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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112829, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found associations between single toxic metals, such as arsenic and cadmium, and kidney function in adults with diabetes. However, studies with regards to other metals and metal mixtures are still limited. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to investigate the associations between urinary concentrations of 5 selected metals and metal mixtures and kidney function using a sample of older adults with diabetes mellitus in Chinese communities. METHODS: In a sample of older adults (n = 5186), 592 eligible subjects were included in this study. Urinary concentrations of 5 metals, i.e., arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), vanadium (V), cobalt (Co), and thallium (Tl), were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated and dichotomized into indicator of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Logistic analysis and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) were used to explore the associations between single metals and metal mixtures and CKD, respectively. RESULTS: Urinary levels of As and V were positively correlated with CKD (OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.31-4.30 for As; OR=2.24, 95% CI: 1.25-4.03 for V), when compared the 4th quartile with the 1st quartile. After adjustment for potential confounders, the significant association between As and CKD still existed (OR=2.73, 95% CI: 1.23-6.07). BKMR analyses showed strong linear positive associations between As and V and CKD. Higher urinary levels of the mixture were significantly associated with higher odds of CKD in a dose-response pattern. As and V showed the highest posterior inclusion probabilities. CONCLUSION: Urine As and V were positively associated with CKD in older adults with diabetes mellitus, separately and in a mixture. The metals mixture showed a linear dose-response association with the odds of CKD. The analyses of mixtures, rather than of single metals, may provide a real-world perspective on the relationship between metals and kidney function.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Rim , Metais/urina , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , China , Diabetes Mellitus/induzido quimicamente , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248601, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735215

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing (AM) includes a series of techniques used to create products, in several different materials, such as metal, polymer or ceramics, with digital models. The main advantage of AM is that it allows the creation of complex structures, but AM promises several additional advantages including the possibility to manufacture on demand or replacing smaller worn parts by directly building on an existing piece. Therefore, the interest for and establishment of AM is rapidly expanding, which is positive, however it is important to be aware that new techniques may also result in new challenges regarding health and safety issues. Metals in blood and possible clinical effects due to metal exposure were investigated in AM operators at one of the first serial producing AM facilities in the world during two consecutive years with implementation of preventive measures in-between. As comparison, welders and office workers as control group were investigated. Health investigations comprised of surveys, lung function tests, antioxidant activity and vascular inflammation as well as renal- and hepatic function analysis. AM operators had significantly reduced nickel levels in blood (10.8 vs 6.2 nmol/L) as well as improved lung function (80 vs 92% of predicted) from year 1 to year 2. This is in line with previously published results displaying reduced exposure. Blood cobalt and nickel levels correlated with previously reported urinary levels, while blood chromium did not. Multivariate modelling showed that blood cobalt, antioxidant/inflammatory marker serum amyloid A1/serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1 activity and the hepatic markers aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase were higher in AM operators compared to controls. The study show that the selected clinical analyses could function as a complement to metal analyses in biological fluids when investigating exposure-related health effects in AM operators. However, validation in larger cohorts is necessary before more definite conclusions could be drawn.


Assuntos
Ferreiros , Metais/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Impressão Tridimensional/instrumentação , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais/sangue , Metais/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/sangue , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Respiratória
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 40, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of studies linking exposure to metals with certain health outcomes focus on known toxic metals. Alternatively, this study assesses the extent to which exposure to a wider range of metals during gestation is associated with childhood morbidity. METHODS: We analyzed the concentrations of 25 metals found in urine samples of 111 pregnant women of Arab-Bedouin origin collected prior to birth. In addition, we collected medical records on their offspring for six years following birth, including every interaction with HMOs, local hospitals, and pharmacies. RESULTS: The main types of morbidities diagnosed and treated during this period were preterm births, malformations, asthma-like morbidity, cardiovascular and behavioral problems, and obesity. Multivariable analysis showed that offspring born before term were more likely to have been exposed to elevated maternal concentrations of zinc, thallium, aluminum, manganese, and uranium, all with adjusted relative risk above 1.40 for an increase by each quintile. Likewise, children with asthma had been exposed to higher levels of magnesium, strontium, and barium at gestation, while behavioral outcomes were associated with elevated biometals, i.e., sodium, magnesium, calcium, selenium, and zinc, as well as higher levels of lithium, cobalt, nickel, strontium, cadmium, vanadium, arsenic, and molybdenum. A heatmap of adjusted relative risk estimates indicates the considerable implications that exposure to metals may have for preterm birth and developmental outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The current study shows that perinatal exposure to metals is adversely associated with pediatric morbidity. Further such analyses on additional samples are warranted.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Metais/urina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Morbidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246943, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617552

