Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.862
Filtrar
1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 249: 29-70, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806801

RESUMO

In recent times there has been remarkable development in the field of soil ecotoxicology and risk assessment (RA) models. It is, however, debatable if these RA models are robust representatives for worldwide relevance. In order to investigate this, the current overview aims to address heavy metal threats to soil life in southern Africa by investigating present knowledge and consequences for RA using research in southern Africa as a case. To this end, the focus is on southern African soils, soil life and living conditions. To critically discuss these issues, we report on extensive research conducted in the southern African context and looked how comparable these findings are to RA models employed in the western world. This is done by providing an inventory of selected studies focused on the ecotoxicity of metals towards soil life. It is concluded that there is a dearth of information on southern African soil life, most of which are laboratory-based studies carried out by a handful of researchers. Future research incorporating the available information into a soil ecosystem assessment procedure is paramount. It is recommended that a starting point to tackle this might be the development of holistic sight-specific guidelines for ecological risk assessment at larger spatial scales (km2) which takes into cognizance landscapes, vegetation and faunal characteristics.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , África Austral , Medição de Risco , Solo
2.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 1-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011831

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in surface water is a global environmental problem. This study analyzed the trends, health risks, and sources of eight dissolved heavy metal species in river and lake water across five continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America; Oceania was excluded owing to a lack of data) for the period 1970-2017. We wanted to assess the effects of various implemented countermeasures to pollution and to determine those that could be adopted worldwide. Collectively, the water system showed increasing trends for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe and decreasing trends for Pb and Zn. The mean dissolved concentrations of most heavy metals were highest in Asia and lowest in Europe. Most heavy metals had low non-carcinogenic risks over this period. The cancer risks associated with Pb were lower than the hazardous level on all five continents over the five decades, whereas the cancer risks related to Cr exceeded the hazardous level in the 1970s, 2000s, and 2010s, and in Africa, Asia, and North America over the entire period. Mining and manufacturing were consistently found to be critical sources of metal pollution from 1970 to 2017. However, the heavy metal sources differed significantly by continent, with waste discharge and rock weathering dominant in Africa; mining and manufacturing, along with rock weathering, are dominant in Asia and South America; fertilizer and pesticide use, along with rock weathering, are dominant in North America; and mining and manufacturing, waste discharge, and rock weathering are dominant in Europe. Global trends in the metal loadings in water and in relevant pollution-control measures suggest that countermeasures in Europe have successfully controlled heavy metal pollution. The successful measures include implementing rigorous standards for metal emissions, limiting the metal concentrations in products, and rigorously treating metal-contaminated waste. Therefore, the measures implemented in Europe should be extended worldwide to treat heavy metal pollution in water.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos , Rios
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3094-3099, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602858

RESUMO

To evaluate the safety of heavy metals contaminated Astragalus membranaceus,an appropriate protocol was established to study the heavy metals pollution level by health risk assessment. This study provided a detailed procedure to assess the medicinal herbs in quality control and safety evaluation,and expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming of A. membranaceus or any other kinds of medicinal herbs. The heavy metals content of Cu,As,Cd,Pb and Hg in a total of 45 batches of A. membranaceus were carefully analyzed with a developed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS). Besides,the heavy metal contamination level was further evaluated through 4 main assessment parameters,including maximum residue limit( MRL) set by International Standard Organization,estimated daily intake( EDI) set by IUPAC,target hazard quotients( THQ) and Total THQ set by USEPA and total THQs in raw herbs of A. membranaceus. In addition,the recommended MRLs of 5 main heavy metals aimed to A. membranaceus were calculated based on the regulated consumption quantity. The result showed that,under the ISO international standard of Chinese medicine-Chinese herbal medicine heavy metals,the unqualified rate was 8. 89% for A. membranaceus,which including 4 batches of A. membranaceus exceeded the MRL of As. Here,the standard THQ value of A. membranaceus was firstly proposed as 0. 02 and 0. 011 25 for adults and children,respectively,which were calculated with the recommended consumption quantity of 30 g and 9 g for adults and children. Furthermore,the values of THQ for As and total THQs in adults and children were exceeded the standard THQ in A. membranaceus,and the recommended MRLs of Pb,Cd,Hg and Cu in above medicinal materials that calculated based on health risk assessment model were higher than the regulated MRLs that set by ISO and Chinese Pharmacopeia. The research showed that the contents of heavy metals in A. membranaceus were not in the safe range and the certain non-carcinogenic risks to human body cannot be neglected. Based on above investigation result,it is easily known that the common evaluation method for raw herbs based on the comparison of MRL of heavy metals was not precise enough,and the international model of health risk assessment should be built for each medicinal herb. Above all,this study provided a more realistic research approach for safety evaluation of any other kinds of heavy metals contaminated medicinal herbs,including the establishment of heavy metals standard limit in a specified medicinal herb under recommended consumption quantity,and it is expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming any other medicinal herbs.


