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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112110, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that multiple imbalances of metal ions in the brain are closely associated with the neurodegenerative disorders. Our studies have shown that long-term working exposure to aluminum induces increased plasma aluminum levels and causes cognitive impairment in workers at aluminum factories. OBJECTIVE: To explore the levels of nine metals in plasma and the effect on cognitive function among in-service workers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), which included seven subitems: executive/visuospatial abilities; naming; attention and calculation; language; abstract; recall; and orientation. The plasma levels of nine kinds of metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A multivariate generalized linear regression model and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) were selected to estimate the relationship between metal plasma level and MoCA scores with adjustment for confounders. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-seven workers participated in this study. In the multivariable generalized linear model, among these nine metals studied, five were related to the MoCA score: aluminum, lithium, cobalt, zinc and chromium. In the BKMR model, a significantly negative correlation between the plasma aluminum, lithium and the total MoCA score was observed. Moreover, for subitems on the MoCA scale, the plasma levels of lithium, aluminum, and zinc had a significant correlation with the executive/visuospatial abilities, naming, and orientation abilities, respectively. The log-transformation concentrations of plasma aluminum and lithium were negatively correlated with the executive/visuospatial abilities and naming abilities, respectively. The log-transformation plasma zinc concentration was positively correlated with orientation abilities. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, we determined that increased aluminum and lithium and decreased zinc levels in plasma were associated with the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in workers at a Chinese aluminum plant.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Metais/sangue , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Metalurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
2.
FASEB J ; 35(3): e21392, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577131