RESUMO

Many studies have documented the abnormal concentrations of metals/metalloids in serum or urine of occupational workers, but no works systematically analysed the concentrations of elements in serum or urine of indium-exposed workers. This study was aimed to assess 28 elements in serum and urine from 57 individuals with occupational exposure to indium and its compounds. Control subjects were 63 workers without metal exposure. We collected information on occupation and lifestyle habits by questionnaire. Biological samples were collected to quantify elements by inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. Air in the breathing zones was drawn at flow rates of 1.5-3 L/min for a sampling period of 6 to 8 h, using a Model BFC-35 pump. The average ambient indium level was 0.078 mg/m3. Serum/urine Indium levels were significantly higher in indium-exposed workers than in controls (P < 0.01). Moreover, serum/urine indium concentrations in the group with 6-14 years and ≥15 years of employment were significantly higher than those with ≤5 employment years(P < 0.05). Ten of the other 27 elements/metals measured were higher in serum/urine in indium-exposed workers compared to the controls (aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, cesium, chromium, lithium, manganese, magnesium, molybdenum and vanadium). Zinc levels in serum/urine were significantly decreased in the indium-exposed workers. Additionally, other elements/metals were higher in one specimen (serum or urine) but lower in the other (Selenium was lower in serum but higher in urine in the indium-exposed workers compared with the controls; likewise Thallium and Rubidium were higher in serum but lower in urine). Linear regression analyses, revealed significant correlations between serum and urine for indium, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cesium, cobalt, selenium, silver, and zinc (P < 0.05). These data suggest that occupational exposure to indium and its compounds may disturb the homeostasis of trace elements in systemic circulation, indium concentrations in serum or urine appear reflective of workers' exposure to ambient indium and their years of working, respectively. The serum/urine levels of essential metals are modified by exposure to indium in occupationally exposed workers. Further studies including larger sample size and more kinds of biological sample are needed to validate our findings.


Assuntos
Índio/sangue , Índio/urina , Metais/sangue , Metais/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índio/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metaloides/sangue , Metaloides/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligoelementos/sangue , Oligoelementos/urina
5.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 94(5): 935-944, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In Germany, the initial step of electronic waste (e-waste) recycling frequently takes place in sheltered workshops for physically and mentally handicapped workers (Werkstätten für behinderte Menschen (WfbM), in german language). E-waste recycling involves a potential risk of exposure to toxic metals. Therefore, we assessed the occupational exposure of recycling workers to toxic metals to identify potential health risks and insufficient protective measures. METHODS: We used a combined air- and bio-monitoring approach to determine exposure of recycling workers to toxic metals. Air and urine samples were collected in five sheltered workshops in Germany and were analysed for their content of aluminium, antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, mercury and nickel. Results were compared to German and international occupational limit values and to metal exposures of workers in conventional e-waste recycling firms. RESULTS: Exposure of recycling workers in five German sheltered workshops to the studied metals and their compounds was below German and international occupational limit values across all facilities studied considering both air and urine samples. Workers in the present study were not exposed to higher amounts of toxic metals than workers in conventional e-waste recycling firms. CONCLUSION: This is the first study on toxic metal exposure of recycling workers in sheltered workshops. The results of this study revealed a low occupational exposure of e-waste recycling workers to toxic metals in this type of enterprises. Current work methods and safety measures provide the workers with adequate protection.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Resíduo Eletrônico , Metais/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Reciclagem , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Metais/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oficinas de Trabalho Protegido , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(3): 428-434, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this investigation is to explore the utility of using a spot urine sample in lieu of a 24-hour collection in assessing fragment-related metal exposure in war-injured veterans. METHODS: Twenty-four veterans collected each urine void over a 24-hour period in separate containers. Concentrations of 13 metals were measured in each void and in a pooled 24-hour sample using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To assess the reliability of spot sample measures over time, intraclass correlations (ICCs) were calculated across all spot samples. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was used to assess agreement between a randomly selected spot urine sample and each corresponding 24-hour sample. RESULTS: In total, 149 spot urine samples were collected. Ten of the 13 metals measured had ICCs more than 0.4, suggesting "fair to good" reliability. Concordance coefficients were more than 0.4 for all metals, suggesting "moderate" agreement between spot and 24-hour concentrations, and more than 0.6 for seven of the 13 metals, suggesting "good" agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Our fair to good reliability findings, for most metals investigated, and moderate to good agreement findings for all metals, across the range of concentrations observed here, suggest the utility of spot urine samples to obtain valid estimates of exposure in the longitudinal surveillance of metal-exposed populations.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos/urina , Metais/urina , Urinálise/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veteranos
7.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 83: 103566, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359071