Assuntos
Astragalus propinquus/química , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Metais Pesados/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Medição de Risco
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3627-3632, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602933

RESUMO

In order to understand the pollution of heavy metals in Guizhou soil planting Eucommia ulmoides,the paper has determined the contents of five heavy metals respectively( Cu,Cd,Pb,Hg and As) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The soil environmental quality by single factor pollution index was evaluated,nemerow integrated pollution index and potential ecological risk index,the correlation of 5 heavy metals was analyzed and the relationship between heavy medals content and p H value was discussed. The results showed that: ①The soils of LP,SB and ZA-2 had low heavy metals content,LP soil met the first national standard,and other soils met the second national standard; ②The soils of LP,ZA-1 and ZA-2 were all in a clean state,while HX and BZ-1 were in a light pollution state,and the pollution degree was Cu>Pb>As>Cd>Hg; ③The soil of BZ-2 was light warning( medium ecological risk),the soils of HX,BZ-1 and MT were early warning( low ecological risk),the main warning source was Cu and Pb,and the rest were no warning( no ecological risk); ④Cd and As were positively correlated with Pb and Hg,and Cd,Pb and As were positively correlated with p H. The research showed that the soils of LP,SB,ZA-1 and ZA-2 were clean and could be used for E. ulmoides to continue planting,the soils of HX,MT,BZ-1 and BZ-2 were polluted and should be treated in time by effective measures.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Eucommiaceae , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Medição de Risco , Solo/química
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 85: 17-34, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471024

RESUMO

Is our food safe and free of the crisis of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (AR)? And will the derived food waste (FW) impose AR risk to the environment after biological treatment? This study used restaurant FW leachates flowing through a 200 tons-waste/day biological treatment plant as a window to investigate the fate of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) during the acceptance and treatment of FW. Sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole) and quinolones (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin) were detected during FW treatment, while tetracyclines, macrolides and chloramphenicols were not observable. ARGs encoding resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines and macrolides emerged in FW leachates. Material flow analysis illustrated that the total amount of antibiotics (except sulfamethazine) and ARGs were constant during FW treatment processes. Both the concentration and total amount of most antibiotics and ARGs fluctuated during treatment, physical processes (screening, centrifugation, solid-liquid and oil-water separation) did not decrease antibiotic or ARGs concentrations or total levels permanently; the affiliated wastewater treatment plant appeared to remove sulfonamides and most ARGs concentrations and total amount. Heavy metals Ni, Co and Cu were important for disseminating antibiotics concentrations and MGEs for distributing ARGs concentrations. Humic substances (fulvic acids, hydrophilic fractions), C-associated and N-associated contents were essential for the distribution of the total amounts of antibiotics and ARGs. Overall, this study implied that human food might not be free of antibiotics and ARGs, and FW was an underestimated AR pool with various determinants. Nonetheless, derived hazards of FW could be mitigated through biological treatment with well-planned daily operations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Metais Pesados/análise , Restaurantes , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2415-2425, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418245

