTPs) in the U.S. were granted new flexibility in methadone dispensing and the use of telemedicine. To explore the impact of the pandemic and accompanying policy changes on service delivery, we asked OTP clinicians about changes in care patterns and perceptions of impacts on access and quality. METHODS: In May-June 2020, we completed semistructured telephone interviews with 20 OTP clinicians (physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) from 13 U.S. states. The study recruited participants through Medscape, an online platform where clinicians access clinical content. We used rapid thematic analysis, a qualitative approach, to summarize participants' expressed views related to the research objectives. RESULTS: Clinicians identified a range of changes to methadone and ancillary service delivery as a result of COVID-19. Most clinicians reported that OTPs were prescribing more take-home doses of methadone and providing psychosocial services and medication management via telemedicine. Many also reported reducing the frequency of urine toxicology screening and accepting fewer new patients. While some clinicians expressed support for the increased flexibility around dosing and use of telemedicine, others expressed concern about increased risk of medication diversion and overdose. Clinicians reported several advantages and disadvantages of the changes due to the pandemic and that continued reimbursement would be required to maintain telemedicine services. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically altered the delivery of methadone treatment in the U.S. This study's findings suggest that OTPs may have reduced their methadone treatment during the early months of the pandemic and that the flexibilities that policy changes offered may not have resulted in changes in care delivery for all patients. Careful consideration and additional analysis should inform which changes OTPs should maintain long-term.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Percepção , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Telemedicina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546494

RESUMO

(1) Background: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a complex condition that can require long-term treatment. Pharmacological therapy for OUD involves treatment with opioid agonists (OMT) tailored to individual profiles. The aim of our study in daily clinical practice was to compare the profiles of patients treated with methadone (MTD) and those using buprenorphine (BHD or BHD-naloxone-NX). (2) Methods: A cross-sectional multicentre study explored the psychological, somatic and social profiles of patients with Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) following Opioid Maintenance Treatment (BHD, BHD/NX, or MTD). Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed. (3) Results: 257 patients were included, a majority were men using heroin. A total of 68% (178) were on MTD, 32% (79) were on BHD. Patients with MTD were significantly more likely to report somatic damage, and more likely to be younger and not to report oral or sublingual use as the main route for heroin or non-medical opioids. (4) Conclusions: In daily clinical practice, somatic damage was significantly more severe among MTD patients. Age and route of administration also differed, and our results could raise the issue of the type of OMT prescribed in case of non-medical use of prescribed opioids. These hypothesis should be confirmed in larger studies.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Lancet HIV ; 8(2): e67-e76, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: UNAIDS recommends integrating methadone or buprenorphine treatment of opioid use disorder with HIV care to improve HIV outcomes, but buprenorphine adoption remains limited in many countries. We aimed to assess whether HIV clinic-based buprenorphine plus naloxone treatment for opioid use disorder was non-inferior to referral for methadone maintenance therapy in achieving HIV viral suppression in Vietnam. METHODS: In an open-label, non-inferiority trial (BRAVO), we randomly assigned people with HIV and opioid use disorder (1:1) by computer-generated random number sequence, in blocks of ten and stratified by site, to receive HIV clinic-based buprenorphine plus naloxone treatment or referral for methadone maintenance therapy in six HIV clinics in Vietnam. The primary outcome was HIV viral suppression at 12 months (HIV-1 RNA ≤200 copies per mL on PCR) by intention to treat (absolute risk difference [RD] margin ≤13%), compared by use of generalised estimating equations. Research staff actively queried treatment-emergent adverse events during quarterly study visits and passively collected adverse events reported during HIV clinic visits. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01936857, and is completed. FINDINGS: Between July 27, 2015, and Feb 12, 2018, we enrolled 281 patients. At baseline, 272 (97%) participants were male, mean age was 38·3 years (SD 6·1), and mean CD4 count was 405 cells per µL (SD 224). Viral suppression improved between baseline and 12 months for both HIV clinic-based buprenorphine plus naloxone (from 97 [69%] of 140 patients to 74 [81%] of 91 patients) and referral for methadone maintenance therapy (from 92 [66%] of 140 to 99 [93%] of 107). Buprenorphine plus naloxone did not demonstrate non-inferiority to methadone maintenance therapy in achieving viral suppression at 12 months (RD -0·11, 95% CI -0·20 to -0·02). Retention on medication at 12 months was lower for buprenorphine plus naloxone than for methadone maintenance therapy (40% vs 65%; RD -0·53, 95% CI -0·75 to -0·31). Participants assigned to buprenorphine plus naloxone more frequently experienced serious adverse events (ten [7%] of 141 vs four of 140 [3%] assigned to methadone maintenance therapy) and deaths (seven of 141 [5%] vs three of 141 [2%]). Serious adverse events and deaths typically occurred in people no longer taking ART or opioid use disorder medications. INTERPRETATION: Although integrated buprenorphine and HIV care may potentially increase access to treatment for opioid use disorder, scale-up in middle-income countries might require enhanced support for buprenorphine adherence to improve HIV viral suppression. The strength of our study as a multisite randomised trial was offset by low retention of patients on buprenorphine. FUNDING: National Institute on Drug Abuse (US National Institutes of Health).


