Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.067
Filtrar
1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110920, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800255

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products (AGE) and the receptor for AGE (RAGE) have been found to be pivotal biomarkers to predict the risk of inflammation and oxidative stress. Limited evidence focuses on the influence of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and metal fumes on AGE and RAGE in shipyard welders. Our aim was to determine the relationships among PAH, metal exposure, and inflammatory biomarkers. From September 1 to December 31, 2017, 53 welding workers (exposed group) and 29 office workers (control group) were enrolled in the study. Comprehensive workups included demographic characteristics, laboratory data, AGE, RAGE, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, PAH, and urinary metal concentrations. RAGE levels were measured by flow cytometric analysis. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was used as a biomarker of exposure to PAH. Several metals were elevated in the personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples, including Mn, Fe, V, Co, Zn, and Cu. The exposed group had significantly higher exposure to PM2.5 (p = 0.015), RAGE (p = 0.020), IL-6 (p = 0.008) than the control group. After adjusting for pertinent variables, there was still a significant and positive association between Ni level and AGE (ß = 0.101; 95% CI, 0.031-0.172). Significant relationship between Cr and Cd levels and RAGE was observed (ß = 0.173; 95% CI, 0.017-0.329; ß = 0.084; 95% CI, 0.011-0.157, respectively). Participants with elevated 1-OHP level had higher odds of high RAGE level in the model 1 (OR = 3.466, 95% CI, 1.053-11.412) and model 2 (OR = 3.454, 95% CI, 1.034-11.536). The RAGE expression of participants was significantly associated with IL-6 levels in the fully adjusted model (ß = 0.294; 95% CI, 0.083-0.732). Our findings highlighted that urinary metal levels and PAH were associated with increased AGE and RAGE formation in shipyard workers. Elevated serum RAGE might induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and trigger ensuing inflammatory cascades.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Metais/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/urina , Gases/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Metais/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Soldagem
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111415, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753199

RESUMO

The mangrove sediment cores from middle and upper Zuari Estuary were studied for grain size, organic carbon, total and bioavailable metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb) to evaluate the metal enrichment and pollution, along with the bioaccumulation of metals by edible bivalve Polymesoda erosa to understand the toxicity of metals. The distribution of metals varied between middle and upper estuary and was attributed to difference in metal source, hydrodynamics and/or post-depositional behavior. The pollution indices viz., contamination factor and pollution load index revealed metal pollution at both middle and upper estuary. Speciation of Mn, Zn and Pb indicated their bioavailability in sediments, and the application of screening quick reference table and risk assessment code suggested possible harmful effects of Mn on biota. The concentration of metals in Polymesoda erosa was more than the standard permissible limit, at both middle and upper estuary indicating metal toxicity to Polymesoda erosa and human health.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Índia , Metais/análise
3.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127521, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688310

RESUMO

The Punchuncaví Valley is one of the most polluted areas in central Chile affected by anthropogenic emissions from the Ventanas Industrial Complex (IC) where the most important industry is the copper smelter and refinery. In this context, this research aims were to assess the usefulness of the Cupressus macrocarpa as a biomonitor. The leaf samples were taken from five selected sites, located between 0.8 and 15 km away from the source. A total of 34 elements were analyzed in leaf samples by ICP-MS and examined by enrichment factor (EF), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and principal component analysis (PCA). Leaf concentration of As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Dy, Er, Gd, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, P, Pb, Pr, S, Sb, Sr, Ti, Yb and Zn showed statistically significant differences between sampling sites (p-value < 0.05). A clear trend to increase the concentration of Cu, Sb, S, As, Cd and Pb with the proximity to the IC. Besides, high values of Cu (93.4-369 mg kg-1) and As (7.6-12.7 mg kg-1) were observed near to industrial area exceed the phytotoxic levels reported in plants with EF > 3000% for Cu and >1300% for As. The application of PCA and HCA identified 6 factors related to the industrial complex, traffic and geogenic sources, providing the greatest variance the component related to industrial activity mainly with copper smelter and refinery. According to the results, the C. macrocarpa leaves are a good biomonitor to evaluate the high pollution load for anthropogenic elements in industrial areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cupressus/química , Metalurgia , Folhas de Planta/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Chile , Cupressus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais/análise , Metais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Componente Principal , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
4.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127524, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693254