RESUMO

The coastal waters in Jiangsu Province have always been an important fishery base since ancient time. In recent years, with the development of the industry in coastal cities, heavy metal pollution is becoming serious in Jiangsu Province. However, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the coastal food web is still unclear. In this study, we collected samples (including macroalgae, bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, crustaceans and fish) through fishery resources survey in the coastal waters of Jiangsu in May 2017 and quantified the main ways of the material circulation and energy flows by constructing the food web using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. In addition, the bioaccumulation patterns of eight elements (seven heavy metals and 1 metalloid) through the food chains were investigated. The results showed that there were two energy pathways in this offshore ecosystem: the planktonic food-chain and the benthic food-chain, with Scapharca subcrenata and Phalium strigatum as the primary consumers, respectively. The benthic food-chain was the dominant food chain in energy recycling. The mean concentration of heavy metals from high to low in orga-nisms were Zn, Cu, As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Hg. The highest concentrations of elements were found in bivalves and the lowest ones in fish. The concentration of As in most species, the levels of Cd in bivalves and Oratosquilla oratoria, the Cr in Coilia mystus and the Zn, Cu, Cr in Ostrea denselamellosa exceeded the proposed health advisory levels. Regarding the bioaccumulation, a decrease in the concentration levels of Zn, Cd and Ni were observed along the planktonic food-chain and a significant positive correlation between Hg and trophic position were found across the benthic food-chain. Other elements had no significant change.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , China
7.
Life Sci ; 234: 116758, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421083

RESUMO

In this work, fluorescent copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) were green synthesized using viable cells, cell lysate supernatant (CLS) and protein extracts of luminescent Vibrio sp. VLC. Biogenic CuO NPs were then characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV/Vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS, and PL spectroscopy. Results showed that CLS method was more efficient for CuO NPs production, therefore CuO NPs synthesized by this method from copper sulfate (CuO NPs-1) and/or copper nitrate (CuO NPs-2) were used for further studies. The crystallite size of polydispersed CuO NPs-1 and CuO NPs-2 were about 8.83 and 8.77 nm, respectively indicating their suitability for biological applications. Antibacterial activity of CuO NPs was determined using broth microdilution, well diffusion agar, and time-kill curves methods. Both CuO NP-1 and CuO NP-2 inhibited bacterial growth at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 625 mg/L except St. mutants (MIC = 1250 mg/L). Emission of fluorescent light from the surface of NPs was increased when exposed to Cd2+, As2+ and Hg2+ ions but decreased by Pb2+ ions. Results showed that CuO NP-1 had anticancer properties against KYSE30 esophageal cancer cell line (IC50 = 13.96 mg/L) while no higher cytotoxic effects were observed on Human Dermal Fibroblasts (HDF) (IC50 = 48.88 mg/L).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Nanopartículas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cobre/química , Química Verde/métodos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Vibrio/química
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 530, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372746

RESUMO

Activities in the Bangladeshi leather industries have the potential to cause chemical pollutions thereby deteriorating the working environments, the surrounding residential areas, or even foodstuffs. Therefore, it is important to determine the chemical exposures among the industry workers and residents of the surrounding areas who may be directly or indirectly impacted by the contaminated environment. This study focused on evaluating the hazard arising from exposure to metals due to industrial contamination. Tissue samples of hair and nails were collected from both the leather industry workers and residents in the vicinity of the industries. Using chromium as an indicator of contamination/exposure from the leather industry, it was the most significant metal contaminant for industry workers ranging from 21.85 to 483 mg/kg and for industry-neighboring residents at 6.01 to 296.16 mg/kg. Both the workers and neighboring residents were found to be excessively exposed (P < 0.05) to chromium compared with the investigated control group of people living in a distant village area which had no industrial establishments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional , Bangladesh , Cromo/análise , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Indústrias , Metais Pesados/análise , Unhas/química
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 536, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377907