RESUMO

The variations and dynamics of essential and toxic metal(loid)s in patients with COVID-19 may associate with the progression and fatal outcome of the disease, which still remains to investigate. In the present study, a retrospective analysis was performed in a cohort of 306 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Tongji hospital (Wuhan, China) from February 10 to March 15, 2020. Whole blood levels of essential and/or toxic metal(loid)s were analyzed, including magnesium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, thallium, and lead according to the disease severity and outcome. Compared to the non-severe COVID-19 patients, severe cases showed significant higher levels of whole blood calcium, chromium, and copper, but lower levels of magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, arsenic, thallium, and lead. These differences were further found consistently across the clinical course since the disease onset by longitudinal analysis. Among the severe patients, chromium and cadmium were higher in the deceased group compared to the recovered group, while arsenic was lower. Whole blood iron, age, and sex were determined to be independent factors associated with the disease severity, while chromium, cadmium, and the comorbidity of cardiovascular disease were determined to be independent factors associated with the mortality. These results suggest that variations of whole blood metal(loid)s may be associated with the severe illness and fatal outcome of COVID-19, which could be persistently monitored and would be helpful in the evaluation of the dynamic changes in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/sangue , Metaloides/sangue , Metais/sangue , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
3.
Environ Int ; 149: 106418, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metal exposure and psychosocial stress in pregnancy have each been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth and low birth weight, but no study has examined the potential interaction between them. OBJECTIVES: We examined the modifying effect of psychosocial stress on the association between metals and birth outcomes among pregnant women in Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT) birth cohort study. METHODS: In our analysis of 682 women from the PROTECT study, we measured 16 essential and non-essential metals in blood samples at two time points. We administered questionnaires to collect information on depression, perceived stress, social support, and life experience during pregnancy. Using K-means clustering, we categorized pregnant women into one of two groups: "good" and "poor" psychosocial status. We then evaluated whether the effect of blood metals (geometric average) on adverse birth outcomes (gestational age, preterm birth [overall and spontaneous], birth weight z-score, small for gestation [SGA], large for gestation [LGA]) vary between two clusters of women, adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and second-hand smoke exposure. RESULTS: Blood manganese (Mn) was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of overall preterm birth (OR/interquartile range [IQR] = 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25, 6.12) and spontaneous preterm birth (OR/IQR: 3.68, 95% CI: 1.20, 6.57) only among women with "poor" psychosocial status. The association between copper (Cu) and SGA was also statistically significant only among women having "poor" psychosocial status (OR/IQR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.20, 6.57). We also observed associations between nickel (Ni) and preterm birth and SGA that were modified by psychosocial status during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of "poor" psychosocial status intensified the adverse associations between Mn and preterm birth, Cu and SGA, and protective effects of Ni on preterm. This provides evidence that prenatal psychosocial stress may modify vulnerability to metal exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Metaloides/sangue , Metais/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Gestantes , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Porto Rico
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111854, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the prospective correlation between serum metals before 24 weeks' gestation and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or glucose in the late second trimester among southern Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: A total of 8169 pregnant women were included in our retrospective cohort study. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationships between metals (Manganese [Mn], copper [Cu], lead [Pb], calcium [Ca], zinc [Zn], magnesium [Mg]) and GDM. Quantile regression was performed to detect the shifts and associations with metals and three time-points glucose distribution of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) focused on the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles. Weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression was used to explore the relationship of metal mixtures and GDM as well as glucose. RESULTS: Maternal serum concentrations of metals were assessed at mean 16.55 ± 2.92 weeks' gestation. Women with under weight might have 25% decreased risk of GDM for every 50% increase in Cu concentration within the safe limits. A 50% increase in Mn and Zn levels was related to a 0.051 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.033-0.070) and 0.059 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.040-0.079) increase in mean fasting plasma