Assuntos
Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/virologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , RNA Viral/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Resultado do Tratamento , Vietnã , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210061, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625511

RESUMO

Importance: Persons with opioid use disorder (OUD) and co-occurring alcohol use disorder (AUD) are understudied and undertreated. It is unknown whether the use of medications to treat OUD is associated with reduced risk of alcohol-related morbidity. Objective: To determine whether the use of OUD medications is associated with decreased risk for alcohol-related falls, injuries, and poisonings in persons with OUD with and without co-occurring AUD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This recurrent-event, case-control, cohort study used prescription claims from IBM MarketScan insurance databases from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016. The sample included persons aged 12 to 64 years in the US with an OUD diagnosis and taking OUD medication who had at least 1 alcohol-related admission. The unit of observation was person-day. Data analysis was performed from June 26 through September 28, 2020. Exposures: Days of active OUD medication prescriptions, with either agonist (ie, buprenorphine or methadone) or antagonist (ie, oral or extended-release naltrexone) treatments compared with days without OUD prescriptions. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was admission for any acute alcohol-related event defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision codes. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare OUD medication use between days with and without an alcohol-related event. Stratified analyses were conducted between patients with OUD with and without a recent AUD diagnostic code. Results: There were 8 424 214 person-days of observation time among 13 335 participants who received OUD medications and experienced an alcohol-related admission (mean [SD] age, 33.1 [13.1] years; 5884 female participants [44.1%]). Agonist treatments (buprenorphine and methadone) were associated with reductions in the odds of any alcohol-related acute event compared with nontreatment days, with a 43% reduction for buprenorphine (odds ratio [OR], 0.57; 95% CI, 0.52-0.61) and a 66% reduction for methadone (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.26-0.45). The antagonist treatment naltrexone was associated with reductions in alcohol-related acute events compared with nonmedication days, with a 37% reduction for extended-release naltrexone (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.52-0.76) and a 16% reduction for oral naltrexone (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76-0.93). Naltrexone use was more prevalent among patients with OUD with recent AUD claims than their peers without AUD claims. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that OUD medication is associated with fewer admissions for alcohol-related acute events in patients with OUD with co-occurring AUD.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Etanol/envenenamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 123: 108276, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612201