RESUMO

Trace metals concentrations of 25 elements were determined for 22 subcomponents of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste samples representing the United States municipal solid waste (MSW) stream collected during three separate waste sorts. The subcomponent trace metal concentrations and estimated composition results were used to predict trace metal concentrations present in the overall MSW stream along with MSW compost and waste to energy (WTE) ash, which were compared to health-based standards (i.e., US EPA regional screening levels) and to values previously reported in the literature. These estimates for potentially problematic elements like As and Sb could be attributed to abundant base materials in MSW, while other elements, such as Pb, were calculated at much lower concentrations than other published studies. This suggests that trace metals measured in actual MSW compost and WTE ash could originate not only from MSW base components but also from other sources, such as highly concentrated low-mass wastes (e.g., e-waste). While the removal of small quantity components with high metal concentrations may reduce concentrations of some potentially problematic metals (e.g., Pb), others (e.g., As and Sb) are likely to persist in quantities that impede reuse and recycling since they are present in the more abundant base MSW components (e.g., papers, plastics, organics). Promoting meaningful reductions in potentially problematic trace metals in MSW-derived materials may require reevaluating their presence in higher-volume, lower-concentrated MSW components such as paper, plastics, and organics.


Assuntos
Metais/análise , Plásticos/análise , Reciclagem , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Estados Unidos
5.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127451, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673876

RESUMO

This study aims to calculate deposition of PM2.5 -bound hazardous metals in different organs after inhalation of particulate matter for the Delhi (India), and to estimate risks to organs following inhalation. Bio-accessible fractions of three PM-associated carcinogenic metals (As, Pb &Cd) were calculated using the metal values in simulated lung fluids. Depositions of metals in different organs were calculated using an integrated model consists of HRT and PBPK models. The calculation indicates that the major or significant deposition of metal Pb occurs in tissues, such as bone, muscle and blood. Most of the depositions of Cd happens in lung whereas most of the depositions of As happens in lung, muscle and skin. Most of the deposition of studied metals was found in lung (45% for arsenic and 70% for cadmium of their bio -dissolved contents). The following order of depositions of metals in different tissues were found (from highest deposition to smallest deposition): As: Lung > muscle = liver; Pb: bone > blood > muscle; Cd: lung > intestine. The combined exposures of PM2.5 and its associated metals were found to give interaction-based hazard index greater than 1 for several months of the year, indicating a chance of health risk. Hazard quotient (HQ) <1 was seen for ingestion and dermal pathways, indicating no cause of concern. Findings indicate the need for doing periodic monitoring and estimating deposition doses and exposure risks of PM-associated metals to lungs and other organs for protecting human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Arsênico/análise , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Cádmio , Humanos , Índia , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Pulmão/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
6.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127642, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683030

RESUMO

The former Pb-Zn mining town of Kabwe in central Zambia is ranked amongst the worst polluted areas both in Africa and in the world. The fine dust particles from the ISF and Waelz slags deposited in Kabwe represent a health risk for the local population. Here, we combined a detailed multi-method mineralogical investigation with oral bioaccessibility testing in simulated gastric fluid (SGF; 0.4 M glycine, pH 1.5, L/S ratio of 100, 1 h, 37 °C) to evaluate the risk related to the incidental dust ingestion. The slag dust fractions contain up to 2610 mg/kg V, 6.3 wt% Pb and 19 wt% Zn. The metals are mainly bound in a slag glass and secondary phases, which formed during the slag weathering or were windblown from nearby tailing stockpiles (carbonates, Fe and Mn oxides, phosphates, vanadates). The bioaccessible fractions (BAFs) are rather high for all the main contaminants, with the BAF values generally higher for the ISF slags than for the Waelz slags: Pb (24-96%), V (21-100%) and Zn (54-81%). The results clearly indicate the potential risks related to the incidental slag dust ingestion. Even when a conservative value of the dust daily intake (100 mg/day) is considered, the daily contaminant intake significantly exceeds the tolerable daily intake limits, especially for Pb â‰« V > Zn. At higher ingestion rates, other minor contaminants (As, Cd) also become a health risk, especially for children. The slag heaps in Kabwe should be fenced to prevent local people entering and should be covered to limit the dust dispersion.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais , Criança , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , Metais/análise , Mineração , Zâmbia
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 485, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617680

RESUMO

The Karkonosze National Park is affected by long-distance metal air transport of anthropogenic contamination as well as by tourist activity. Therefore, concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were evaluated in soil as well as in vital and non-vital fronds of Athyrium distentifolium Opiz collected in the middle of the growing season from glacial cirques in the Karkonosze. Additionally, fronds of the same species turning brown in autumn were collected from the same sampling sites. The health of ferns was impacted by the contents of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in fronds, which may indicate that A. distentifolium uses elements accumulated in its tissues as defence against pathogens. Individuals from higher altitudes contained higher concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe and Pb than those from lower altitudes. Autumn fronds of A. distentifolium contained a significantly higher concentration of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb than vital summer fronds, which may indicate sequestration of these elements in senescing fronds probably to remove potentially harmful metals. Non-vital ferns were a better accumulator of Pb than vital ones, while both types of ferns accumulated Mn in a similar way.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais/análise , Polônia
8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(3): 416-421, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the concentration levels and sources of 12 metals and metalloids in PM_(2. 5) in Lianhu district and Yanta district of Xi'an City. METHODS: From 2016-2018, PM_(2. 5) samples were collected periodically in the monitoring points of the two urban areas of Xi'an City. According to the ministry of environmental protection's "Ambient air and stationary source emission-Determination of metals in ambient particulate matter-Inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry"(HJ 657-2013) to determine the content of 12 metals and metalloid elements(Sb, Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se, Ti). To analyse and evaluate of As, Cd, Pb and Hg according to the annual average reference concentration limit of "Ambient air quality standards"(GB 3095-2012). The main sources of 12 metals and metalloid elements were identified by enrichment factor(EF) and factor analysis. RESULTS: The total qualified rates of As, Cd, Pb and Hg were 46. 89%, 83. 03%, 99. 00% and 100. 00%, respectively, and the difference between the years was not statistically significant(P>0. 05). The average concentration of 12 metals and metalloid elements in PM_(2. 5) for three years was as follows: Al>Pb>Mn>As>Se>Sb>Cr>Cd>Ti>Ni>Hg>Be. The average concentration of As was 10. 10 ng/m~3, which was 1. 68 times exceeding the standard. The average concentration of Cd was 2. 68 ng/m~3, and the average concentration of Pb was 81. 26 ng/m~3. Concentration levels of As, Cd and Pb were on the decline. The EF values of Al, Cr, and Ni were all ≤1, the EF value of As was between 1 and 10. The EF values of Sb, Pb and Ti were all >10, and the EF values of Cd and Se were all >300. The main components of each year from 2016 to 2018 were 2, 2 and 3 respectively. The main component 1 included Pb, As, Cd, Se, Sb and Mn, and the main component 2 included Al, Cr and Ni. In 2018, the main component 3 included Ti(Ti was located in the main component 1 in 2016 and 2017). CONCLUSION: The sources of pollution of metals and metalloid elements in PM_(2. 5) in the atmosphere of Xi'an City mainly include motor vehicle emissions, coal combustion, industrial pollution and natural particles.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Metaloides , Metais Pesados/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais/análise , Material Particulado/análise
9.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(2): 270-281, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696228