glucose of OGTT (OGTT0), respectively. The magnitude of association with Mn was smaller at the upper tail of OGTT0 distribution, while the magnitude of correlation with Zn was greater at the upper tail. However, there was a 0.012 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.017 to -0.008), 0.028 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.049 to -0.007), and 0.036 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.057 to -0.016) decrease in mean OGTT0 levels for every 50% increase in Pb, Ca, and Mg, respectively. The negative association of Pb, Ca, and Mg was greater at the lower tail of OGTT0 distribution. No significant relationship was observed in Cu and mean OGTT0 level (-0.010 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.021 to 0.001), however, it showed a protective effect at the upper tail (-0.034 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.049 to -0.017). No obvious correlation was found between metals and postprandial glucose levels (OGTT1 and OGTT2 from OGTT). The WQS index was significantly related to OGTT0 (P < 0.001). The contribution of Mn (80.19%) to metal mixture index was the highest related to OGTT0, followed by Cu (19.81%). CONCLUSIONS: Higher Mn and Zn but lower Pb, Ca, and Mg concentrations within a certain range before 24 weeks' gestation might prospectively impair fasting plasma glucose during pregnancy; a greater focus is required on Mn. It could provide early markers of metal for predicting later glucose and suggest implement intervention for pregnant women.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Metais/sangue , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
5.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 83: 103566, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359071

RESUMO

Fundão mining tailings dam in Mariana District has collapsed in 2015 and caused the biggest environmental disaster in Brazil. Barra Longa District had its urban area invaded by toxic sludge and its population was extensively exposed to it. Blood and urine samples were collected from 11 residents, focused on investigating the presence of metals at the end of an exploratory health study in 507 inhabitants in 2016. Results have shown increased levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cooper, lead, manganese and nickel, and zinc defficiency in their body, as well as clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Arsênico/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Metais/sangue , Acidentes de Trabalho , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arsênico/urina , Monitoramento Biológico , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais , Masculino , Metais/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , Adulto Jovem
7.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(4): e158-e167, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Widespread environmental contamination caused by mining of copper and cobalt has led to concerns about the possible association between birth defects and exposure to several toxic metals in southern Katanga, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We therefore aimed to assess the possible contribution of parental and antenatal exposure to trace metals to the occurrence of visible birth defects among neonates. METHODS: We did a case-control study between March 1, 2013, and Feb 28, 2015, in Lubumbashi, DRC. We included newborns with visible birth defects (cases) and healthy neonates born in the same maternity ward (controls). Mothers were interviewed about potentially relevant exposures, including their partners' jobs. Various trace metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in maternal urine, maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, placental tissue, and surface dust at home. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were done to calculate adjusted odds ratios and their 95% CIs (CI). FINDINGS: Our study included 138 neonates with visible birth defects (about 0·1% of the 133 662 births in Lubumbashi during the study period) and 108 control neonates. Potential confounders were similarly distributed between cases and controls. Vitamin consumption during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of birth defects (adjusted odds ratio 0·2, 95% CI 0·1-0·5). Mothers having paid jobs outside the home (2·8, 1·2-6·9) and fathers having mining-related jobs (5·5, 1·2-25·0) were associated with a higher risk of birth defects. We found no associations for trace metal concentrations in biological samples, except for a doubling of manganese (Mn; 1·7, 1·1-2·7) and zinc (Zn; 1·6, 0·9-2·8) in cord blood. In a separate model including placentas, a doubling of Mn at the fetal side of the placenta was associated with an increased risk of birth defects (3·3, 1·2-8·0), as was a doubling of cord blood Zn (5·3, 1·6-16·6). INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first study of the effects of mining-related pollution on newborns in sub-Saharan Africa. Paternal occupational mining exposure was the factor most strongly associated with birth defects. Because neither Mn nor Zn are mined in Lubumbashi, the mechanism of the association between their increased prenatal concentrations and birth defects is unclear. FUNDING: Flemish Interuniversity Council-University Development Cooperation, The Coalition of the North-South movement in Flanders 11.11.11.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Metais/efeitos adversos , Mineração , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metais/sangue , Mães , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384733

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of As, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn, by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the urine of two groups of patients with two different types of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip prostheses (ASR DePuy®, group A, 25 patients; total Met-Met System Lima®, group B, 28 patients). The determination of metals reflected a steady-state release (group A: 9 years after surgery and group B: 6 years after surgery). The results obtained confirmed the increase of Co and Cr urinary levels in both group when compared with the reference values for the general population adopted by the Italian Society of Reference Values (SIVR). In particular, Co and Cr levels exceeded the threshold values in urine, respectively, of 30 µg and 21 µg, adjusted to creatinine based on the threshold in whole blood of 7 µg/L proposed by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Regarding the other investigated metals, significantly higher values were found in Group A than in Group B. These differences could be due to the type of hip prosthesis implanted, the longer period of time since the implantation, as well as many other factors such as diet, age, drug consumption, physical activity, or presence of dental fillings. The continuous monitoring over the years of metal concentrations in patients carrying a prosthesis could be useful to better identify the sources of these metals.


Assuntos
Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Íons/sangue , Metais/sangue , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Íons/urina , Itália , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Metais/urina , Fatores de Tempo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stunting is an indicator of poor linear growth in children and is an important public health problem in many countries. Both nutritional deficits and toxic exposures can contribute to lower height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) and stunting (HAZ < -2). OBJECTIVES: In a community-based cross-sectional sample of 97 healthy children ages 6-59 months in Kampala, Uganda, we examined whether exposure to Pb, As, Cd, Se, or Zn were associated with HAZ individually or as a mixture. METHODS: Blood samples were analyzed for a mixture of metals, which represent both toxins and essential nutrients. The association between HAZ and metal exposure was tested using multivariable linear regression and Weighted Quantile Sum (WQS) regression, which uses mixtures of correlated exposures as a predictor. RESULTS: There were 22 stunted children in the sample, mean HAZ was -0.74 (SD = 1.84). Linear regression showed that Pb (ß = -0.80, p = 0.021) and Se (ß = 1.92, p = 0.005) were significantly associated with HAZ. The WQS models separated toxic elements with a presumed negative effect on HAZ (Pb, As, Cd) from essential nutrients with presumed positive effect on HAZ (Se and Zn). The toxic mixture was significantly associated with lower HAZ (ß = -0.47, p = 0.03), with 62% of the effect from Pb. The nutrient WQS index did not reach statistical significance (ß = -0.47, p = 0.16). DISCUSSION: Higher blood lead and lower blood selenium level were both associated with lower HAZ. The significant associations by linear regression were reinforced by the WQS models, although not all associations reached statistical significance. These findings suggest that healthy children in this neighborhood of Kampala, Uganda, who have a high burden of toxic exposures, may experience detrimental health effects associated with these exposures in an environment where exposure sources are not well characterized.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Metais/toxicidade , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/toxicidade , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/sangue , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metais/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Selênio/sangue , Uganda , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/toxicidade
10.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 41, 2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many populations are exposed to arsenic, lead, and manganese. These metals influence immune function. We evaluated the association between exposure to single and multiple metals, including arsenic, lead, and manganese, to humoral immunity as measured by antibody concentrations to diphtheria and tetanus toxoid among vaccinated Bangladeshi children. Additionally, we examined if this association was potentially mediated by nutritional status. METHODS: Antibody concentrations to diphtheria and tetanus were measured in children's serum at age 5 (n = 502). Household drinking water was sampled to quantify arsenic (W-As) and manganese (W-Mn), whereas lead was measured in blood (B-Pb). Exposure samples were taken during pregnancy, toddlerhood, and early childhood. Multiple linear regression models (MLRs) with single or combined metal predictors were used to determine the association with antibody outcomes. MLR results were transformed to units of percent change in outcome per doubling of exposure to improve interpretability. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used to further assess exposure to metal mixtures. SEMs regressed a latent exposure variable (Metals), informed by all measured metal variables (W-As, W-Mn, and B-Pb), on a latent outcome variable (Antibody), informed by measured antibody variables (diphtheria and tetanus). Weight-for-age z-score (WFA) at age 5 was evaluated as a mediator. RESULTS: Diphtheria antibody was negatively associated with W-As during pregnancy in MLR, but associations were attenuated after adjusting for W-Mn and B-Pb (- 2.9% change in diphtheria antibody per doubling in W-As, 95% confidence interval [CI]: - 7%, 1.5%). Conversely, pregnancy levels of B-Pb were positively associated with tetanus antibody, even after adjusting for W-As and W-Mn (13.3%, 95% CI: 1.7%, 26.3%). Overall, null associations were observed between W-Mn and antibody outcomes. Analysis by SEMs showed that the latent Metals mixture was significantly associated with the latent Antibody outcome (ß = - 0.16, 95% CI: - 0.26, - 0.05), but the Metals variable was characterized by positive and negative loadings of W-As and B-Pb, respectively. Sex-stratified MLR and SEM analyses showed W-As and B-Pb associations were exclusive to females. Mediation by WFA was null, indicating Metals only had direct effects on Antibody. CONCLUSIONS: We observed significant modulation of vaccine antibody concentrations among children with pregnancy and early life exposures to drinking water arsenic and blood lead. We found distinct differences by child sex, as only females were susceptible to metal-related modulations in antibody levels. Weight-for-age, a nutritional status proxy, did not mediate the association between the metal mixture and vaccine antibody.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Toxoide Diftérico/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Imunidade Humoral , Metais/análise , Estado Nutricional , Toxoide Tetânico/sangue , Arsênico/análise , Bangladesh , Pré-Escolar , Água Potável/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Manganês/análise , Metais/sangue , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 469, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ambient exposure does not always reflect the internal levels of pollution absorbed in the body. While human biomonitoring (HBM) could provide a valid estimate of exposure extent, it is usually an expensive and a heavily manpowered enterprise. Using samples collected during blood donations for HMB may provide a more efficient platform for a routine biomonitoring. METHODS: The current study is aimed to explore the feasibility of using the national blood banking system for the purposes of HBM, to compare between residents of a suspected polluted area in northern Israel (Haifa Bay) to the rest of the country. Specifically, we will assemble a geographically representative sample of blood donors residing in the study area and of the general population, to test for four industry and traffic-related metals: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr). Samples of whole blood from donors will be tested in the Laboratory of Public Health Services managed by the Ministry of Health. The information on donors' biomarkers levels will be further linked with the air pollution and meteorological data assessed at the location of the blood collection sites (short-term exposure) and donors' permanent address (long-term exposure), as recorded by the monitoring stations spread throughout Israel and the satellite-based exposure models. The association between biomarkers and ambient environmental exposures will be assessed. The samples' collection is planned for 2 years of 2020-2021. DISCUSSION: The information collected in this study could lead to environmental regulations within Haifa Bay area aimed to prevent exposure to high levels of hazardous chemicals.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Substâncias Perigosas/sangue , Metais/sangue , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Israel
12.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 478(4): 752-766, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A battlefield-related injury results in increased local and systemic innate immune inflammatory responses, resulting in wound-specific complications and an increased incidence of osteoarthritis. However, little is known about whether severe injuries affect long-term systemic homeostasis, for example, immune function. Moreover, it also remains unknown whether battlefield-acquired metal fragments retained over the long term result in residual systemic effects such as altered immune reactivity to metals. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Does a retained metal fragment from a battlefield injury contribute to increased (1) adaptive metal-specific immune responses, (2) systemically elevated metal ion serum levels, and (3) serum immunoglobulin levels compared with combat injuries that did not result in a retained metal fragment? METHODS: In this pilot study, we analyzed metal-immunogenicity in injured military personnel and noninjured control participants using lymphocyte transformation testing (LTT, lymphocyte proliferation responses to cobalt, chromium and nickel challenge at 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1-mM concentrations in triplicate for each participant), serum metal ion analysis (ICP-mass spectroscopy), and serum immunoglobulin analysis (IgE, IgG, IgA, and IgM ). Military personnel with a battlefield-sustained injury self-recruited without any exclusion for sex, age, degree of injury. Those with battlefield injury resulting in retained metal fragments (INJ-FRAG, n = 20 male, mean time since injury ± SD was 12 ± 10 years) were compared with those with a battlefield injury but without retained metal fragments (INJ-NO-FRAG, n = 12 male, mean time since injury ± SD was 13 ± 12 years). A control group comprised of male noninjured participants was used to compare measured immunogenicity metrics (n = 11, males were selected to match battlefield injury group demographics). RESULTS: Military participants with sustained metal fragments had increased levels of metal-induced lymphocyte responses. The lymphocyte stimulation index among military participants with metal fragments was higher than in those with nonretained metal fragments (stimulation index = 4.2 ± 6.0 versus stimulation index = 2.1 ± 1.2 (mean difference 2.1 ± 1.4 [95% confidence interval 5.1 to 0.8]; p = 0.07) and an average stimulation index = 2 ± 1 in noninjured controls. Four of 20 participants injured with retained fragments had a lymphocyte proliferation index greater than 2 to cobalt compared with 0 in the group without a retained metal fragment or 0 in the control participants. However, with the numbers available, military personnel with retained metal fragments did not have higher serum metal ion levels than military participants without retained metal fragment-related injuries or control participants. Military personnel with retained metal fragments had lower serum immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgA, and IgM) than military personnel without retained metal fragments and noninjured controls, except for IgE. Individuals who were metal-reactive positive (that is, a stimulation index > 2) with retained metal fragments had higher median IgE serum levels than participants who metal-reactive with nonmetal injuries (1198 ± 383 IU/mL versus 171 ± 67 IU/mL, mean difference 1027 ± 477 IU/mL [95% CI 2029 to 25]; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We found that males with retained metal fragments after a battlefield-related injury had altered adaptive immune responses compared with battlefield-injured military personnel without indwelling metal fragments. Military participants with a retained metal fragment had an increased proportion of group members and increased average lymphocyte reactivity to common implant metals such as nickel and cobalt. Further studies are needed to determine a causal association between exposure to amounts of retained metal fragments, type of injury, personnel demographics and general immune function/reactivity that may affect personal health or future metal implant performance. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Metais/imunologia , Militares , Ferimentos Penetrantes/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Masculino , Metais/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(3): 36001, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become popular, in part because they are perceived as a safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes. An increasing number of studies, however, have found toxic metals/metalloids in e-cigarette emissions. OBJECTIVE: We summarized the evidence on metal/metalloid levels in e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid), aerosols, and biosamples of e-cigarette users across e-cigarette device systems to evaluate metal/metalloid exposure levels for e-cigarette users and the potential implications on health outcomes. METHODS: We searched PubMed/TOXLINE, Embase®, and Web of Science for studies on metals/metalloids in e-liquid, e-cigarette aerosols, and biosamples of e-cigarette users. For metal/metalloid levels in e-liquid and aerosol samples, we collected the mean and standard deviation (SD) if these values were reported, derived mean and SD by using automated software to infer them if data were reported in a figure, or calculated the overall mean (mean ± SD) if data were reported only for separate groups. Metal/metalloid levels in e-liquids and aerosols were converted and reported in micrograms per kilogram and nanograms per puff, respectively, for easy comparison. RESULTS: We identified 24 studies on metals/metalloids in e-liquid, e-cigarette aerosols, and human biosamples of e-cigarette users. Metal/metalloid levels, including aluminum, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, selenium, tin, and zinc, were present in e-cigarette samples in the studies reviewed. Twelve studies reported metal/metalloid levels in e-liquids (bottles, cartridges, open wick, and tank), 12 studies reported metal/metalloid levels in e-cigarette aerosols (from cig-a-like and tank devices), and 4 studies reported metal/metalloid levels in human biosamples (urine, saliva, serum, and blood) of e-cigarette users. Metal/metalloid levels showed substantial heterogeneity depending on sample type, source of e-liquid, and device type. Metal/metalloid levels in e-liquid from cartridges or tank/open wicks were higher than those from bottles, possibly due to coil contact. Most metal/metalloid levels found in biosamples of e-cigarette users were similar or higher than levels found in biosamples of conventional cigarette users, and even higher than those found in biosamples of cigar users. CONCLUSION: E-cigarettes are a potential source of exposure to metals/metalloids. Differences in collection methods and puffing regimes likely contribute to the variability in metal/metalloid levels across studies, making comparison across studies difficult. Standardized protocols for the quantification of metal/metalloid levels from e-cigarette samples are needed. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5686.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Metaloides/análise , Metais/análise , Saliva/química , Humanos , Metaloides/sangue , Metaloides/urina , Metais/sangue , Metais/urina
14.
Orthop Surg ; 12(2): 396-403, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the course of in vivo blood metal ion levels in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to investigate potential risk factors associated with metal ion release in these patients. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with indication for TKA were included in this prospective study. Whole blood metal ion analysis was performed pre-operatively and at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Clinical scores were obtained using the American Knee Society Score (AKSS) and the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) at each follow-up and patients' activity levels were assessed by measuring the mean annual walking cycles at 12 months follow-up. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the operated knee were evaluated postoperatively and at 12-month follow-up with regard to implant position and radiological signs of implant loosening. Correlation analysis using multivariate linear regression was performed to investigate the influence of different variables (age, gender, functional scores, number of walking cycles, and body mass index [BMI]) on blood cobalt ion concentrations. RESULTS: Mean metal ion levels of cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, and titanium were 0.28 µg/L (SD, 0.14), 0.43 µg/L (SD, 0.49), 0.62 µg/L (SD, 0.45), and 1.96 µg/L (SD, 0.98), respectively at 12-month follow-up. Mean cobalt ion levels significantly increased 1-year after surgery compared to preoperative measurements. There was no statistically significant increase of mean metal ion levels of chromium, titanium, and molybdenum at 1-year follow-up. Overall, metal ion levels were low and no patient demonstrated cobalt ion levels above 1 µg/L. Postoperative radiographs demonstrated well-aligned TKAs in all patients and no signs of osteolysis or implant loosening were detected at 1-year follow-up. Both the AKSS and OKS significantly improved during the course of the study up to the final follow-up. Multivariate regression analysis did not show a statistically significant correlation between the tested variables and blood cobalt ion concentrations. CONCLUSION: A statistically significant increase of mean cobalt ion concentration at 1-year follow-up was found in this cohort of patients with well-functioning TKA, although overall blood metal ion levels were relatively low. Despite low systemic metal ion concentrations seen in this cohort, the local effects of increased metal ion concentrations in the periprosthetic environment on the long-term outcome of TKA should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Metais/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113683, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838386