RESUMO

San Jorge Bay (23° S) is characterised by a permanent coastal upwelling front and a thermal front that influence water circulation into the bay. This bay constantly receives effluents from different mining activities. Several studies have demonstrated different levels of heavy metals in waters and sediments within the bay. The clam Protothaca thaca is a bivalve with sedentary habits, which is distributed along the Peruvian and Chilean coasts and is exploited commercially. During 2010, clams were collected inside the bay: north (La Chimba), centre (Paraíso) and south (Llacolén), as well as from a site outside the bay (Bolsico). Haematological parameters, condition factor index, lesions, parasites and pathogens and heavy metal concentrations in clam tissues were determined. The health indicators of clams inhabiting the bay varied between sites. Clams inside the bay showed higher prevalence and intensity of parasites and lesions than those clams inhabiting the site outside the bay, which could be indicating the presence of some environmental stressor (e.g. heavy metals). This study is the first to evaluate the health status of organisms from San Jorge Bay, and our results support the hypothesis that clams P. thaca can be used to evaluate environmental quality.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Frutos do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Baías , Chile , Meio Ambiente , Brânquias/parasitologia , Brânquias/patologia , Mineração , Parasitos
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109443, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398782

RESUMO

The continuous presence of toxic elements in the aquatic environments around mine tailings occurs due to bioleaching or chemical extraction promoted by the mining operations. Biogenic passivation treatment of tailings dams can be a new environment-friendly technique to inhibit the solubility of heavy metals. In spite of current bioleaching researches, we tried to minimize the mobility of the trace elements in the laboratory scale through the formation of a passivation layer in the presence of a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) represented the jarosite generation as an inhibitory layer on the mineral surfaces of the tested materials. More detailed observations on electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) showed the co-precipitation of metals with the passivation layer. Thereby, the passivation layer demonstrates potential in elements immobilization which, in turn, can be optimized in the natural systems. Our working hypothesis was to exploit and optimize the formation of the passivation layer to maximize the immobilization of heavy metals (e.g., Cu, Cr). The optimization process of bioleaching experiments using indigenous bacteria caused a reduced solubility for Cu (from around 20% to 4.5%) and Cr (from around 30% to 10.6%) and the formation of 6.5 gr passivation layer. The analyses finally represented the high efficiency of the passivation technique to minimize metals bioleaching in comparison to earlier studies.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/química , Mineração , Sulfetos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Acidithiobacillus , Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Compostos Férricos , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais , Solubilidade , Sulfatos , Sulfetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109458, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398784

RESUMO

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a significant contributor of metal pollution leading to ecosystem damage. Bioindicator organisms such as intertidal brown macroalgae have an important role in quantifying the risks of metal bioaccumulation in coastal locations exposed to AMD contamination. Measurement of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn accumulation was performed in Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum sampled from two marine locations near to an abandoned Cu mine in Anglesey, Wales, UK. Transect samples were taken from a coastal location (Amlwch) that has seen a substantial increase in AMD contamination over 15 years, in comparison to a nearby estuarine location (Dulas Estuary leading to Dulas Bay) with a historic legacy of pollution. These were compared with samples from the same sites taken 30 years earlier. Some of the Dulas macroalgae samples had Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations that were above background but in general indicated a non-polluted estuary in comparison to substantial pollution over previous decades. In contrast, Fucus samples collected from directly below an AMD outflow at Amlwch showed extremely elevated metal bioaccumulation (>250 mg Fe g-1, >6 mg Cu g-1, >2 mg Zn g-1, >190 µg As g-1) and evidence of macroalgae toxicity, indicating severe pollution at this site. However, the pollution dispersed within 200 m of the outflow source. This study has demonstrated the efficiency of three brown macroalgae species as indicators for metal bioavailability at high spatial resolution and over time.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Metais/análise , Mineração , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Alga Marinha , País de Gales
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 526, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363853

RESUMO

Biomonitoring has been used to disclose the public health impact of contaminated sites. This study aimed at setting up good practices to apply biomonitoring targeting animal matrixes to design risk-based surveillance and exposure assessment plans. A nine-step protocol targeting farmed animals was devised and tested in three case study areas including (1) a waste dump, (2) a waste incinerator, and (3) a secondary aluminum smelter. Between 2010 and 2012, in each study area, the following 9-step best practices were applied: hazard identification, GIS project creation, risk area delimitation, control area selection, receptors (livestock) identification, farms and matrixes selection, sampling study design, on-farm secondary sources exclusion, and statistical and geostatistical analysis. Dairy farms and free-range laying hens were the primary targets: eggs from both risk and control areas and milk from risk areas were sampled and submitted for detection of selected tracking contaminants compatible with the putative sources. Comparison data (risk vs. control) of heavy metal concentrations in eggs were available only for case study 2, whereas egg comparison data of persistent organic pollutants were available for all the risk-control pairs. After taking into account potential secondary sources, no concern from metals was arisen, whereas high concentrations of persistent organic pollutants were detected in all risk areas; however, only for the aluminum smelter case study, the contamination was broad and higher in the risk area compared with the control one. The protocol has proved to be easily applicable and flexible to varying contexts and able to provide helpful data to inform risk management decisions.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Itália , Medição de Risco , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180334, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411254

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to discuss the concentration distribution, composition and possible sources of trace metals and 13 PAHs in topsoils of the University campus, in the city of São Paulo, the largest city of South America. Mineralogy and granulometry of topsoils (0-10 cm) samples, were determined and As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn, Hg, Pt, Pd and PAHs concentrations were quantified in the bulk fraction. The average clay content of soils was 221±61.8 g kg-1 and total carbon was low (mean of 25 g kg-1). Concentrations of metals were generally lower than the reference value established by the São Paulo State Environmental Agency and other studies in the São Paulo urban area, except for Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr and Zn. The mean concentration of the sum of 13 PAHs was 0.33 mg kg-1 and fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, anthracene, pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene were the most abundant compounds. PAHs and trace metals variability were constrained in PMF analysis and showed an association with exhaust and non-exhaust vehicular emissions. The results also pointed out a spatial pattern in the campus area related to traffic conditions and intensity and terrain slope.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Universidades , Brasil , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Medição de Risco , Análise Espacial , Oligoelementos/química , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 549, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392440

RESUMO

Children are in direct contact with surface soil and may inadvertently ingest and inhale toxic contaminants while playing; hence, special attention should be given to playgrounds regarding toxic contaminants. The concentrations of ten toxic metals were determined in soil samples collected from school playgrounds and children's parks from the southwest region of Saudi Arabia. The soils were moderately alkaline (pH 7.6-8.8), the texture was dominated by sand particles (54-88%), and the organic matter was in the range of 2.06 to 4.82%. Analytical solutions were prepared by microwave-digestion using a HNO3/H2O2 mixture, and the concentrations of toxic elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Metal concentrations were recorded in the range of 0.014-0.087, 1.14-3.54, 0.85-23.29, 0.77-36.32, 312.6-2065.7, 285.3-822.6, 75.4-240.8, 0.00-53.12, 0.52-6.80, and 1.25-92.12 mg/kg dry soil for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively. The levels of heavy metals in the studied playgrounds were below the permissible limits, indicating insignificant influence of anthropogenic activities and can be considered as unpolluted soil. Values of the enrichment coefficient (EC) and contamination factor (CF) were found to be less than one, suggesting that the source of these elements is mainly the local soil, with the exception of Ni and Zn in certain playgrounds (CF > 1), which indicates a possible contamination from external sources. The non-carcinogenic hazard index calculated for all of the metals was below one, indicating that the exposure to heavy metal through playground soil is unlikely to produce any adverse health effect in children playing in the playgrounds.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Parques Recreativos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adolescente , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Medição de Risco , Arábia Saudita , Instituições Acadêmicas , Solo/química
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 553, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399836

RESUMO

Pollution has become a problem on a global scale and poses a significant risk in terms of human health and natural ecosystems. Generally, the biggest sources of pollution are municipal and industrial facilities. However, traffic-related air pollution cannot be overlooked as a dangerous source either. There have been various methods of interventions to measure and reduce the risk and effects of traffic-related pollution. In the case of measuring, the use of certain plant species that can accumulate pollutants in their tissues is considered a practical solution. In this study, the aim is to find out the metals that are accumulated in rosemary leaves and stems and the rosemary leaves. In other words, the leaves and the stems are to be used as a biomonitors to reveal the rate of metal pollution along the highway. We try to identify the accumulation ability of traffic-related heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) of the Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) which is used in the refuge and slopes along the highway connecting Adana with Iskenderun (Hatay). Our findings concluded that the rosemary could have a decent capacity to accumulate Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in both leaves and stem. We therefore believe that R. officinalis is a great tool in determining the amount of traffic-related pollution in urban areas.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Rosmarinus/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Cidades , Ecossistema , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Turquia
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 552, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399843

RESUMO

The present work aims to observe the spatial distribution of metals associated with carbon forms (fraction < 2 mm) in surface sediments of two macrotidal estuaries, São Marcos Bay and Anil River Estuary, which are located within the transition region between the Amazonian and the semi-arid northeast regions. Grain size, metal content (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Ni), organic matter, and calcium carbonate content were determined. Grain size analyses showed the predominance of the sand-sized fraction < 2 mm due to the local hydrodynamic conditions. Anil River Estuary sediments exhibited high organic matter content due to both the mangrove outwelling and domestic sewage discharge. They also presented high calcium carbonate content as a result of abundant remnants of gastropod shells. Organic matter acted as the primary geochemical carrier for most metals in both estuaries, while calcium carbonate acted as the secondary carrier. Enrichment factors indicated Mn sediment contamination in São Marcos Bay and Fe, Pb, and Zn contamination in the Anil River Estuary. These results also suggest that São Marcos Bay is influenced by harbor activities, mostly ore shipment, whereas Anil River Estuary sediments are enriched in these metals as a result of domestic and hospital effluents reaching the urbanized drainage basin.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Brasil , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Carbonatos/análise , Estuários
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1125-1132, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466152

RESUMO

Pollution by heavy metals and metalloids is detrimental to human health due to their toxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects. The traditional approach to assess the extent of environmental and occupational exposures of metals is human biomonitoring (HBM). This method has several limitations, including invasiveness, sampling bias, cost- and time-intensiveness, and ethical issues. This suggests the need for a more robust, non-invasive, epidemiological tool for assessment of exposure to metals and their public health effects. Recently, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been suggested and utilized as a novel approach to accurately determine the extent of exposure to multiple substances on the population level. We suggest the potential application of WBE to the study of metal exposure on the population level, including possible biomarkers for wastewater analysis of 10 metals belonging to three categories according to health effects and nutritional benefits, and its public health implications. Similar to previous studies of exposure to regulated or illegal drugs, unregulated legal substances, and pesticides, WBE can be applied to the study of metal exposure in a given community. Parental substance biomarkers (PSBs), metabolic substance biomarkers (MSBs), and non-substance biomarkers (NSBs) of 10 common metals are available for consideration in wastewater analysis. The use of WBE would allow for the interpretation of the relationship between metal exposure and population health, reveal synergistic effects of different health factors, and model public health risks under different scenarios.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Águas Residuárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1141-1148, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466154