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Methadone maintenance treatment is a life-saving treatment for people with opioid use disorders (OUD). The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has introduced many concerns surrounding access to opioid treatment. In March 2020, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) issued guidance allowing for the expansion of take-home methadone doses. We sought to describe changes to treatment experiences from the perspective of persons receiving methadone at outpatient treatment facilities for OUD. METHODS: We conducted an in-person survey among 104 persons receiving methadone from three clinics in central North Carolina in June and July 2020. Surveys collected information on demographic characteristics, methadone treatment history, and experiences with take-home methadone doses in the context of COVID-19 (i.e., before and since March 2020). RESULTS: Before COVID-19, the clinic-level percent of participants receiving any amount of days' supply of take-home doses at each clinic ranged from 56% to 82%, while it ranged from 78% to 100% since COVID-19. The clinic-level percent of participants receiving a take-homes days' supply of a week or longer (i.e., ≥6 days) since COVID-19 ranged from 11% to 56%. Among 87 participants who received take-homes since COVID-19, only four reported selling their take-home doses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found variation in experiences of take-home dosing by clinic and little diversion of take-home doses. While SAMSHA guidance should allow expanded access to take-home doses, adoption of these guidelines may vary at the clinic level. The adoption of these policies should be explored further, particularly in the context of benefits to patients seeking OUD treatment.


Assuntos
Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Satisfação do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/administração & dosagem , North Carolina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Value Health ; 24(2): 158-173, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The rapid increase in opioid overdose and opioid use disorder (OUD) over the past 20 years is a complex problem associated with significant economic costs for healthcare systems and society. Simulation models have been developed to capture and identify ways to manage this complexity and to evaluate the potential costs of different strategies to reduce overdoses and OUD. A review of simulation-based economic evaluations is warranted to fully characterize this set of literature. METHODS: A systematic review of simulation-based economic evaluation (SBEE) studies in opioid research was initiated by searches in PubMed, EMBASE, and EbscoHOST. Extraction of a predefined set of items and a quality assessment were performed for each study. RESULTS: The screening process resulted in 23 SBEE studies ranging by year of publication from 1999 to 2019. Methodological quality of the cost analyses was moderately high. The most frequently evaluated strategies were methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatments; the only harm reduction strategy explored was naloxone distribution. These strategies were consistently found to be cost-effective, especially naloxone distribution and methadone maintenance. Prevention strategies were limited to abuse-deterrent opioid formulations. Less than half (39%) of analyses adopted a societal perspective in their estimation of costs and effects from an opioid-related intervention. Prevention strategies and studies' accounting for patient and physician preference, changing costs, or result stratification were largely ignored in these SBEEs. CONCLUSION: The review shows consistently favorable cost analysis findings for naloxone distribution strategies and opioid agonist treatments and identifies major gaps for future research.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Metadona/economia , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Modelos Econômicos , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , /prevenção & controle , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/economia , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Epidemia de Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia
12.
Harefuah ; 160(1): 19-23, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474874

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Opioids play a key role in managing acute and chronic pain, but at the same time, opioid abuse is a socio-economic and health problem that has been expanding over the past three decades, causing a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Methadone maintenance therapy is the most effective treatment choice (combined with psychosocial therapy) for opioid addiction. However, only a small proportion of people with opioid addiction turn to this treatment. In addition, patients applying for methadone maintenance treatment do so with great delay, after 10 and even 20 years of addiction. A possible explanation for this phenomenon discussed in the medical literature is stigma and misinformation about methadone maintenance therapy in patients with substance use disorder, society, family of patients, and healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Metadona , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Comunicação , Humanos , Manutenção , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico
13.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 124: 108223, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342667

RESUMO

COVID-19 necessitated rapid changes in methadone take-home policies in opioid treatment programs (OTPs); these changes markedly contrast with existing, long-standing federal mandates on OTP rules about take-home methadone. OTP providers describe how these changes have affected clinical decision-making, equity in patient care, and workflow. We also discuss implications for medical ethics and patient autonomy. We provide suggestions for future research that will examine the impact of COVID-19 on OTP treatment and its patients, as well as the effect of making methadone take-home polices patient centered, all of which may foreshadow larger changes in the ways OTPs deliver their services.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Metadona/provisão & distribução , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Fluxo de Trabalho
14.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 122: 108219, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353790

RESUMO

Opioid treatment programs (OTPs) operate within a rigid set of clinical guidelines and regulations that specify the number of required OTP visits for supervised administration of methadone. To ensure physical distancing in light of COVID-19, the federal government loosened regulations to allow for additional flexibility. As OTP providers in the Bronx, NY, caring for more than 3600 patients in the epicenter of both the overdose and COVID-19 pandemics, we describe how our clinical practice changed with COVID-19. We halted toxicology testing, and to promote physical distancing and prevent interruptions in access to treatment for medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD), we drastically increased unsupervised take-home doses of MOUD. Within two weeks, we reduced the proportion of patients with 5-6 OTP visits per week from 47.2% to 9.4%. To guide treatment decision-making, we shifted focus from toxicology tests to other patient-centered measures, such as engagement in care and patient goals. In the initial three months, our patients experienced six nonfatal overdoses, no fatal overdoses, and 20 deaths attributable to COVID-19. This experience provides an opportunity to re-imagine care in OTPs going forward. We advocate that OTPs rely less on toxicology testing and more on the other patient-centered measures to guide decisions about distribution of take-home doses of MOUD. To minimize financial risk to OTPs and facilitate their transition to a more flexible model of care, we advocate for the reassessment of OTP reimbursement models.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados com Narcóticos/reabilitação , Pandemias , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Agendamento de Consultas , Buprenorfina , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados com Narcóticos/diagnóstico , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias
15.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 121: 108197, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357606

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Covid-19 confers substantial risk for the >400,000 patients who receive methadone for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) and methods for safely dispensing large quantities of methadone to patients are lacking. METHODS: This study evaluated the MedMinder "Jon", an electronic and cellular-enabled pillbox that provides real-time monitoring to remotely manage take-home doses of methadone using a 12-week, within-subject, Phase II (NCT03254043) trial. We transitioned all participants from liquid to tablet methadone one week prior to randomization. Participants completed both treatment-as-usual and electronic pillbox conditions before choosing a condition in a final "choice phase". We assessed feasibility, satisfaction, and safety outcomes during the exit interview. RESULTS: Overall, we randomized 25 participants, 24 (96.0%) completed >1 study session, and 21 (84.0%) completed the exit interview. We dispensed 167.92 g (1,974 doses) of methadone. Participants would use the pillbox again (86.3%) and recommend it to others (95.4%). Overall, 52.4% selected the pillbox in the choice condition and those who did not cited issues related to study requirements. Less than 1% of pillbox alerts were for medication being consumed outside the dosing window and we observed no evidence of actual or attempted methadone diversion. DISCUSSION: We were able to adequately manage patients who would not otherwise qualify for large quantities of take-home methadone when we dispensed methadone tablets via a secure pillbox. The integration of a commercially available pillbox into routine clinic operations increases opportunity for dispensing medication. Our data support remote monitoring of methadone take-home doses and may inform clinic practices related to Covid-19.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(9): 699-707, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine perioperative analgesia associated with oral administration of a novel methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone formulation in dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy. ANIMALS: 43 healthy female dogs. PROCEDURES: Dogs were randomly assigned to receive the methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone formulation at 1 of 2 dosages (0.5 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, and 0.125 mg/kg, respectively, or 1.0 mg/kg, 5.0 mg/kg, and 0.25 mg/kg, respectively, PO, q 12 h, starting the evening before surgery; n = 15 each) or methadone alone (0.5 mg/kg, SC, q 4 h starting the morning of surgery; 13). Dogs were sedated with acepromazine, and anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. A standard ovariohysterectomy was performed by experienced surgeons. Sedation and pain severity (determined with the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale-short form [GCPS-SF]) were scored for 48 hours after surgery. Rescue analgesia was to be provided if the GCPS-SF score was > 6. Dogs also received carprofen starting the day after surgery. RESULTS: None of the dogs required rescue analgesia. The highest recorded GCPS-SF score was 4. A significant difference in GCPS-SF score among groups was identified at 6:30 am the day after surgery, but not at any other time. The most common adverse effect was perioperative vomiting, which occurred in 11 of the 43 dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Oral administration of a methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone formulation at either of 2 dosages every 12 hours (3 total doses) was as effective as SC administration of methadone alone every 4 hours (4 total doses) in dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy. Incorporation of naltrexone in the novel formulation may provide a deterrent to human opioid abuse or misuse.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Doenças do Cão , Administração Oral , Analgesia/veterinária , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Feminino , Fluconazol , Humanos , Histerectomia/veterinária , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária
18.
Farm. hosp ; 44(5): 185-191, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195145

RESUMO

En febrero de 2018 se publicó en la Comunidad de Madrid la Resolución 189/2018 con el objetivo de centralizar el procedimiento de adquisición, elaboración, distribución y dispensación de metadona a los Centros de Atención Integral a Drogodependientes del Servicio Madrileño de Salud bajo la responsabilidad de un servicio de farmacia hospitalaria. El servicio de farmacia hospitalaria inició esta actividad en marzo de 2018, siendo la primera vez que se centraliza en un servicio de farmacia hospitalaria la gestión integral del plan de mantenimiento con metadona para la atención de pacientes drogodependientes en la Comunidad de Madrid. Al inicio del proyecto se analizó el circuito anterior, se adaptó el laboratorio de farmacotecnia y se diseñó el procedimiento de adquisición de metadona. Se implementó una vía de comunicación con los Centros de Atención Integral a Drogodependientes, diseñándose formularios de so-licitud y se establecieron los correspondientes procedimientos de control derivados de su naturaleza estupefaciente. Se han diseñado y adjudicado, cumpliendo la Ley de Contratos de la Administración Pública, procedimientos normalizados para la adquisición de metadona, envases para la dosificación personalizada en los Centros de Atención Integral a Drogodependientes y rutas de transporte. Asimismo, se ha adjudicado un concurso para la implementación de un sistema informático de gestión y sistemas automatizados de dispensación, actualmente en vías de instalación. También se está actualizando el protocolo farmacoterapéutico del Plan de mantenimiento con metadona de la Comunidad de Madrid. En año y medio se han elaborado 5.300 litros de metadona solución y se han dispensado 2.844 prescripciones individualizadas. Disponemos de resultados de calidad percibida por los profesionales de los Centros de Atención Integral a Drogodependientes mediante una encuesta de satisfacción. La tasa de respuesta fue del 92%. El grado de satisfacción global fue: 91% muy satisfecho/bastante satisfecho y 9% satisfecho. Destaca el alto grado de satisfacción (bastante o muy satisfecho) del 81,8% con la eficacia y rapidez de la resolución de incidencias por parte de los profesionales del servicio de farmacia. Este proceso permite incorporar el conocimiento y experiencia de los farmacéuticos especialistas a este ámbito asistencial, así como aprovechar recursos, instalaciones y procedimientos ya existentes. Todo ello redunda en un abordaje eficiente, eficaz y seguro de esta actividad clínico-asistencial y posibilitar un cambio de modelo de asistencia farmacoterapéutica de los pacientes dependientes de opiáceos


In February 2018, Resolution 189/2018 was published in the Autonomous Community of Madrid with the objective of centralizing the procedure for the acquisition, preparation, distribution, and dispensing of methadone to Centres for the Comprehensive Care of Drug Addiction Patients within the Madrid Health Service under the responsibility of a Hospital Pharmacy Service. The Hospital Pharmacy Service began this activity in March 2018. This is the first time that the comprehensive management of a methadone maintenance plan has been centralized in an Hospital Pharmacy Service for the care of drug-dependent patients in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. At the beginning of the Project, the previous workflow was analysed, the pharmaceutical laboratory was adapted, and the methadone acquisition procedure was designed. A communication channel with the Centres for the Comprehensive Care of Drug Addiction Patients was implemented and application forms were designed. Corresponding control procedures were established given that the medication under consideration was a narcotic. Standard procedures for the acquisition of methadone, of containers for personalized dosing in Centres for the Comprehensive Care of Drug Addiction Patients, and transport routes were designed and contracted out through public tender in compliance with the Public Administration Contract Law. A tender has also been awarded for the implementation of a computerized management system and automated dispensing systems, which are currently undergoing installation. The pharmacotherapeutic protocol of the Methadone Maintenance Plan of the Autonomous Community of Madrid is also being updated. Over 18 months, 5,300 L of methadone solution have been prepared and 2,844 individual prescriptions have been dispensed. High levels of perceived satisfaction were reported via a questionnaire administered to the Centre for the Comprehensive Care of Drug Addiction Patients staff. The response rate was 92%. Overall satisfaction was very satisfied/quite satisfied (91%) and satisfied (9%). These results highlight the high level of satisfaction (quite satisfied or very satisfied: 81.8%) with the effectiveness and speed of resolution of incidents by the Hospital Pharma-cy Service staff. This process incorporates the knowledge and experience of hospital pharmacists into this healthcare field, as well as taking advantage of existing resources, facilities, and procedures. All these aspects lead to an efficient, effective, and safe approach to this clinical-care activity and enable a change in the pharmacotherapeutic health care model for opioid-dependent patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente , Comprimidos/uso terapêutico , Estabilidade de Medicamentos
19.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 360-362, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of integrating a contraception clinic within an opioid agonist treatment (OAT) service to improve access to contraception, especially long-acting reversible methods of contraception (LARC), for women receiving OAT, who have increased risk of unplanned pregnancies and adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A contraception clinic was established at a Sydney OAT service. Forty-eight female OAT clients were surveyed regarding their contraception knowledge and needs. Interested and eligible women were referred to the contraception clinic. RESULTS: Women were aged a median of 39 years (range 24-54 years). Most women (83%) agreed it was acceptable for their OAT clinician to discuss contraception with them. Eight women reported current LARC use and 21 reported they would consider using LARC. Twenty-three women were eligible for contraception (sexually active, aged <50 years, not using contraception, wishing to avoid pregnancy). Six months post-survey two women had presented to the clinic and two reported an unintended pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Uptake of an on-site contraception service within OAT clinic was low, despite participants' expressed willingness to use the service. Access is therefore not the only driver of low contraception uptake for this group. Implications for public health: Other issues besides access to contraception warrant investigation to improve contraception uptake for women receiving OAT.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/métodos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
20.
Med Care ; 58(10): 919-926, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative costs of care among treatment options for opioid use disorder (OUD) are unknown. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 40,885 individuals with a new diagnosis of OUD in a large national de-identified claims database covering commercially insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees. We assigned individuals to 1 of 6 mutually exclusive initial treatment pathways: (1) Inpatient Detox/Rehabilitation Treatment Center; (2) Behavioral Health Intensive, intensive outpatient or Partial Hospitalization Services; (3) Methadone or Buprenorphine; (4) Naltrexone; (5) Behavioral Health Outpatient Services, or; (6) No Treatment. We assessed total costs of care in the initial 90 day treatment period for each strategy using a differences in differences approach controlling for baseline costs. RESULTS: Within 90 days of diagnosis, 94.8% of individuals received treatment, with the initial treatments being: 15.8% for Inpatient Detox/Rehabilitation Treatment Center, 4.8% for Behavioral Health Intensive, Intensive Outpatient or Partial Hospitalization Services, 12.5% for buprenorphine/methadone, 2.4% for naltrexone, and 59.3% for Behavioral Health Outpatient Services. Average unadjusted costs increased from $3250 per member per month (SD $7846) at baseline to $5047 per member per month (SD $11,856) in the 90 day follow-up period. Compared with no treatment, initial 90 day costs were lower for buprenorphine/methadone [Adjusted Difference in Differences Cost Ratio (ADIDCR) 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52-0.80], naltrexone (ADIDCR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.42-0.67), and behavioral health outpatient (ADIDCR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44-0.66). Costs were higher for inpatient detox (ADIDCR 2.30; 95% CI, 1.88-2.83). CONCLUSION: Improving health system capacity and insurance coverage and incentives for outpatient management of OUD may reduce health care costs.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Terapia Comportamental/economia , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
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