RESUMO

Few studies specifically address the possible associations between multiple-metal exposures and liver damage among the occupational population. This study aimed to explore the cross-sectional relationships of plasma metals with liver function parameters. For 571 on-the-spot workers in the manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (MEWHC), we determined liver function parameters: total bilirubin (TBILI), direct bilirubin (DBILI), indirect bilirubin (IBILI), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Total concentrations of 22 plasma metals were measured by ICP-MS. The LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) penalized regression model was applied for selecting plasma metals independently associated with liver function parameters. Multiple linear regression analyses and restricted cubic spline (RCS) were utilized for identifying the exposure-response relationship of plasma metals with liver function parameters. After adjusting for covariates and selected metals, a 1-SD increase in log-10 transformed levels of iron was associated with increases in the levels of TBILI, DBILI and IBILI by 20.3%, 12.1% and 23.7%, respectively; similar increases in molybdenum for decreases in levels of TBILI, DBILI and IBILI by 6.1%, 2.6% and 8.3%, respectively. The effect of a 1-SD increase in plasma copper corresponded decreases of 3.2%, 3.4% and 5.0% in TBILI, AST and ALT levels, respectively. The spline analyses further clarified the non-linear relationships between plasma iron and bilirubin whilst negative linear relationships for plasma molybdenum and bilirubin. Plasma iron was positively whilst plasma molybdenum was negatively associated with increased serum bilirubin levels. Further studies are needed to validate these associations and uncover the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/sangue , Manganês , Metais/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Cobre/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Fígado/fisiologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Molibdênio/sangue
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 110006, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812020

RESUMO

Metals are widespread pollutants in the environment which have been reported to be associated with kidney dysfunction in many existing epidemiological studies. However, most of the studies are cross-sectional design and mainly focus on several toxic metals including arsenic, lead and cadmium. Therefore, we conducted this prospective study within the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort to evaluate the associations of plasma multiple metals with the decline in kidney function among Chinese middle-aged and elderly. In total, 1434 participants free of chronic diseases at baseline were included in analysis. We measured baseline plasma concentrations of 23 metals and calculated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation based on serum creatinine, age, sex and ethnicity. Bonferroni correction was used for multiple testing to reduce the probability of a type I error. Principal component analysis was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of multiple metal co-exposure. Most of the plasma metal concentrations were within the literature reported reference values, whereas the concentration of lead and nickel exceeded the guideline value. We found that plasma concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, barium, lead, molybdenum, rubidium, strontium, vanadium and zinc were significantly associated with the decline in kidney function measured by annual eGFR decline, rapid renal function decline (defined as an annual decline in eGFR ≥ 5 mL/min/1.73 m2) or incident eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, with the adjusted beta coefficients (95% CI) for annual eGFR decline 0.50 (0.30, 0.69), 0.98 (0.74, 1.23), 0.56 (0.32, 0.79), 0.21 (0.03, 0.39), 0.35 (0.16, 0.54), 0.94 (0.71, 1.17), 0.37 (0.15, 0.60), 0.78 (0.54, 1.02), and 0.74 (0.57, 0.91), respectively. The metals exposures were linked with increased risks of impaired kidney function. Associations of principal components representing these metals with the decline in kidney function were significant and suggest a possible additional health risk by co-exposure. Participants engaged in manufacturing had higher plasma levels of several metals compared with those who had been involved in management- or administration-related work. Our findings suggest that exposure to multiple metals contribute to the decline in kidney function among the middle-aged and elderly. Co-exposure to multiple metals may have synergetic effect on the kidney function. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential mechanisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Rim/fisiopatologia , Metais/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Creatinina/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Metais/toxicidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 30(6): 696-712, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184504

RESUMO

Biomonitoring studies are important for quantifying the body burden of pollutants and their possible effects on health. Serum concentration of 42 elements was assessed by ICP-MS in 89 children (7.2 ± 3.4 years old) from Bucharest (Romania). Levels of pollutants were compared with the clinical data obtained from routine blood tests. Clinical parameters were in the physiological range. Deficiencies of manganese, selenium, and zinc were discovered. Blood levels of elements were low. The highest levels were observed among children younger than six years. The sum of iron, selenium, barium, nickel, antimony, and cerium was positively associated with hemoglobin (Spearman rho = 0.217, P-value = 0.041), while the sum of copper, thallium, niobium, and tantalum was negatively associated (Spearman rho = -0.228, P-value = 0.032). Given the inherent sensitivity of the child population, additional studies are needed to assess the effects of these elements on their health.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais/sangue , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Romênia
18.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 53, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this survey was to determine the effects of an aerobic physical training program of six months duration on the serum and urinary concentrations of essential trace elements among middle distance runners and untrained, non-sportsmen participants. METHODS: 24 well-trained, middle-distance (1500 and 5000 m), aerobic male runners (AG) were recruited at the beginning of their training season and 26 untrained males formed the control group (CG). All participants were from the same region of Spain, and all of them had been living in this area for at least two years. Serum and urine of samples of Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Selenium (Se), Vanadium (V) and Zinc (Zn) were obtained at the beginning of the training season, and six months later, from all participants. All samples were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). RESULTS: Two-way ANOVA showed significant differences relative to group effect in serum concentrations of Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn. Attending to time effect, there were differences in Mn (p = 0.003) and Zn (p = 0.001). The group x time interaction revealed differences only in the case of Mn (p = 0.04). In urine, significant differences between group were obtained in Co, Cu, Mn, Se and V. Time effect showed changes in Co, Cy, Mo and Se. Finally, the group and time interaction revealed significant differences in urinary Cu (p = 0.001), Mn (p = 0.01) and Se (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A six-month aerobic training program for well-trained athletes induced modifications in the body values of several minerals, a fact which may reflect adaptive responses to physical exercise. The obtained data could be interesting for physicians or coaches in order to consider specific modifications in sportsmen's diets as well as to determine specific nutritional supplementation strategies.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Corrida , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Oligoelementos/sangue , Oligoelementos/urina , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta , Humanos , Masculino , Metais/sangue , Metais/urina , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224892, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697766

RESUMO

Environmental exposure to metals is ubiquitous, but its relation to androgen hormone levels is not well understood, especially in children and adolescents. This study aimed to explore the relationship between blood metal concentrations (lead, cadmium, total mercury, selenium, and manganese) and serum total testosterone (TT) levels in 6-19-year-old children and adolescents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. Weighted multivariable linear regression models using NHANES sampling weights were employed to evaluate the association between log-transformed serum TT and each metal categories in male and female children (age 6-11years) and adolescents (age 12-19 years). We established that blood cadmium and manganese levels were associated with significantly higher serum TT levels in the female adolescents. Additionally, the blood selenium levels in male adolescents were related to significantly higher serum TT. No significant associations between blood lead or total mercury levels and TT were observed in children or adolescents of either sex. These findings suggest that environmental exposure to certain metals could affect serum TT levels in adolescents, which might have important implications for the health of adolescents. Further research is required to confirm and extend our present findings.


Assuntos
Metais/sangue , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Testosterona/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 77(5): 495-504, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638582

RESUMO

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is an analytical technique for inorganic, quantitative, and multi-elemental compounds commonly used in clinical biology. In recent years, it has gradually replaced atomic absorption techniques. It is based on the combination of an ion source formed of an inductively coupled plasma torch by a high-frequency electromagnetic generator, and a mass spectrometer, which allows the separation of ions generated according to their mass and energy. It allows the simultaneous detection of most metal and metalloid elements (about 80, 40 generally). It is extremely sensitive for determining analyte concentrations up to nanograms per liter. ICP-MS is fast and suitable for continued use on different types of biological samples. Its use requires, however, good knowledge of the different types of interferences, whether spectral or non-spectral. This method may require specific adaptations depending on the samples used due to the matrix effect. In this review, we will present the main principles of the realization of dosages, as well as the various devices currently commercialized. It is currently used for the determination of the most critical metals in clinical biochemistry, copper, zinc, and selenium, but also in clinical toxicology and pharmacology.


Assuntos
Metais/análise , Gases em Plasma/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Líquidos Corporais/química , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metais/sangue , Fase Pré-Analítica/métodos , Fase Pré-Analítica/normas
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