RESUMO

The total diet study (TDS) is a significant part of food consumption-based health risk assessment. Since 1990, China has conducted five TDSs based on its unique food culture. In the present study, the health risks of residents from 20 regions of China are assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake (EDI) with adequate intake (AI) for Cr, and the estimated dietary exposure (EDE) with the reference dose (RfD) for seven toxic heavy metals (THMs), which are Al, As, inorganic arsenic (iAs), Cd, Hg, methyl mercury (MeHg), and Pb. The original data were sourced from the 5th China TDS. The data indicated the following: (1) Cereals and vegetables were the main dietary exposure sources of Al, As, iAs, Cd, and Cr; aquatic foods were the important dietary exposure source for As, Hg, and MeHg, especially for the residents from coastal regions. (2) Compared to other elements, Pb had more dietary exposure sources, which included cereals, vegetables, meats, and beverages and water. (3) Potatoes, beverages and water, and meats were the important sources of Al, iAs, and Cr. The results showed that the average level of the dietary intake of Cr was 11 times higher than the AI, as determined from the ratio of EDI to Al. Moreover, the hazard quotients (HQs) of Al, iAs, Cd, Hg, MeHg, and Pb were <1, while that of As (6.49) was >1; therefore, the EDIs of As and Cr by the residents of China are worthy of attention. Additionally, the discrepancies in the dietary exposures of HMs by the residents were due to the different HM contents among different types of foods, and the different dietary structures.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/análise , China , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medição de Risco
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 546, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392419

RESUMO

To study the distribution of the concentrations and the sources of pollutants and their environmental assessment in the Sharm El-Sheikh coastal area, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Co concentrations were analyzed in the beach sediments of Sharm El-Sheikh harbor and Sharm El-Maya bay by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results revealed that Sharm El-Sheikh harbor has higher concentrations of Fe, Mn, Ni, and Cd than in Sharm El-Maya bay. Meanwhile, the environmental pollution indicators as enrichment factors, metal pollution index, contamination factors, sediments pollution index, geo-accumulation index, ecological risk factor, and the potential contamination index reported that Sharm El-Sheikh harbor has a higher degree of pollution (MPI = 43.4) than Sharm El-Maya bay (MPI = 38.2). Moreover, both of the studied areas have shown very high contamination of Cd and moderate to high contamination of Pb, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Furthermore, the concentrations of Mn, Cu, Ni, and Cd in the studied area are higher than those in the coasts of Hurghada, Shalateen, Red Sea of Saudi Arabia, and the Russian Caspian Sea. The main sources of the metals in the studied area are the human impacts as tourist activities, boat navigation, large numbers of anchored tourist boats, diving operations, and car fuel combustion products. In addition, the natural weathering of Gabal El-Safra and basement rocks can be counted as natural sources of metals.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecologia , Egito , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Espectrofotometria Atômica
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 544, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392486

RESUMO

The development of regional or local maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for a pollutant in the soil requires the field or laboratory simulation of pollution. The experimental design should include the control (uncontaminated soil with the background concentration of the pollutant) and at least three treatments with different pollutant concentrations in the range between 2 and 10 background values. Experiments are performed in at least three replicates. Soil samples are taken 30 days after contamination. In each soil sample, six biological parameters are determined: total bacterial abundance, Azotobacter abundance, catalase activity, dehydrogenase activity, cellulolytic activity, and radish root length. Analyses are made in at least six replicates. From these biological parameters, the integrated biological index (IBI) of soil is calculated. For this purpose, the value of each parameter in the uncontaminated soil is taken as 100%, and its values in the contaminated soils are expressed as percentages. The mean values of six parameters for the contaminated treatments are determined. The obtained IBI values are expressed in percentages of the background. Then, a regression equation describing the decrease in IBI values as a function of pollutant concentration in the soil is derived. The pollutant concentration corresponding to the IBI decrease by 10% of the control, which indicates a disturbance of the holistic biogeocenotic functions of soil, is calculated from this equation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Azotobacter/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Catalase/análise , Oxirredutases/análise , Microbiologia do Solo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA