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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 202, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107648

RESUMO

Heavy metal-polluted wetlands could be remediated by harvesting metal accumulating plants, i.e., using phytoextraction. We studied a macrophyte Phragmites australis and assessed its potential to be utilized in the phytoremediation of heavy metal-polluted wetlands, specifically in wadis in the Arabian Peninsula. We sampled six polluted wadi sites and measured Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in the roots, rhizomes, stems, and leaves of P. australis, as well as in sediment and water. We analyzed the correlations between different plant organs, water, and sediment, and calculated the accumulation and translocation of the metals to the plant organs. We found indications for the accumulation of Cd, Zn, and Pb into P. australis and somewhat contradictory indications for the accumulation of Cu. We suggest that P. australis is a good candidate to be utilized in the phytoremediation of heavy metal-polluted wadis in the Arabian Peninsula where the few wadis offer many valuable ecosystem services for urban citizens.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poaceae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poaceae/química , Áreas Alagadas
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110323, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066008

RESUMO

The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) have become a promising candidate for waste disposal and are an ideal feed source for animal nutrition. The uptake of heavy metals could influence the growth of BSFL, but the effects of heavy metal pressures on the gut microbiota of BSFL are largely uncharacterized. Here, we examine the influences of Cu and Cd on the growth and gut microbiota of BSFL as well as the distribution of accumulated heavy metals in the larvae and their feces. Exposure to Cu (from 100 to 800 mg/kg) and Cd (from 10 to 80 mg/kg) did not significantly inhibit the weight gain of BSFL. With elevated exposure doses, the contents of both Cu and Cd accumulated in the bodies and feces of BSFL were remarkably increased. In the BSFL feces, Cu mainly existed as residues, while Cd mainly existed as either water-soluble states (in the low-exposure groups) or residues (in the high-exposure groups). Cd was more readily enriched (47.1%-91.3%) than Cu (<30%) in vivo. More importantly, exposure to Cu and Cd remarkably altered the gut microbiota of BSFL, particularly in the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. High exposure to the metals (i.e., Cu-800 and Cd-80 groups) substantially decreased the abundances of most of the dominant families, but significantly stimulated the enrichment of Brucellaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Campylobacteraceae, and Enterococcaceae. Moreover, the bacterial diversity in the BSFL gut was significantly reduced following high exposure to the metals. These results may fill a gap in our knowledge of the effects of heavy metals on the intestinal microbiome of BSFL.


Assuntos
Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bioacumulação , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacocinética , Cobre/farmacologia , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dípteros/metabolismo , Dípteros/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/microbiologia , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Eliminação de Resíduos
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 108, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927632

RESUMO

The release of potentially toxic metal(loid)s (PTMs) such as As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg has become a serious threat to the environment. The anthropogenic contribution of these PTMs, especially Hg, is increasing continuously, and coal combustion in thermal power plants (TPPs) is considered to be the highest contributor of PTMs. Once entered into the environment, PTMs get deposited on the soil, which is the most important sink of these PTMs. This review centred on the sources of PTMs from coal and flyash and their enrichment in soil, chemical behaviour in soil and plant, bioaccumulation in trees and vegetables, health risk and remediation. Several remediation techniques (physical and chemical) have been used to minimise the PTMs level in soil and water, but the phytoremediation technique is the most commonly used technique for the effective removal of PTMs from contaminated soil and water. Several plant species like Brassica juncea, Pteris vittata and Helianthus annuus are proved to be the most potential candidate for the PTMs removal. Among all the PTMs, the occurrence of Hg in coal is a global concern due to the significant release of Hg into the atmosphere from coal-fired thermal power plants. Therefore, the Hg removal from pre-combustion (coal washing and demercuration techniques) coal is very essential to reduce the possibility of Hg release to the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo , Bioacumulação , Cádmio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Chumbo , Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
4.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125006, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590016

RESUMO

The use of ornamental plant will increase with the improvement in living standards in green and blue-green infrastructure of urban settings. Nicotiana alata is an ornamental plant, frequently grown as a model plant for horticulture, medicine, and scientific research studies throughout the world. Despite its popularity, little is known about the response of N. alata against heavy metals (HMs). This work is based on the hydroponic study to identify the impacts of selected HMs (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb) on N. alata, at 0, 50 and 100 µM concentration, with the co-application of EDTA, at 0 and 2.5 mM in hydroponics system. The HMs uptake was found to be dose dependent, with significant higher uptake at 100 µM of respective HM. Highest cumulative uptake (mg kg-1 of HMs in root, shoot, and leaf dried weight) noted were 767.50 ±â€¯50.83, 862.30 ±â€¯23.83, 271.29 ±â€¯18.68, 1117.49 ±â€¯46.10 and 2166.81 ±â€¯102.09, for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb at 100 µM, respectively. It was identified that EDTA co-application with HMs resulted in boosted HMs uptake, with cumulative uptake percentage increment of 41.62, 54.67, 53.98, 34.48 and 19.92% for 100 µM of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb, respectively. Higher uptake led to negative impact on plant physiology, photosynthetic pigments, and higher lipid peroxidation, H2O2 contents, and electrolyte leakage that increased the stress. Higher HMs uptake induced higher antioxidant enzymatic response. It is recommended to incorporate appropriate soil modification to grow N. alata in sustainable infrastructures.


Assuntos
Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Oxirredutases/análise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125212, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677508

RESUMO

In this study, the digestive tract of three freshwater fish species (Capoeta capoeta, Alburnus mossulensis and Squalius cephalus) was examined using a morpo-histopathological technique. Sediment and fish samples were taken from selected four stations in the Karasu River (Erzurum, Turkey) between June and September in 2015-2016. In water and sediment samples, the concentrations of some metals (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr and Pb) were determined. Histopathological changes in digestive tract were determined by histopathological alterations index (HAI). Intestinal coefficient (IC) and condition factor (CF), which are general indicators of exposure to environmental stress, were calculated for each fish. The highest CF was observed at the least contaminated site of the gradient. C. capoeta showed the highest values of IC among species. The detected abnormalities were infiltration, swelling, gastric degenerations, vacuolization, congestion, epithelial degenerations, hyperplasia, fibrosis and fusion at polluted site fish. It was also observed that the HAI and IC values in fish varied significantly from site to site. The results showed that the content of heavy metals in the river water and sediment may affect the health status of the fish species.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Rios/química , Turquia
6.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125018, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683415

RESUMO

Animal production is a source of heavy metals in livestock wastewater and also a key link in the food chain, with negative impacts on human and animal health. In intensive animal production systems, the most critical elements are zinc and copper. In order to development of innovative non-invasive strategies to reduce the environmental impact of livestock, this study assessed the ability of two plants, Typha latifolia and Thelypteris palustris, to bioaccumulate the heavy metals used in animal nutrition, from wastewater. Four mesocosms (width 2.0 m, length 2.0 m, 695 L of water, 210 kg of soil) were assembled outdoors at the Botanical Garden. Two of them were planted with T. latifolia (TL treated, n = 30; TL control, n = 30) and two with T. palustris (TP treated, n = 60; TP control, n = 60). In T0 a solution of a mineral additive premix (Zn 44.02 mg/L; Cu 8.63 mg/L) was dissolved in the treated mesocosms. At T0, d 15 (T1) and d 45 (T2) samples of roots, leaves, stems, soil and water were collected, dried, mineralized and analyzed using ICP-MS in order to obtain HMs content. We found that T. latifolia and T. palustris accumulate and translocate Zn, Cu from contaminated wastewater into plant tissues in a way that is directly related to the exposure time (T2 for Zn: 271.64 ±â€¯17.70, 409.26 ±â€¯17.70 for Cu: 47.54 ±â€¯3.56, 105.58 ±â€¯3.56 mg/kg of DM, respectively). No visual toxicity signs were observed during the experimental period. This phytoremediation approach could be used as an eco-sustainable approach to counteract the output of heavy metals.


Assuntos
32418 , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Typhaceae/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Animais , Cobre/farmacocinética , Gado , Metais Pesados/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Traqueófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Traqueófitas/metabolismo , Typhaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zinco/análise , Zinco/farmacocinética
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 101-108, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789143

RESUMO

This is the first report to assay the heavy metal accumulation in Blue Swimmer Crab in the northern Bay of Bengal. The present study finds that copper (Cu) concentration though has been the highest compared to the other metals, particularly in the gill. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) have high affinity to be concentrated in Hepatopancreas all through the year. All the metal concentrations were higher during monsoon season (comparatively low salinity) than non-monsoon (high salinity) in the different body parts of Blue swimmer crab i.e. the inverse relationship between accumulation of heavy metals and sea water salinity has been shown. Present study revealed that salinity having the role to accumulate metal in different body parts of Blue Swimmer Crab. In future, microcosm experiments should be done to test the effect of frequent fluctuations of ambient salinity, such as is usual in different seasons in the present study area.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , Baías , Braquiúros/efeitos dos fármacos , Braquiúros/metabolismo , Brânquias/química , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/química , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Índia , Metais Pesados/análise , Músculos/química , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109748, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606640

RESUMO

Oral ingestion is the main exposure pathway through which humans ingest trace metals in the soil, particularly for children. Metals in different soil particle size fractions may vary in terms of concentration and properties. Urban school/kindergarten soil samples were collected from three cities: Lanzhou in northwest China, Wuhan in central China, and Shenzhen in southeast China. Soil samples were classified according to particle size (<63 µm, 63-150 µm, 150-250 µm, and 250-2000 µm) to estimate the effects of soil particle size on the total content and bioaccessibility of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Based on the results, we assessed whether the standard size <150 µm (containing < 63 µm and 63-150 µm), recommended by the Technical Review Workgroup (TRW) of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and <250 µm (containing < 63 µm, 63-150 µm, and 150-250) recommended by the Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe (BARGE), are suitable where the largest proportion adhering to hands is the finest soil (<63 µm). The results showed that different metals exhibited different relationships between soil particle size and content and between soil particle size and bioaccessibility. Pb and Zn generally exhibited the greatest bioaccessibility in the coarsest particle sizes (250-2000 µm); whereas the highest Ni bioaccessibility occurred in the finest sizes (<63 µm); the bioaccessibility of other metals did not exhibit any obvious relationships with particle size. When assessing health risks using bioaccessible metal content in the recommended soil particle size ranges (<150 µm and <250 µm) and in finer particles (<63 µm), the results for noncarcinogenic risks to children exhibited no obvious difference, while the actual carcinogenic risks may be underestimated with the use of soil particle size ranges < 150 µm and <250 µm. Therefore, when choosing an optimal particle size fraction to evaluate the health risk of oral soil ingestion, we recommend the use of the bioaccessible metal content in <63 µm soil fraction.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Tamanho da Partícula , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Criança , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Neoplasias/etiologia , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/efeitos adversos , Oligoelementos/análise
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109627, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509782

RESUMO

The toxicities of heavy metals in sediments are related to their bioavailability, which is critical for deriving reliable sediment quality guidelines. To evaluate the bioavailability of the metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), sediments were collected from Taihu Lake, one of the largest and most important freshwater lakes in China. Concentrations of simultaneously extracted metals (1-M HCl extraction, CSEM) in the sediments, metals released from sediment to pore waters and accumulated by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT, CDGT), and dissolved metals in the overlying water (COLW) were measured separately. Sediment toxicity was assessed with tubificids (Monopylephorus limosus) and chironomids (Chironomus kiiensis and Chironomus tentans). Significant relationships existed between the total metal concentrations and CSEM, CDGT, and COLW measurements (r2 = 0.43-0.95, n = 27, p < 0.001), with stronger relationships with CSEM (r2 = 0.91-0.95) than CDGT (r2 = 0.56-0.85) and COLW (r2 = 0.43-0.71). Risk quotients were derived by dividing CSEM by sediment quality guideline values (SQGVs), and by dividing both CDGT and COLW by water quality criteria (WQC). Toxicity of the sediments to the three species was better explained by the CSEM-based risk quotient than those derived from CDGT and COLW. The study indicated that DGT piston probes deployed face down in sediments did not accumulate metals in proportion to the bioavailable metal fraction that caused toxicity to these freshwater benthic organisms, and that single measurements of metals in overlying waters are not adequate for predicting risks of toxicity from sediments. The measurement of CSEM was determined to be effective for assessing the risk posed by the metals in the Taihu Lake sediments, but offered limited improvement over measurement of total metal concentrations.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos/química , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , China , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
10.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124540, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549654

RESUMO

Lead can be immobilized in contaminated soils by phosphate rock (PR) amendment, but its efficiency is generally limited by low solubility of PR. Our study aimed to elucidate whether phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can promote Pb immobilization through PR solubilization. Results showed that P. ananatis HCR2 and B. thuringiensis GL-1 could effectively solubilize PR by producing citric, glucose, and α-Ketoglutaric acids. In broth assay, phosphate solubilized from PR by PSB rapidly reacted with Pb2+ and formed insoluble lead compounds, as confirmed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Pot experiment using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) verified the effectiveness of soil remediation using PR amendment and PSB inoculation, as plant shoot biomass and net photosynthetic rate as well as soil bioavailable phosphate concentration have significantly increased, while the phytoavailability of Pb, Cd, and Zn greatly reduced. This study suggested that PR amendment combined with PSB inoculation could be applied for remediation of agricultural fields contaminated with multiple heavy metals.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Chumbo/química , Fosfatos/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Bacillus thuringiensis/fisiologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alface/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Pantoea/fisiologia , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Solubilidade , Espectrometria por Raios X
11.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124549, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549661

RESUMO

The addition of organic amendment in soils affected by residual pollution of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is evaluated. The area was polluted twenty years ago and remediation actions were intensively applied, but evidence of pollution are still detected in some sectors. The amendment application produces significant changes in the main soil properties and modifies the mobility and availability of the pollutants. In general, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, showed a significant reduction in soluble and exchangeable forms after the vermicompost addition (percentage of reduction ranging from 59% for soluble Pb to 95% for exchangeable Zn), both in highly (UVS) as in moderately (VS1) polluted soils. This reduction is strongly related to the rise in OC content and pH. Arsenic presented no significant reduction or even an increase in soluble forms in moderately polluted soils (VS1), where the competing effects of OC and phosphorous could be responsible for this increase. Pb also showed an increase in availability after vermicompost application, probably related to the competing effect of Mg2+ coming from the organic amendment. The less mobile forms (those extracted with oxalic-oxalate, pyrophosphate and EDTA), indicate that vermicompost application reduce medium-long term mobility to similar values of those found in less polluted soils (VS2); anyway, an increase in available forms of Pb and As was detected in some cases, indicating a potential risk of toxicity that should be monitored over time.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Animais , Carbono , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Difosfatos/química , Ácido Edético/química , Cavalos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Esterco , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Espanha
12.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(4): 605-618, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428818

RESUMO

The concentrations of six metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cd) were investigated in bottom sediments of Straszyn Lake (North Poland). This study was designed to determine a total content of metals and to assess their mobility and bioavailability. The sequential extraction was used to fractionate metals into five fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual. The evaluation of sediments contamination degree by metals was performed by applying the geochemical quality guidelines, the pollution load index, and the geo-accumulation index (Igeo). The assessment based on these methods demonstrated that sediments were polluted with Cr and the sediments quality guidelines confirmed these results. Moreover, the average concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Cr were respectively 3.4, 3.9, and 21.2 times higher than their background values. According to ecological risk index and risk assessment code Cd was the most important factor affecting the ecological environment of the Straszyn Lake. The metal speciation analysis demonstrated that the mean percentage of metals in the exchangeable and carbonate fractions decreased in the following order: Cd (59.1%) > Zn (19.8%) = Ni (19.8%) > Pb (16.6%) > Cu (3.3%) > Cr (2.7%). The very strong correlation calculated between all the metals indicated their common origin.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carbonatos/química , Fracionamento Químico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos/química , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Polônia , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110510, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450030

RESUMO

Microplastics represent a new kind of environmental pollutant that has recently attracted extensive attention and become a research hotspot. Microplastics are similar in size to the food items of many marine organisms and are thus, often consumed by them, with potentially harmful and toxic effects. We examined the effects of microplastics on the growth of the yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda. Seahorses were split into three groups fed Mysis + microplastics + heavy metals (group A), Mysis + microplastics (group B), and Mysis alone (group C). We analyzed and compared the accumulations of microplastics and heavy metals among the groups and monitored seahorse growth following the different treatments. Body length, body weight, condition factor, specific growth rate, and survival rate were all lower in group A compared with the other groups, but there was no significant difference in any of the parameters between groups B and C. The accumulation of microplastics was similar in groups A and B, and the accumulation of heavy metals was similar in groups B and C. These results suggest that the effect of microplastics on seahorse growth is caused by the accumulation of heavy metals, rather than by the microplastics themselves.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , /toxicidade , Smegmamorpha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Smegmamorpha/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 31111-31118, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456145

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to examine the nephrotoxic effects of heavy metals including lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Cd) in diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. Animals were exposed to heavy metals for 30 days, Pb was injected as lead acetate (C4H6O4Pb), Mn was injected as manganese chloride (MnCl2), Cd was injected as cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and As was administered orally to rats in the form of sodium arsenite (AsO2Na). Results showed that metal deposition trends in tissues were Pb > As > Cd > Mn and the urinary metal levels were Pb > Cd > As > Mn. Diabetic metal alone, as well as metal mixture-treated groups, showed decreased urinary metal levels as compared with non-diabetic metal alone and metal mixture-treated groups. Both diabetic- and non-diabetic metal mixture-treated groups revealed an increasing trend of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. In addition, heavy metal treatments resulted in elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the kidney tissue while decreased levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GHS) were observed in the kidney tissue in comparison with the control group. The histological analysis of the kidney tissues showed tubular degeneration, fibrosis, and vacuolation as a result of heavy metal exposure. The present study revealed that co-exposure of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, As) induced more nephrotoxicity as compared with the metal alone treatment. Moreover, diabetic Wistar rats are more prone to kidney damage as a result of heavy metal exposure.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Creatinina/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26733-26747, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292879

RESUMO

Rainwater heavy metal contamination is a growing problem worldwide, which damages the environment and human health. A primary challenge of sponge city designers is selecting suitable plants capable of surviving the toxic metals present in city rainwater. The concept of a sponge city to tackle urban surface-rainwater flooding and related urban rainwater management issues was established by People's Republic of China in 2014. Therefore, we studied the ability of sponge city plants to accumulate heavy metals from rainwater. Ophiopogon japonicus (Linn. f.) Ker-Gawl., Carex heterostachya Bge., Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., Sedum spectabile Boreau., Typha orientalis Presl., Lythrum salicaria L., Fatsia japonica (Thunb.) Decne. et Planch., Ilex chinensis Sims., Rosa chinensis Jacq., and Buxus bodinieri Levl. were selected as test plants, and their ability to accumulate four heavy metals (lead [Pb], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], and zinc [Zn]) was compared. Growth response and heavy metal accumulation across different species were compared over a 28-day enrichment cycle. The results showed that (1) Plant growth responses to heavy metals were significantly different. The most tolerant to heavy metals was Lythrum salicaria and the least tolerant was Rosa chinensis. (2) Concentrations of the heavy metals differed among sponge city plant species. In general, the concentration of Zn was highest, followed by Cu, Cd, and Pb. (3) The accumulation content of the same metal in different test species was related to the bioconcentration factor of the metal and the plant biomass. At the end of the enrichment cycle, Ophiopogon japonicus had the largest accumulation content for Pb, Cu, and Zn, and Lythrum salicaria had the highest accumulation content for Cd. (4) Considering the growth responses of plants and their final accumulation of heavy metals after the enrichment cycle, we concluded that Lythrum salicaria, Typha orientalis, and Ophiopogon japonicus are suitable for use in sponge cities to restore heavy metal-contaminated rainwater.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/metabolismo , Chuva/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , China , Cidades , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 150: 157-163, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151070

RESUMO

This study evaluated the application value of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi (N. tetragona) in the remediation of water co-contaminated with U and the U-accompanying heavy metals (UAHMs). Under greenhouse conditions, a 5-factor quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination design (QRORCD) was employed to set up a hydroponic experiment to evaluate the effect of U and UAHMs on the enrichment of U from water in N. tetragona. The results showed that the coexisting U and UAHMs tend to inhibit the amount of U enriched in the whole plant. Under co-contaminated conditions, Mn and Hg can increase the enrichment of U from water in N. tetragona, while Pb and As usually inhibit it. The predicted amount of U enriched in the whole plant (UWP) was 57,131.32 µg (1938.66 mg•kg-1 D.W.), and the validation result of the optimization scheme was 53,285.88 µg. A single-factor effect analysis showed that the influence of the 5 types of contamination on the UWP was in the order of U > Hg > Pb > Mn > As. The interactive effects analysis showed that the concentrations of U and As, Mn and As, and Pb and Hg all had significant interactive effects on the UWP, and the change trend exhibited a basin or saddle shape.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Nymphaea/metabolismo , Urânio/farmacocinética , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/farmacocinética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidroponia , Metais Pesados/análise , Urânio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 24132-24142, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228062

RESUMO

Mining tailing areas may contain metal minerals such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cd at high concentrations and low nutrients for the growth of plants. This kind of conditions of the area, as well as lack of tailing structure, may limit the development of plants on these areas. Thus, the present study determined the metal, macronutrient, and micronutrient concentrations in the tissues of the roots and shoots of the Solanum viarum Dunal species as well as it evaluated the potential use of the plant for phytoremediation of mining tailing areas contaminated with heavy metals. The macronutrients, micronutrients, and heavy metals in the roots and shoots were determined by the digestion method with nitric and perchloric acid (HNO3-HClO4) and quantified by the ICP-OES. In S. viarum, the average concentrations of the metals presented in the dry biomass varied between the shoots and roots, being higher in the roots for metals such as Cu (229 mg kg-1), Zn (232 mg kg-1), Mn (251 mg kg-1), Cr (382 mg kg-1), Ni (178 mg kg-1), Pb (33 mg kg-1), and Ba (1123 mg kg-1). S. viarum indicates the possibility of a potential application in phytoremediation and treatment of areas contaminated with heavy metals.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solanum/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Brasil , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Solanum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
Chemosphere ; 234: 769-776, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238273

RESUMO

Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) have been reported to have the ability to promote plant growth, development and increase heavy metals (HMs) uptake. Therefore, PGPB inoculation as soil remediation agents into plants with larger biomass and potential of phytoextraction is of great importance to increase bioremediation efficiency. In this study, 12 PGPB strains isolated from a cadmium (Cd)/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance were inoculated into non-host plant Brassica juncea and their effects on plant growth and Cd uptake were determined. The results showed that inoculation of most PGPB strains promoted plant growth, boosted root development and improved chlorophyll content in the absence of Cd. Inoculation of PGPB strains promoted plant growth up to 111% in shoot and 358% in root when treated with 2 µM Cd. In addition, PGPB inoculation not only ameliorated plant root morphology including the total root length (RL), total surface area (SA), total root volume (RV) and number of root tips (RT), but also facilitated Cd uptake up to 126%. Furthermore, inoculation of PGPB strains promoted plant Cd accumulation up to 261% in shoot and up to 8.93-fold increase in root. Among all the 12 PGPB strains, Burkholdria SaMR10 and Sphingomonas SaMR12 were identified as the promising microbes for improving phytoremediation efficiency of Cd contaminated soils. These results not only provided useful findings for further investigation of interacting mechanisms between different bacterial strains and plants, but also facilitated the development of microbe-assisted phytoremediation application for HM contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedum/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sphingomonas/metabolismo
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20866-20878, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111391

RESUMO

The establishment of phytoextraction crops on highly contaminated soils can be limited by metal toxicity. A recent proposal has suggested establishing support crops during the critical initial phase by metal immobilization through soil amendments followed by subsequent mobilization using elemental sulphur to enhance phytoextraction efficiency. This 'combined phytoremediation' approach is tested for the first time in a pot experiment with a highly contaminated soil. During a 14-week period, relatively metal-tolerant maize was grown in a greenhouse under immobilization (before sulphur (S) application) and mobilization (after S application) conditions with soil containing Cd, Pb and Zn contaminants. Apart from the control (C) sample, the soil was amended with activated carbon (AC), lignite (Lig) or vermicompost (VC) all in two different doses (dose 1~45 g additive kg-1 soil and dose 2~90 g additive kg-1 soil). Elemental S was added as a mobilization agent in these samples after 9 weeks. Biomass production, nutrient and metal bioavailability in the soil were determined, along with their uptake by plants and the resulting remediation factors. Before S application, Cd and Zn mobility was reduced in all the AC, Lig and VC treatments, while Pb mobility was increased only in the Lig1 and VC1 treatments. Upon sulphur application, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb and Zn mobility was not significantly affected in the C, AC and VC treatments, nor total Cd, Pb and Zn contents in maize shoots. Increased sulphate, Mn, Cd, Pb and Zn mobilities in soil together with related higher total S, Mn, Pb and Zn contents in shoots were observed in investigated treatments in the last sampling period. The highest biomass production and the lowest metal toxicity were seen in the VC treatments. These results were associated with effective metal immobilization and showed the trend of steady release of some nutrients. The highest remediation factors and total elemental content in maize shoots were recorded in the VC treatments. This increased phytoremediation efficiency by 400% for Cd and by 100% for Zn compared to the control. Considering the extreme metal load of the soil, it might be interesting to use highly metal-tolerant plants in future research. Future investigations could also explore the effect of carbonaceous additives on S oxidation, focusing on the specific microorganisms and redox reactions in the soil. In addition, the homogeneous distribution of the S rate in the soil should be considered, as well as longer observation times.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Enxofre , Zea mays/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal/química , Compostagem , Metais Pesados/análise , Fósforo/farmacocinética , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Enxofre/farmacocinética , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128280

RESUMO

In this study we examined possible differences in heavy metal accumulation and oxidative stress parameters in the liver and muscle of two semi-aquatic snakes: grass snake (Natrix natrix) and dice snake (N. tessellata), that inhabit the same environment but differ in prey diversity. The obtained results revealed some interspecies, inter-tissue, prey-snake and prey-prey differences in heavy metal concentrations. Grass snakes pray contained significantly higher concentrations of Al, Cr and Fe as compared to food of dice snakes. Both investigated snakes accumulated generally lower concentrations of metals than their prey, indicating that they are not at risk of contaminant biomagnification. A significant interspecies difference in accumulation was observed only for Cu and Mn concentrations. On the other hand, analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers showed clear differences between the investigated snake species and the two investigated tissues. The liver of grass snake had increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in comparison to dice snake. In muscle, a reverse trend was observed for the activities of these three enzymes, as well as for glutathione peroxidase activity. The higher number of significant correlations observed between oxidative stress biomarkers and heavy metal concentrations in grass snake points to upregulation of the antioxidative system (AOS), which resulted in a lower TBARS concentration. Results show that while the investigated snake species did not differ significantly in the accumulated metals, their defense mechanisms were different. This reveals the complexity of the AOS and points to the cooperation of different AOS components in individuals from natural populations.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colubridae/fisiologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Feminino , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Comportamento Predatório , Sérvia , Especificidade da Espécie , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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