RESUMO

One of the world's largest, but low-grade, sulfide nickel deposits in northeastern Finland has been exploited by a bioheapleaching technology since 2008. Bioheapleaching is a relatively new, cost-effective technology, but humid climate, e.g., in boreal temperate environments, causes challenges to the management of the water balance in the ore heaps with wide catchment area, and the mining effluents have caused substantial metal and salting contamination of the receiving waterbodies. In our study, the impacts of metal-extracting bioheapleaching mine effluents on muscle and liver element concentrations, body condition, liver and testes mass, and sperm count and motility of male perch Perca fluviatilis were analysed. Liver, testes, and carcass mass of perch in relation to their length were lower in the mining-impacted lakes than in the reference lake, which may be due to the metal contamination, food availability, and energy demand under multistressor conditions. The sperm counts of the males in the mining-impacted lakes were lower, but the endurance of their sperm motility was longer than the endurance of sperm of the reference males. These findings suggested that the condition and sperm characteristics of perch were altered in lakes receiving metal mining effluents. Measured variables seem to be useful indicators for metal mining impacts on freshwater fish but only if high natural variation in these characteristics can be controlled by multiyear monitoring scheme.


Assuntos
Metais/toxicidade , Mineração , Percas/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Finlândia , Humanos , Lagos , Fígado/química , Masculino , Metais/análise , Níquel , Motilidade Espermática , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115182, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673976

RESUMO

The boreal forest's pulp and paper industry plays a major role in economic prosperity but, historically, caused an environmental burden. Remnants of discharges of contaminated suspended solids (fiberbanks) are continuously being discovered on the beds of shallow seas, rivers and lakes in the northern hemisphere. We investigated the dispersion of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn from deeper to surficial layers in fiberbanks in a Swedish estuary and the larger-scale transport of the same metals to distal areas of sediment accumulation. We also tested the C:N ratio as a common denominator for these anthropogenic, cellulose-rich deposits. Sampling and analyses of three fiberbanks located in the inner part of the estuary and from sediment accumulation sites outside and along the estuary reveals that metal concentrations are regressing to background levels towards the surface at the accumulation sites. The fiberbanks show a higher degree of contamination and C:N ratios demonstrate inclusion of cellulose fibers. C:N ratios also indicate that there is currently no significant transport of fiberbank material into the distal areas. A ∼10 cm natural cap of recently settled fine-grained sediment covering one of the fiberbanks seems to prevent metals dispersing into overlying water whereas the other two fiberbanks show signs of metal enrichment and potential mercury methylation in surficial layers. Although the estuarine system seems to recover from the impact of industrial waste, there is no evidence that the fiberbanks will be remediated naturally but instead will continue to threaten the aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Celulose , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais/análise , Oceanos e Mares , Rios , Suécia
11.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115252, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717591

RESUMO

Thallium (Tl) is a dispersed trace metal showing remarkable toxicity. Various anthropogenic activities may generate Tl contamination in river sediments, posing tremendous risks to aquatic life and human health. This paper aimed to provide insight into the vertical distribution, risk assessment and source tracing of Tl and other potentially toxic elements (PTEs) (lead, cadmium, zinc and copper) in three representative sediment cores from a riverine catchment impacted by multiple anthropogenic activities (such as steel-making and Pb-Zn smelting). The results showed high accumulations of Tl combined with associated PTEs in the depth profiles. Calculations according to three risk assessment methods by enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and the potential ecological risk index (PERI) all indicated a significant contamination by Tl in all the sediments. Furthermore, lead isotopes were analyzed to fingerprint the contamination sources and to calculate their quantitative contributions to the sediments using the IsoSource software. The results indicated that a steel-making plant was the most important contamination source (∼56%), followed by a Pb-Zn smelter (∼20%). The natural parental bedrock was found to contribute ∼24%. The findings highlight the importance of including multiple anthropogenic sources for quantitative fingerprinting of Tl and related metals by the lead isotopic approach in complicated environmental systems.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metais/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Tálio/análise
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140988, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717472

RESUMO

The processes permeating the relationships between bioturbation and microorganisms remain poorly understood due to the difficulty of traditional techniques in quantifying their two- and three-dimensional aspects. We used cutting-edge technologies to address the macro- and microorganisms' interactions under metal-contamination. Bioturbation (mucus-lined gallery perimeter, mucus-lined gallery surface area, and gallery water volume) positively influence the carbohydrate consumption rate by the bacterial consortium, elevating bacterial metabolic activity, despite metal-contamination. Synchrotron-based 2D-µXRF revealed that the mucous lining by marine worm during bioturbation as the primary carbon source enhances metal immobilization by bacterial biofilm, improving the bacterial metabolic activity. Bioturbation thus can positively affect bacterial consortium that can use the mucus as a carbon source, which enhances the resistance to metals through biofilm formation in metal-contaminated sediments.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Metais/análise , Água
13.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127482, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640380

RESUMO

Speciation of respirable particles is becoming increasingly important from an epidemiological and analytical point of view to determine the potential effects of air pollution on human health. For this reason, current laws and analytical sampling methods focus on particle size, as it turns out to be the main factor for the greater or lesser penetration into the airways. In this sense, particles of less than 10 µm in diameter (<10 µm), referred to as PM10, are the particles that have a higher capacity for access to the respiratory tract and, therefore, more significant effect on them. In this sense, one of the most important factors that have a key role in the PM10 atmospheric pollution effect is the dispersion effect with the direct influence of natural effects such as wind, rain, topography apart from others. In this work, PM10 data extracted from the Basque Government environmental stations (19 sampling points) in the Biscay province (Basque Country, north of Spain) were combined with the results obtained from the use of self-made passive samplers (SMPS) in the same sampling points areas and subsequently, the sample analysis with a non-invasive elemental technique (Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry) was carried out. Thanks to this methodology, it was possible to determine a wide variety of metals in PM10 such as Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ti, etc. Most of them present as oxides and others as part of natural aggregations such as quartz, aluminosilicates, phosphates etc.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos , Metais/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Chuva , Espanha , Espectrometria por Raios X , Vento
14.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115113, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622005

RESUMO

Marine fishes are exposed to great human-induced alterations due to the indiscriminate discharges into the sea, increasing marine pollution. For this study, 324 specimens of Sardina pilchardus from the Canary Islands were analized during a period of 2 years (June 2016 to May 2018). The concentration of 11 metals and trace elements (Al, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) was determined in each individual using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. Statistical analyses were carried out considering the following factors: oceanographic season, maturity of the gonads in the seasons, size of the specimens. Sardina pilchardus specimens captured in the hot season presented higher Ni, Li and Pb levels than the specimens caught in the cold season. Immature specimens had higher concentration in more metals than the mature specimens. This fact may be due to the fact that these specimens require a much higher metabolic rate due to their growth and do not detoxify like mature specimens. Significant differences were found in the concentration of metals in all the analyzes performed.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Humanos , Metais/análise , Estações do Ano , Espanha
15.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115187, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668359

RESUMO

The choice of sediment quality assessment methodologies can strongly influence assessment outcomes and management decisions for contaminated sites. While in situ (field) methods may potentially provide greater realism, high costs and/or complex logistics often prevent their use and assessment must rely on laboratory-based methods. In this study, we utilised static-renewal and flow-through ecotoxicology tests in parallel on sediments with a wide range of properties and varying types and concentrations of contaminants. The prediction of chronic effects to amphipod reproduction was explored using multiple linear regression (MLR). The study confirmed the considerable over-estimation of the risk of toxicity of contaminated sediments in field locations when assessments rely on the results of laboratory-based static and static-renewal tests. Improved prediction of toxicity risks was achieved using a combination of contaminant exposure measures from sediment and overlying water. Existing sediment and water quality guideline values (GVs) were effective for predicting risks posed by sediments containing mixtures of common metal and organic contaminants. For 17 sediments with paired data sets from static-renewal and flow-through tests, the best prediction of toxicity to reproduction was achieved using a 2-parameter MLR that included hazard quotients for sediment contaminants and toxic units for dissolved metals (r2 = 0.892). The inclusion of particle size, organic carbon and acid-volatile sulfide did not improve toxicity predictions, despite these parameters being recognised as modifying contaminant bioavailability. The use of dilute-acid-extractable metal concentrations in place total recoverable metal concentrations did not improve the predictions. The study also confirmed that sediments existing within the estuarine and marine bays of Sydney Harbour pose significant risks of adverse effects to benthic organisms.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais/análise , Água
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140501, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622166

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated significant associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health outcomes. Personal exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) in transport microenvironments and their toxicological properties remain to be investigated. Commuter exposures were investigated in public transport systems (including the buses and Mass Transit Railway (MTR)) along two sampling routes in Hong Kong. Real-time sampling for PM2.5 and black carbon (BC), along with integrated PM2.5 sampling, were performed during the warm and cold season of 2016-2017, respectively. Commuter exposure to BC during 3-hour commuting time exhibited a wider range, from 3.4 to 4.6 µg/m3 on the bus and 5.5 to 8.7 µg/m3 in MTR cabin (p < .05). PM2.5 mass and major chemical constituents (including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and metals) were analyzed. Cytotoxicity, including cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, was determined in addition to acellular ROS generation. PM2.5 treatment promoted the ROS generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistent diurnal variations were observed for commuter exposure to BC and PM2.5 components, along with cellular and acellular ROS generation, which marked with two peaks during the morning (08:00-11:00) and evening rush hours (17:30-20:30). Commuter exposures in the MTR system were characterized by higher levels of PM2.5 and elemental components (e.g., Ca, Cr, Fe, Zn, Ba) compared to riding the bus, along with higher cellular and acellular ROS production (p < .01). These metals were attributed to different sources: rail tracks, wheels, brakes, and crustal origin. Weak to moderate associations were shown for the analyzed transition metals with PM2.5-induced cell viability and cellular ROS. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ti, and Co attributed to cytotoxicity and ROS generation. These findings underscore the importance of commuter exposures and their toxic effects, urging effective mitigating strategies to protect human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hong Kong , Humanos , Metais/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
17.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127145, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497836

RESUMO

Sources of airborne particulates (PM10) were investigated in two contrasting sites over central Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), one representing a rural background (Mirzapur) and another as an urban pollution hotspot (Varanasi). Very high PM10 concentration was noted both in Varanasi (178 ± 105 µgm-3; N:435) and Mirzapur (131 ± 56 µgm-3; N:169) with 72% and 62% of monitoring days exceeded the national air quality standard, respectively. Particulate-bound elements contribute significant proportion of PM10 mass (15%-18%), with highest contribution from Ca (7%-10%) and Fe (2%-3%). Besides, presence of Zn (1%-3%), K (1%-2%) and Na (1%-2%) was also noted. Water-soluble ionic species contributed 15%-19% of particulate mass, primarily by the secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA). Among the SIA, sulphate (5%-7%) and nitrate (4%) were prominent, contributing 59%-62% of the total ionic load, especially in winter. Particulate-bound metallic species and ions were selectively used as signatory molecules and source apportionment of PM10 was done by multivariate factor analysis. UNMIX was able to extract particulate sources in both the locations and crustal resuspensions (dust/-soil) were identified as the dominant source contributing 57%-63% of PM10 mass. Secondary aerosols were the second important source (17%-23%), followed by emissions from biomass/-refuse burning (10-19%). Transport of airborne particulates from upper IGP by prevailing westerly were identified as the important contributor of particulates, especially during high particulate loading days. Health risks associated to particulate-bound toxic metal exposure were also assessed. Non-carcinogenic health risk was within the permissible limit while there is possibility of elevated risk for PM10-bound Cr and Cd, if adequate control measures are not in place.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Biomassa , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira/análise , Íons/análise , Metais/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
18.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114955, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544790

RESUMO

Metal contamination in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) is persistent-, yet a comprehensive understanding of distribution and behavior of metals in surface water of this large, multi-source estuary is still lacking. In the present study, water samples from 24 sites spanning the whole estuary during the dry and wet season were collected and fractioned. Trace metal concentrations in samples were then determined following a preconcentration technique using Nobias Chelate-PA1 resin. Distribution of trace metals exhibited variability along and across estuary, as a result of estuarine mixing, external metal loadings, addition and removal. Behavior of metals was contrasting between the dry and wet seasons, exhibiting metal-specific intercorrelations and dynamics. Colloidal metals (Mn, Ni and Cd) were primarily present in upper estuary and areas affected by external contaminant loading. Colloidal Cu was the only metal that was ubiquitous in the estuary in both seasons. It showed a high affinity for small-size organic colloids (likely fulvic acid) during the dry season. Overall, the present study demonstrated the multi-source character of the PRE and that the behavior of trace metals was controlled by the coupling of hydrologic and geochemical processes, with anthropogenic perturbations.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais/análise , Rios
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(27): 34557-34566, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557022

RESUMO

The indigenous population is one of the most vulnerable to suffer from contaminated environments. One of the target organs to suffer early deterioration from exposure to toxins is the kidney. The objective of this article was to evaluate biomarkers of exposure to organic and inorganic toxins and biomarkers of early kidney damage in urine from an indigenous Tenek population in Mexico. The biomarkers of exposure were Li, Be, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Ba, and Pb evaluated by ICP-MS and hippuric acid for toluene exposure evaluated by UV-coupled with liquid chromatography; the biomarkers of kidney damage were cystatin C (Cys-C), osteopontin (OPN), retinol-binding protein-4 (RPB-4), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Thirty-one urine samples were obtained from indigenous people; 16, 42, 45.1, and 45.2% of the population exceeded the reference values for Pb, Zn, As, and hippuric acid respectively. Our results demonstrate significant correlations between the metals tested and the proteins associated with renal damage; Cys-C, OPN, and RPB4 showed a significant correlation with Li, B, and Mo, as well as hippuric acid in the case of Cys-C and Zn in OPN and RPB-4; NGAL did not present significant correlations with any of the pollutants of the study. This pilot study contributes to the evidence of great inequity in health associated to environmental pollution matters faced by indigenous people and addresses the need of initiatives for mitigation under the perspective that health is a fundamental human right.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , Rim/química , Metais/análise , México , Projetos Piloto
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(27): 33916-33928, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557059

RESUMO

Toxic metals as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) exist in the atmosphere as particulate matter components. Their concentration levels in the European Union (EU) are regulated by European legislation, which sets target and limit values as annual means, and by the World Health Organization (WHO) that defines guidelines and reference values for those metal elements. Modelling tools are recommended to support air quality assessment regarding the toxic metals; however, few studies have been performed and those assessments rely on discrete measurements or field campaigns. This study aims to evaluate the capability of air quality modelling tools to verify the legislation compliance concerning the atmospheric levels of toxic elements and to identify the main challenges and limitations of using a modelling assessment approach for regulatory purposes, as a complement to monitoring. The CAMx air quality model was adapted and applied over Porto and Lisbon urban regions in Portugal at 5 × 5-km2 and 1 × 1-km2 horizontal resolution for the year 2015, and the results were analysed and compared with the few measurements available in three locations. The comparison between modelled and measured data revealed an overestimation of the model, although annual averages are much lower than the regulated standards. The comparison of the 5-km and 1-km resolutions' results indicates that a higher resolution does not necessarily imply a better performance, pointing out uncertainties in emissions and the need to better describe the magnitude and spatial allocation of toxic metal emissions. This work highlighted that an increase of the spatial and temporal coverage of monitoring sites would allow to improve the model design, contribute to a better knowledge on toxic metals atmospheric emission sources and to increase the capacity of models to simulate atmospheric particulate species of health concern.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Portugal
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA