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1.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124844, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550584

RESUMO

Cetaceans and humans shared the same route of exposure to many anthropogenic contaminants via fish consumption. To assess the health risks associated with heavy metal levels in fishes from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the seasonal dynamics, 13 fish species (n = 675) consumed by the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and humans were analyzed for concentrations of nine heavy metals. Heavy metal levels vary significantly by species and by season in the PRE fishes. The two eel goby species were the most contaminated fish species, which had the highest levels of Cu, Pb, Hg, Mn and Se. Levels of non-essential metals (As and Pb) in many different fish species were all found significantly higher in dry season than in wet season, which may reflect the dilution effect on contaminant levels in the PRE waters in rainy season. For essential metals, Cu, Cr and Se in many fish species were significantly higher in dry season compared to wet season, while Se and Mn in the other fish species showed an opposite pattern, since essential metal accumulation could be influenced by several physiological processes in life. Risk assessment for dolphins showed that inorganic-As levels in all fishes exceeded the safe limits, whereas a more conservative approach indicated that the levels of all metals in all fish samples had toxic effects on dolphins, except for Hg. Human health risk analysis showed that inorganic-As levels in tonguesole (all year) and sillago (dry season) and Cr levels in pomfret (dry season) exceeded the acceptable values.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , China , Golfinhos , Estuários , Peixes , Humanos , Rios
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109748, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606640

RESUMO

Oral ingestion is the main exposure pathway through which humans ingest trace metals in the soil, particularly for children. Metals in different soil particle size fractions may vary in terms of concentration and properties. Urban school/kindergarten soil samples were collected from three cities: Lanzhou in northwest China, Wuhan in central China, and Shenzhen in southeast China. Soil samples were classified according to particle size (<63 µm, 63-150 µm, 150-250 µm, and 250-2000 µm) to estimate the effects of soil particle size on the total content and bioaccessibility of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Based on the results, we assessed whether the standard size <150 µm (containing < 63 µm and 63-150 µm), recommended by the Technical Review Workgroup (TRW) of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and <250 µm (containing < 63 µm, 63-150 µm, and 150-250) recommended by the Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe (BARGE), are suitable where the largest proportion adhering to hands is the finest soil (<63 µm). The results showed that different metals exhibited different relationships between soil particle size and content and between soil particle size and bioaccessibility. Pb and Zn generally exhibited the greatest bioaccessibility in the coarsest particle sizes (250-2000 µm); whereas the highest Ni bioaccessibility occurred in the finest sizes (<63 µm); the bioaccessibility of other metals did not exhibit any obvious relationships with particle size. When assessing health risks using bioaccessible metal content in the recommended soil particle size ranges (<150 µm and <250 µm) and in finer particles (<63 µm), the results for noncarcinogenic risks to children exhibited no obvious difference, while the actual carcinogenic risks may be underestimated with the use of soil particle size ranges < 150 µm and <250 µm. Therefore, when choosing an optimal particle size fraction to evaluate the health risk of oral soil ingestion, we recommend the use of the bioaccessible metal content in <63 µm soil fraction.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Tamanho da Partícula , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Criança , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Neoplasias/etiologia , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/efeitos adversos , Oligoelementos/análise
4.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 66(3): 269-283, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509369

RESUMO

There is general consensus that environmental pollution and non-chemical stressors contribute to the incidence and prevalence of chronic noncommunicable disease (e.g. cardiovascular, metabolic and mental). Clinical and epidemiological studies support that air pollution and traffic noise are associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular disease and significantly contribute to overall mortality. In this respect, the "exposome" provides a comprehensive description of lifelong exposure history. A recent publication using an updated global exposure-mortality model found that the global all-cause mortality rate attributable to ambient air pollution by PM2.5 and O3 was 8.79 (95% CI 7.11-10.41) million in 2015 - much higher than previously calculated. For Europe this corresponds to 790,000 premature deaths due to ambient air pollution. Various large scale studies and expert commissions have identified air pollution as the leading health risk factor in the physical environment, followed by water and soil pollution with heavy metals, pesticides, other chemicals and occupational exposures, however neglecting the non-chemical environmental health risk factors: mental stress, light exposure, climatic changes and traffic noise. Especially for traffic noise-related health effects there are numerous clinical and epidemiological studies reporting significant impact on cardiovascular disease. We here provide an in-depth review on the health effects of the external exposome, with emphasis on air pollution and traffic noise and to a lesser degree mental stress and other environmental pollutants. In addition, we summarize our previously published experimental research investigating effects of aircraft noise exposure in mice and provide mechanistic insights on how noise contributes to noncommunicable disease.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aeronaves , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(8): 1003-1008, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471821

RESUMO

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria can play an important role in nitrogen elimination in the environment. However, the effect of heavy metals on anammox bacteria in aquatic ecosystem remains largely unknown. The present study investigated the variability of anammox bacterial community in a freshwater reservoir after a severe heavy metal spill. The richness (Chao1 richness estimator = 2-18), diversity (Shannon index = 0.26-2.04) and community structure of anammox bacteria changed considerably with sampling date, while anammox bacterial abundance (from 1.38 × 105 to 3.09 × 105 anammox bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies per gram dry sediment) was less responsive to metal spill. Anammox bacterial communities were mainly composed of Brocadia- and Anammoxoglobus-like bacteria as well as novel phylotype, however, there relative abundance varied among sampling dates. This work could add the knowledge of the response of anammox bacteria to heavy metal contamination.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/efeitos adversos , Bactérias Anaeróbias/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Bactérias Anaeróbias/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Oxirredução , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
6.
Environ Res ; 177: 108630, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421446

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that several metals are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In utero development and adolescence are critical windows of susceptibility to EDC exposure. With the exception of a few heavy metals, few human studies have evaluated the impact of metal exposure on pubertal development. Our aim was to investigate measures of in utero and peripubertal metal exposure in relation to reproductive hormone levels and sexual maturation and progression among girls from the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohorts. We measured urinary concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in samples collected from women during their third trimester of pregnancy and from their female children at 8-13 years (n = 132). We measured serum testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) at age 8-13, and assessed Tanner stages for sexual maturation (breast, pubic hair development, and menarche status), at two time points (8-13, 14-18 years). We used linear regression to independently examine in utero and peripubertal metal concentrations as predictors of peripubertal hormones. In a longitudinal analysis using generalized estimation equations, we evaluated Tanner stage and menarche progression in relation to individual in utero and peripubertal metal concentrations. We found that higher in utero Zn was associated with increased inhibin B. Several metals at 8-13 years were associated with higher DHEA-S and estradiol, while Ni was positively but Cu was negatively associated with testosterone. In utero Ni, Al, and Cd were associated with slower progression of breast development after adjustment for child age and BMI z-score. For example, an IQR increase in in utero Al exposure was associated with 0.82 times lower odds of progressing to a higher Tanner stage for breast development per year (95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Peripubertal concentrations of Ba and Al were also associated with being at a higher pubic hair Tanner stage and menarche at 8-13, but lower odds of progressing to the next stage at 14-18 years. We used Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to model the joint effect of multiple metals while accounting for correlated exposures, as well as potential non-linear relationships between metals and outcomes of interest, which yielded results similar to individual analyses. These findings suggest that female reproductive development may be vulnerable to the effects of metal exposure, and using both Tanner stages and hormone levels may provide clues about underlying mechanisms in two sensitive periods of development.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Maturidade Sexual , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Cidades , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inibinas/sangue , Metais Pesados/urina , México , Gravidez , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue
7.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 33, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence of early nutrition on later development of JIA. METHODS: In a population-based prospective birth cohort of 15,740 children we collected nutritional data, including fish consumption, and biological samples during pregnancy, at birth and at different ages. 16 years after study inclusion we identified 42 children with JIA, of whom 11 were positive for Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA). Heavy metals were analysed in cord blood of all 42 JIA patients and 40 age and sex-matched controls. A multivariable logistic regression model, adjusted for relevant factors, was used as well as Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: Fish consumption more than once a week during pregnancy as well as during the child's first year of life was associated with an increased risk of JIA (aOR 4.5 (1.95-10.4); p < 0.001 and aOR 5.1 (2.1-12.4) p < 0.001) and of ANA-positivity (aOR 2.2 (1.4-3.6); p = 0.002 and p < 0.001). Concentrations of Al, Cd, Hg and Li in cord blood were significantly higher in the JIA-group than in controls. The ANA-positive, all of whom had consumed fish >once/week their first year, had significantly higher concentrations of Al (p < 0.001), Cd (p = 0.003), and Li (p < 0.001) in cord blood than controls. Frequency of fish consumption correlated with concentrations of Cd (p = 0.003), Li (p = 0.015) and Hg (p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate exposure to heavy metals, associated with fish consumption, during pregnancy and early childhood may cause effects on the immune system of the offspring, resulting in ANA positivity and JIA.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Animais , Anticorpos Antinucleares/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Linhagem , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295875

RESUMO

Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol compound extracted from the rhizome of turmeric. The protective effect of curcumin on kidney damage in multiple experimental models has been widely described. Its protective effect is mainly associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as with mitochondrial function maintenance. On the other hand, occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals is a serious public health problem. For a long time, heavy metals-induced nephrotoxicity was mainly associated with reactive oxygen species overproduction and loss of endogenous antioxidant activity. However, recent studies have shown that in addition to oxidative stress, heavy metals also suppress the autophagy flux, enhancing cell damage. Thus, natural compounds with the ability to modulate and restore autophagy flux represent a promising new therapeutic strategy. Furthermore, it has been reported in other renal damage models that curcumin's nephroprotective effects are related to its ability to regulate autophagic flow. The data indicate that curcumin modulates autophagy by classic signaling pathways (suppression of protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and/or by stimulation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and extracellular signal-dependent kinase (ERK) pathways). Moreover, it allows lysosomal function preservation, which is crucial for the later stage of autophagy. However, future studies of autophagy modulation by curcumin in heavy metals-induced autophagy flux impairment are still needed.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Proteção , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Cromo/efeitos adversos , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Rim/química , Rim/patologia , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos
9.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124182, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307788

RESUMO

The study investigated the metallothionein (MT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) genes expression in freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio dwelling in Warm-monomictic Lake (Dal) and Government culture pond. Oxidative stress induced by heavy metals in the fish body manipulates stress genes expression resulting in the production of scavenger protein (for free metal ions) metallothionein. It interacts with Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd via metal-thiolate bond relieving the metal load from fish body. Maximum fold change was observed in liver, muscle and midgut tissue. Similar rise seen in GPX indicates defence against lipid peroxidation. MT and GPX genes data were compared with beta-actin gene used as an internal control. Limnological studies of both the sites (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total dissolved solids, conductivity), were essential to ensure the quality of water in which the dominant species (C. carpio) was thriving, as these fishes are transported for human consumption. Heavy metal concentration (water, tissues, gut content), bioindices, biochemical parameters and histological alterations were studied to observe the impact of elements selected.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/química , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Animais , Carpas , Lagos , Tanques
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 215-222, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271987

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Pb, Cd, Co and Cr in duck eggs and duck meat and to assess the risk of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects caused by the consumption of duck products collected in Thailand. The human health risk assessment refers to the formulation of the USEPA standard focused on Estimated Daily Intake (EDI), Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR), Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and Total Target Hazard Quotient (TTHQ). Ninety-eight percent of duck egg samples in this study were contaminated with Pb, with the average level typically above the standard limit. The EDI evaluation of heavy metal in children was the highest for all metals in the eggs. The calculated ILCR levels of Pb, Cd and Cr in eggs and meat consumption were higher than 10-4 in children, adults, males, and females. Children were at risk when consuming contaminated duck eggs and the risk was higher than in adults by 3.9 times for Pb, Cd and Cr. This finding suggests that there is a high probability of cancer risk, particularly for children, which is higher than adults by absorption of these carcinogenic heavy metals through eggs. The calculation of THQ if consuming heavy metals contaminated duck eggs and meat in human exposure (70years) could conclude that the THQ male was higher than the female for all metals. However, the calculations of TTHQ for Pb, Cd, Co and Cr contamination in a duck egg and meat scenario for adults, males and females were still below the standard limit of 1, which means there was no risk, although there could be adverse health effects. This study suggested that children should be the focus of long-term monitoring for evaluating the carcinogenicity of these metals, more specifically in males.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos , Patos , Ovos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Animais , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Tailândia
11.
Life Sci ; 231: 116585, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226415

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental toxicants (ET) results in specific organ damage and auto-immune diseases, mostly mediated by inflammatory responses. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been found to be the major initiator of the associated pathologic inflammation. It has been found that ETs can trigger all the signals required for an NLRP3-mediated response. The exaggerated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its end product IL-1ß, is responsible for the pathogenesis caused by many ETs including pesticides, organic pollutants, heavy metals, and crystalline compounds. Therefore, an extensive study of these chemicals and their mechanisms of inflammasome (INF) activation may provide the scientific evidence for possible targeting of this pathway by proposing possible protective agents that have been previously shown to affect INF compartments and its activation. Melatonin and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are among the safest and the most studied of these agents, which affect a wide variety of cellular and physiological processes. These molecules have been shown to suppress the NLRP3 inflammasome mostly through the regulation of cellular redox status and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, rendering them potential promising compounds to overcome ET-mediated organ damage. In the present review, we have made an effort to extensively review the ETs that exert their pathogenesis via the stimulation of inflammation, their precise mechanisms of action and the possible protective agents that could be potentially used to protect against such toxicants.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Animais , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/administração & dosagem , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 282, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heavy metal toxicity has become a major threat to sustainable crop production worldwide. Thus, considerable interest has been placed on deciphering the mechanisms that allow plants to combat heavy metal stress. Strategies to deal with heavy metals are largely focused on detoxification, transport and/or sequestration. The P1B subfamily of the Heavy Metal-transporting P-type ATPases (HMAs) was shown to play a crucial role in the uptake and translocation of heavy metals in plants. Here, we report the locus-specific expression changes in the rice HMA genes together with several low-copy cellular genes and transposable elements upon the heavy metal treatment and monitored the transgenerational inheritance of the altered expression states. We reveal that plants cope with heavy metal stress by making heritable changes in gene expression and further determined gene-specific responses to heavy metal stress. RESULTS: We found most HMA genes were upregulated in response to heavy metal stress, and furthermore found evidence of transgenerational memory via changes in gene regulation even after the removal of heavy metals. To explore whether DNA methylation was also altered in response to the heavy metal stress, we selected a Tos17 retrotransposon for bisulfite sequencing and studied its methylation state across three generations. We found the DNA methylation state of Tos17 was altered in response to the heavy metal stress and showed transgenerational inheritance. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the present study elucidates heritable changes in gene expression and DNA methylation in rice upon exposure to heavy metal stress and discusses implications of this knowledge in breeding for heavy metal tolerant crops.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 679: 260-269, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082599

RESUMO

Heavy metals are known for their negative impact on the physiological processes of lichen photobiont. In spite of this, certain lichens are known to be effective pioneers of polluted sites. Cladonia cariosa, C. rei, and Diploschistes muscorum are prominent examples of lichens that spontaneously colonise post-industrial wastes. We examined the effect of total and intracellular Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Cu, and Ni accumulation in the thalli of these species on the physiological parameters of photobiont. Increased accumulation of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni in D. muscorum and of Zn and Ni in C. rei negatively affected contents of photosynthetic pigments, whereas concentrations of Pb had a positive effect in all lichen species. Moreover, pigment contents were positively associated with the concentrations of most examined elements in C. cariosa. The results indicate that even if chlorophyll contents reduced, its degradation does not progress. This suggests that metal stress may exert a negative effect on the synthesis rather than on the integrity of chlorophyll. Most importantly, lichen samples of each of the species from polluted sites proved to possess significantly higher FV/FM ratios than those from a reference site; moreover, the contents of elements of lichen thalli positively influenced this parameter. The efficient functioning of the algal component under heavy-metal stress conditions indicates that the examined lichens are well adapted to extremely contaminated substrates.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Líquens/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Líquens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polônia , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Protoplasma ; 256(5): 1279-1297, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044286

RESUMO

Silene vulgaris is a pseudometallophyte that spontaneously occurs in various ecological niches. Therefore, three ecotypes of this species representing calamine (CAL), serpentine (SER), and non-metallicolous (NM) populations were investigated in this study. Owing to the presence of Pb or Ni ions in natural habitats from metallicolous populations originated, we used these metals as model stressors to determine the survival strategy of tested ecotypes and analyze metal distribution at various levels of organism organization. We focused on growth tolerance, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and photosynthetic apparatus efficiency as well as anatomical and ultrastructural changes occurred in contrasting ecotypes exposed in vitro to excess amounts of Pb2+ and Ni2+. Although Ni application contributed to shoot culture death, the study revealed that the mechanisms of Pb detoxification differed between ecotypes. The unspecific reaction of both metallicolous specimens relied on the formation of effective mechanical barrier against toxic ion penetration, while the Pb appearance in the protoplasts led to the activation of ecotype-specific intracellular defense mechanisms. Hence, the response of CAL and SER ecotypes was almost unchanged under Pb treatment, whereas the reaction of NM one resulted in growth disturbances and physiological alternations. Moreover, both metallicolous ecotypes exhibited increase generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leaves, even before the harmful ions got into these parts of plants. It may implicate the potential role of ROS in CAL and SER adaptation to heavy metals and, for the first time, indicate on integral function of ROS as signaling molecules in metal-tolerant species.


Assuntos
Ecótipo , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Silene/química
15.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(4): 441-464, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099343

RESUMO

Professional drivers are exposed to a number of factors that have a negative influence on their health status. These include vibrations, noise, the lack of fresh air in the car cabin, shift work (frequently at night), monotony resulting from permanent repetition of certain actions, static loads due to immobilization in a sitting position, stress resulting from the need to ensure safety in heavy traffic, as well as air pollution (dust, volatile organic substances, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, dioxins, furans and others). Factors associated with the specificity of the profession of a driver, including exposure to chemical substances, result in an increased risk of the development of many diseases, i.e., obesity, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi drivers, lung cancer and other forms of cancer. In the case of drivers, especially those covering long distances, there are also actual difficulties related to ensuring a proper diet. Although attempts at interventional research that would change the principles of nutrition, as well as ensure physical activity and weight reduction, have been made, their results have not been satisfactory. The paper focuses on the discussion on the role of a diet and dietary phytochemicals in the prevention of adverse health effects of such chemicals as a mix of chemicals in the polluted air, benzo(a)pyrene, benzene and metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel), which are the main sources of exposure in the case of transport workers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(4):441-64.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Dieta , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Benzo(a)pireno/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Estado Nutricional , Transportes
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(4): 1553-1561, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087895

RESUMO

To investigate the characteristics, sources, and health risks of trace heavy metals in fine particles, PM2.5 samples were collected at a suburban site of Zhuhai in the Pearl River Delta Region. Fifteen elements in the PM2.5 were analyzed by an X-ray fluorescence method. The results showed that the total mass concentrations of crustal elements (Al, Si, Ca, Fe, and Ti) in a typical month during spring, summer, autumn, and winter were (708±213), (645±269), (1155±503), and (1466±492) ng·m-3, respectively, while the total mass concentrations of the rest of the trace elements (Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn) were (271±124), (163±87.6), (424±192), and (546±183) ng·m-3, respectively. The element concentrations decreased in the following order:Si > Al > Fe > Zn > Ca > Pb > Ba > Mn > Sb > Cu > Ti > V > Ni > Cr > Co. Enrichment factors (EFs) analysis showed that Sb, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Ba, Ca, and Co were heavily enriched, with EFs values ranging from 172 to 2426. Principal component analysis further showed that regional transport, ship emissions, coal combustion, and the electronics industry were the major sources of heavy metals, contributing 53.4%, 13%, 7.6%, and 6.8% of the total, respectively. Health risk assessment results indicated that Mn may pose a non-carcinogenic risk to children, and Cr, Pb, and Co may pose cancer risks to humans.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
17.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(4): 360-364, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982268

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the non-carcinogenic health risk of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) in residential indoor dust for young children around an e-waste dismantling area in South China. Methods: A village around an e-waste dismantling area in South China was selected as a research site in October 2016. Convenience sampling method was used to select 36 houses in the village and 36 dust samples were collected by vacuum cleaner. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) in each sample were determined and expressed by the average value. Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment was conducted using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Health Risk Assessment (HRA) model, the American Toxicology and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Target-organ Toxicity Dose (TTD) approach and the ATSDR Binary Weight-of-Evidence (BINWOE) model. Results: The mean ± SD of concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were (48.90±33.91), (5.95±3.89), (173.57±580.37), (412.71±1 190.00), (612.82±540.70), (297.41±293.22) and (1 052.81±1 156.48) mg/kg, respectively. The HI value of TTD (2.670) and BINWOE (2.933) were higher than the safety threshold of EPA recommended non-carcinogenic health risk. The HI value of TTD and BINWOE were 1.93 and 2.12 times higher than the HI value of HRA (1.386). Conclusion: There was non-carcinogenic health risk of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) via residential indoor dust around the e-waste dismantling area for local children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poeira , Resíduo Eletrônico , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875870

RESUMO

Objective: Investigate whether residential prenatal exposure to heavy metal hazardous air pollutants (HMHAPs) is associated with an increased risk of hypospadias. Methods: Data on non-syndromic hypospadias cases (n = 8981) and control patients delivered in Texas were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and matched 1:10 by birth year. Average exposure concentrations of HMHAPs were obtained from the 2005 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment and categorized into quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. STROBE reporting guidelines were followed. Results: We observed associations between hypospadias and prenatal HMHAP exposure. Manganese demonstrated significant increased risk of hypospadias at the medium, medium-high and high exposure quintiles; lead in the medium-high and high exposure quintiles. Cadmium, mercury and nickel demonstrated a significant inverted "U-shaped" association for exposures with significant associations in the medium and medium-high quintiles but not in the medium-low and high quintiles. Arsenic and chromium demonstrated a significant bivalent association for risk of hypospadias in a lower quintile as well as a higher quintile with non-significant intermediate quintiles. Conclusions: Using data from one of the world's largest active surveillance birth defects registries, we identified significant associations between hypospadias and HMHAP exposures. These results should be used in counseling for maternal demographic risk factors as well as avoidance of heavy metals and their sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Hipospadia/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Substâncias Perigosas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipospadia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco , Texas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Chemosphere ; 223: 738-747, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822635

RESUMO

Until recently, chemical derivatives of platinum group metals have not been in a systematic direct contact with living organisms. The situation has changed dramatically due to anthropogenic activity, which has led to significant redistribution of these metals in the biosphere. Millions of modern cars are equipped with automotive catalytic converters, which contain rhodium, palladium and platinum as active elements. Everyday usage of catalytic technologies promotes the propagation of catalyst components in the environment. Nevertheless, we still have not accumulated profound information on possible ecotoxic effects of these metal pollutants. In this study, we report a case of an extraordinarily rapid development of lethal toxicity of a rhodium (III) salt in the terrestrial plants Pisum sativum, Lupinus angustifolius and Cucumis sativus. The growth stage, at which the exposure occurred, had a crucial impact on the toxicity manifestation: at earlier stages, RhCl3 killed the plants within 24 h. In contrast, the salt was relatively low-toxic in human fibroblasts. We also address phytotoxicity of other common metal pollutants, such as palladium, iron, nickel and copper, together with their cytotoxicity. None of the tested compounds exhibited phytotoxic effects comparable with that of RhCl3. These results evidence the crucial deficiency in our knowledge on environmental dangers of newly widespread metal pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ródio/toxicidade , Catálise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
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