RESUMO

Fundão mining tailings dam in Mariana District has collapsed in 2015 and caused the biggest environmental disaster in Brazil. Barra Longa District had its urban area invaded by toxic sludge and its population was extensively exposed to it. Blood and urine samples were collected from 11 residents, focused on investigating the presence of metals at the end of an exploratory health study in 507 inhabitants in 2016. Results have shown increased levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cooper, lead, manganese and nickel, and zinc defficiency in their body, as well as clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Arsênio/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Metais/sangue , Acidentes de Trabalho , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arsênio/urina , Monitoramento Biológico , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais , Masculino , Metais/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 124, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as metals have been reported to alter circulating reproductive hormone concentrations and pubertal development in animals. However, the relationship has rarely been investigated among humans, with the exception of heavy metals, such as Pb and Cd. Our aim was to investigate measures of in utero and peripubertal metal exposure in relation to reproductive hormone concentrations and sexual maturation and progression among boys from the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohorts. METHODS: Our analysis included 118 pregnant women and their male children from the ELEMENT study. Essential and non-essential metals were measured in urine collected from the mothers during the third trimester of pregnancy and their male children at 8-14 years. Reproductive hormone concentrations [serum testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)] were measured in blood samples from the children at 8-14 years. We also assessed Tanner stages for sexual maturation (genital, pubic hair development, and testicular volume), at two time points (8-14, 10-18 years). We used linear regression to independently examine urinary metal concentrations in relation to each peripubertal reproductive hormones adjusting for child age and BMI. Generalized estimation equations (GEEs) were used to evaluate the association of in utero and peripubertal metal exposures with sexual maturation and progression during follow-up based on Tanner staging and testicular volume. RESULTS: In utero and prepubertal concentrations of some urinary metals were associated with increased concentrations of peripubertal reproductive hormones, especially non-essential metal(loid)s As and Cd (in utero), and Ba (peripubertal) as well as essential metal Mo (in utero) in association with testosterone. More advanced pubic hair developmental stage and higher testicular volume at the early teen visit was observed for boys with higher non-essential metal concentrations, including in utero Al and peripubertal Ba, and essential metal Zn concentration (peripubertal). These metals were also associated with slower pubertal progression between the two visits. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that male reproductive development may be associated with both essential and non-essential metal exposure during in utero and peripubertal windows.


Assuntos
Arsênio/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Exposição Materna , Metais/urina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Maturidade Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Cidades , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inibinas/sangue , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , México , Gravidez , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
9.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126763, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957263

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies suggest that circulating metals from the natural environment are linked with cardiometabolic health. However, few studies examined the relationship between multiple metals exposure and metabolic phenotypes, especially in obese individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between 23 urinary metals and metabolic phenotypes in 1392 overweight and obese individuals (592 males, 800 females, mean age 43.1 ± 9.8 years). Participants were classified as metabolically unhealthy if they had ≥2 of the following metabolic abnormalities: elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting blood glucose, elevated triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Odds ratios (ORs) of unhealthy metabolic phenotypes for metal levels categorized into tertiles were assessed using logistic regression models. Five metals (barium, copper, iron, uranium, and zinc) were associated with unhealthy metabolic phenotypes in single-metal models, while in the multiple-metal model, only zinc and zinc-copper ratio remained significant. The ORs (95% CIs) comparing extreme tertiles were 2.57 (1.69, 3.89) for zinc and 1.68 (1.24, 2.27) for zinc-copper ratio after adjustment for confounders (both p-trends were <0.001). The numbers of metabolic abnormalities significantly increased with the levels of zinc and the zinc-copper ratio increased. Similar associations were observed with metabolic syndrome risk. High levels of urinary zinc were positively associated with elevated fasting blood glucose (p-trend < 0.001) and elevated triglycerides (p-trend = 0.003). The results suggest that urinary zinc and zinc-copper ratio are positively associated with increased risk of unhealthy metabolic phenotype. Further prospective studies with a larger sample size are required to verify these findings.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Metais/urina , Obesidade , Adulto , HDL-Colesterol , Cobre , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Zinco
10.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 17(1): 43, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807167

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of a period of 6 months of aerobic physical training on serum and urinary concentrations of arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), potentially toxic minerals. METHODS: Twenty-four well-trained, long distance runners (AG), were recruited at the start of their training period. They had been performing training regularly for the previous 2 years, recording an average volume of 120 km per week of rigorous aerobic exercise aimed at high-level competitions (1500 and 5000 m race modalities). Twenty-six untrained, sedentary participants constituted the control group (CG). All participants had been living in the same geographic area for at least 2 years before the start of the survey. Serum and urine samples were obtained from each participant at the beginning and at the end of the 6 months of the training program. The values of each mineral were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Additionally, the daily intake of each mineral was evaluated at both moments in time. RESULTS: The daily concentrations of trace elements in the diet were similar at the start and the end of the training period without differences between groups. In serum, significant differences between groups were observed in As, Cd and Pb (p < 0.05). Attending to time effects, a significant difference was obtained in Pb (p < 0.05). In urine, significant differences between groups were obtained in all minerals (p < 0.05). According to training period, significant differences were observed in As, Be and Pb (p < 0.05). Finally, the group x time interaction revealed significant differences in As and Be (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic training may constitute a possibly effective method for increasing the elimination of Cd and Pb potentially toxic minerals from the body, especially among highly trained individuals.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Metais/sangue , Metais/urina , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Oligoelementos/sangue , Oligoelementos/urina , Adulto , Arsênio/sangue , Arsênio/urina , Berílio/sangue , Berílio/urina , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610666

RESUMO

Environmentally acquired lead and cadmium are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. In the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy, up to 40 infusions with edetate disodium over an approximately one-year period lowered the cardiovascular disease risk in patients with a prior myocardial infarction. We assessed whether a reduction in surrogate measures of total body lead and cadmium, post-edetate disodium urine lead and pre-edetate urine cadmium, could be detected after repeated edetate disodium-based infusions compared to the baseline. Fourteen patients with coronary artery disease received multiple open-label edetate disodium infusions. The urine metals pre- and post-edetate infusion, normalized for urine creatinine, were compared to urine levels pre and post final infusion by a paired t-test. Compared with the pre-edetate values, post-edetate urine lead and cadmium increased by 3581% and 802%, respectively, after the first infusion. Compared to baseline, post-edetate lead decreased by 36% (p = 0.0004). A reduction in post-edetate urine lead was observed in 84% of the patients after the final infusion. Pre-edetate lead decreased by 60% (p = 0.003). Pre-edetate lead excretion became undetectable in nearly 40% of patients. This study suggests that edetate disodium-based infusions may decrease the total body burden of lead. However, our data suggest no significant reduction in the body burden of cadmium.


Assuntos
Terapia por Quelação , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Metais/urina , Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Edético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio
12.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 59, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566487

RESUMO

Background/Objective: As a developing country, Brazil presents a wide range of environmental risks that can constitute hazards to child health. The country also presents different socio-economic-cultural conditions that could be responsible for determining different vulnerability and susceptibility levels for the population, which can potentiate the effects of the environmental pollutants. The Rio Birth Cohort Study (PIPA project) is a prospective maternal-infant health study, hosted in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Southeastern Brazil), designed to investigate separate and combined effects of environmental chemical pollutants, as well as the interactions between these exposures and sociocultural environment and epigenetic patterns. This paper presents the learned lessons and strategies to address the shortcomings detected from this pilot study. Methods: The study population will be all children born at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Maternity Hospital from July 1st, 2020 to June 30th, 2021. The estimated population is of 2,500 children. The study will collect social, demographic, and health information from pregnant women and their children up to four years of age. Biological samples from both mothers and newborns will be collected to assess metal, pesticide and plasticizer exposure. All newborns will have their landmarks of physical, neurological, psychological, and cognitive development recorded at specific ages. Findings: A pilot study was carried out between September 2017 and August 2018, totaling 142 enrolled pregnant women, leading to 135 (95%) births and the collection of umbilical cord (126-93%,) and mother (139-98%) blood samples, as well as both mother (142-100%) and newborn (54-40%) urine samples and newborn meconium samples (117-86.7%). Conclusions: The study proposes a comprehensive assessment of pre- and postnatal exposure to environmental chemicals at multiple time points in a population living in a highly urbanized developing country. As far as we know, this is the only birth cohort in Brazil specifically designed for this purpose.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Exposição à Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Arsênio , Brasil , Cádmio , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Chumbo , Masculino , Mecônio/química , Mercúrio , Metais/sangue , Metais/urina , Praguicidas/sangue , Praguicidas/urina , Projetos Piloto , Plastificantes/análise , Gravidez , Meio Social , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384733

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of As, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn, by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the urine of two groups of patients with two different types of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip prostheses (ASR DePuy®, group A, 25 patients; total Met-Met System Lima®, group B, 28 patients). The determination of metals reflected a steady-state release (group A: 9 years after surgery and group B: 6 years after surgery). The results obtained confirmed the increase of Co and Cr urinary levels in both group when compared with the reference values for the general population adopted by the Italian Society of Reference Values (SIVR). In particular, Co and Cr levels exceeded the threshold values in urine, respectively, of 30 µg and 21 µg, adjusted to creatinine based on the threshold in whole blood of 7 µg/L proposed by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Regarding the other investigated metals, significantly higher values were found in Group A than in Group B. These differences could be due to the type of hip prosthesis implanted, the longer period of time since the implantation, as well as many other factors such as diet, age, drug consumption, physical activity, or presence of dental fillings. The continuous monitoring over the years of metal concentrations in patients carrying a prosthesis could be useful to better identify the sources of these metals.


Assuntos
Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Íons/sangue , Metais/sangue , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Íons/urina , Itália , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Metais/urina , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Analyst ; 145(11): 3846-3850, 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293619

RESUMO

Ionophores have been integrated into various electrochemical and optical sensing platforms for the selective detection of ions. Previous ionophore-based optical sensors rely on a H+ chromoionophore as the signal transducer and consequently, suffered from a pH cross-response. pH independent methods were proposed very recently by utilizing the solvatochromic dyes or the exhaustive mode. Here, we report a pH independent sensing principle based on nanospheres containing ionophores. As the ion-exchange occurs, the signal transducer undergoes aggregation-induced emission (AIE) or aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ), leading to a dramatic change in fluorescence intensity. The principle was evaluated on different ionophores including those selective for K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Pb2+. The nanospheres were also introduced into microfluidic chips and successfully applied for the determination of sodium and potassium ion concentrations in diluted blood serum and urine samples.


Assuntos
Ionóforos/química , Metais/sangue , Metais/urina , Nanosferas/química , Ácidos Decanoicos/química , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Poloxâmero/química , Cloreto de Polivinila/química , Rodaminas/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Valinomicina/química
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(3): 36001, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become popular, in part because they are perceived as a safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes. An increasing number of studies, however, have found toxic metals/metalloids in e-cigarette emissions. OBJECTIVE: We summarized the evidence on metal/metalloid levels in e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid), aerosols, and biosamples of e-cigarette users across e-cigarette device systems to evaluate metal/metalloid exposure levels for e-cigarette users and the potential implications on health outcomes. METHODS: We searched PubMed/TOXLINE, Embase®, and Web of Science for studies on metals/metalloids in e-liquid, e-cigarette aerosols, and biosamples of e-cigarette users. For metal/metalloid levels in e-liquid and aerosol samples, we collected the mean and standard deviation (SD) if these values were reported, derived mean and SD by using automated software to infer them if data were reported in a figure, or calculated the overall mean (mean ± SD) if data were reported only for separate groups. Metal/metalloid levels in e-liquids and aerosols were converted and reported in micrograms per kilogram and nanograms per puff, respectively, for easy comparison. RESULTS: We identified 24 studies on metals/metalloids in e-liquid, e-cigarette aerosols, and human biosamples of e-cigarette users. Metal/metalloid levels, including aluminum, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, selenium, tin, and zinc, were present in e-cigarette samples in the studies reviewed. Twelve studies reported metal/metalloid levels in e-liquids (bottles, cartridges, open wick, and tank), 12 studies reported metal/metalloid levels in e-cigarette aerosols (from cig-a-like and tank devices), and 4 studies reported metal/metalloid levels in human biosamples (urine, saliva, serum, and blood) of e-cigarette users. Metal/metalloid levels showed substantial heterogeneity depending on sample type, source of e-liquid, and device type. Metal/metalloid levels in e-liquid from cartridges or tank/open wicks were higher than those from bottles, possibly due to coil contact. Most metal/metalloid levels found in biosamples of e-cigarette users were similar or higher than levels found in biosamples of conventional cigarette users, and even higher than those found in biosamples of cigar users. CONCLUSION: E-cigarettes are a potential source of exposure to metals/metalloids. Differences in collection methods and puffing regimes likely contribute to the variability in metal/metalloid levels across studies, making comparison across studies difficult. Standardized protocols for the quantification of metal/metalloid levels from e-cigarette samples are needed. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5686.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Metaloides/análise , Metais/análise , Saliva/química , Humanos , Metaloides/sangue , Metaloides/urina , Metais/sangue , Metais/urina
16.
Metallomics ; 12(5): 752-757, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211672

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest types of cancer. Its high mortality rate is attributed largely to the difficulty of early diagnosis. Analysis of urine is an excellent non-invasive approach to trace changes in biochemical reactions due to cancer development. Here we show remarkable differences in concentration of several essential metals: significantly lower levels of urinary calcium and magnesium and increased levels of copper and zinc in PDAC when compared to healthy controls, and demonstrate that a combined analysis of these essential metals are accurate indicators (sensitivity = 99.5%) for metal dyshomeostasis in PDAC. In addition, natural stable zinc isotope composition (δ66/64Zn) in urine reveals the preferential excretion of isotopically light zinc in PDAC (δ66/64Znmedian = -0.15‰) compared to healthy controls (δ66/64Znmedian = +0.02‰), likely supporting the dysregulation of metalloproteins. These findings demonstrate for the first time that metallomics is a promising approach for discovery of biomarkers for detection of patients with PDAC, completely non-invasively, using urine samples.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/urina , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Metais/urina , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/urina , Prognóstico
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183183

RESUMO

Background: E-cigarettes (ECs) seem to be a less harmful alternative for conventional cigarettes, however, very little is still known about the exposure to some elements, which are the components of this device and may contaminate the nicotine liquid. The aim of this study is to assess whether e-cigarette users are more exposed to 12 elements detected in aerosol than non-smokers and conventional cigarette smokers, using their concentrations in urine as exposure biomarkers. Methods: A cross-sectional, group-based survey was carried out using 90 volunteers classified into groups of non-smokers, EC-only users, dual EC users-cigarette smokers and cigarette-only smokers. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), Cr, Ni, Co, Ag, In, Mn, Ba, Sr, V, Sb, Cd and Pb levels were measured in spot urine samples. Among the selected groups, a comparison was made using the analysis of covariance and correlations with EC usage pattern were assessed by multiple linear regression. Results: Element concentrations in urine of EC-users were not significantly different from the levels found in non-smokers and smokers. Only in the case of Ba, Ni and Sb was a significant correlation found in relation to some e-cigarette usage patterns. Conclusion: Transfer of the investigated elements to the EC aerosol was not found to be a substantial source of exposure in EC users who quitted smoking.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Metais , Adulto , Aerossóis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais/urina , Projetos Piloto , Fumantes , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Anal Toxicol ; 44(5): 490-498, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020176

RESUMO

Recently, an increased tendency to use various metals has been observed in the sports competition fields. Many of these metals and their organic complexes reportedly have good pharmacologic, therapeutic and performance-enhancement uses; they are banned or recommended as controlled medications in competitive sports. The objective of this research was to determine the concentration of pharmacologically relevant metals in urine samples collected from racehorses at various sport events, develop a method and assess the concentrations of above metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Seven alkali-alkaline earth metals (lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium) and six heavy metals (chromium, cobalt, copper, zinc, arsenic and selenium) were studied in detail. To compare and confirm the concentrations of these metals, the screening was carried out on the basis of region and sex of the animal. ICP-MS provides extremely high sensitivity that enables the determination of the metals at very low concentration from complex biological matrices. From the research, it is clear that irrespective of sex and region the concentration of metal is very high in some samples, might be accidental or intentional doping to improve sporting performances. This research work is of significant importance in setting threshold values for screening metals in race day samples in order to avoid potential harmful effects on athletes and the depth of malpractices, it can bring to sports.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Cavalos/metabolismo , Metais/urina , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/urina , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Oligoelementos/urina , Animais , Arsênio , Cromo , Cobalto , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/sangue , Potássio , Selênio , Sódio , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Oligoelementos/sangue
19.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine if urinary biomarkers of effect and potential harm are elevated in electronic cigarette users compared with non-smokers and if elevation correlates with increased concentrations of metals in urine. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study of biomarkers of exposure, effect and potential harm in urine from non-smokers (n=20), electronic cigarette users (n=20) and cigarette smokers (n=13). Participant's screening and urine collection were performed at the Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, and biomarker analysis and metal analysis were performed at the University of California, Riverside. RESULTS: Metallothionein was significantly elevated in the electronic cigarette group (3761±3932 pg/mg) compared with the non-smokers (1129±1294 pg/mg, p=0.05). 8-OHdG (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) was significantly elevated in electronic cigarette users (442.8±300.7 ng/mg) versus non-smokers (221.6±157.8 ng/mg, p=0.01). 8-Isoprostane showed a significant increase in electronic cigarette users (750.8±433 pg/mg) versus non-smokers (411.2±287.4 pg/mg, p=0.03). Linear regression analysis in the electronic cigarette group showed a significant correlation between cotinine and total metal concentration; total metal concentration and metallothionein; cotinine and oxidative DNA damage; and total metal concentration and oxidative DNA damage. Zinc was significantly elevated in the electronic cigarette users (584.5±826.6 µg/g) compared with non-smokers (413.6±233.7 µg/g, p=0.03). Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between urinary zinc concentration and 8-OHdG in the electronic cigarette users. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to investigate biomarkers of potential harm and effect in electronic cigarette users and to show a linkage to metal exposure. The biomarker levels in electronic cigarette users were similar to (and not lower than) cigarette smokers. In electronic cigarette users, there was a link to elevated total metal exposure and oxidative DNA damage. Specifically, our results demonstrate that zinc concentration was correlated to oxidative DNA damage.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Vaping/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cotinina/urina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metais/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 225: 113454, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058936

RESUMO

Evidence of negative health effects of solid waste management is uncertain. Available reviews suggests the use of biomarkers in human biomonitoring (HBM) to detect low exposure levels. In September 2013, a waste-to-energy plant located in the Turin (Italy) went into operation. The SPoTT (acronym for Population health Surveillance in the Turin incinerator's area) monitoring program was set up to assess the potential health impact caused by the plant. The paper illustrates the results of HBM of metals in the workers before the plant went into operation and then at 1 year and 3 years. This study is one of the few focusing on workers with a longitudinal design (the first in Italy). Eighteen metals in urine and lead in blood were determined by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on participant habits and other characteristics that could potentially affect metals concentrations were collected via a structured questionnaire. Subjects were classified according to their work role at the facility: administrative staff workers (AW); plant workers (PW). Nonparametric methods were used to evaluate the changes in metals concentration over time. Comparison of the metals concentration in the samples taken at baseline and at the following two-time points shows a general decrease in levels: urinary concentration of beryllium (Be), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), Ir, nickel (Ni), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), and blood level of lead (Pb) among the PW and Ir and Pd among the AW were significantly lower at T2 versus baseline. A decrease was also recorded in arsenic (As) among the PW and in cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), and zinc (Zn) for both groups, whereas the levels of copper (Cu) and vanadium (V) remained unchanged over time. The downward trend remained also after taking confounding factors into account. The only exceptions were Mn, Pt, Sb among the PW: increase levels between T0 and T2 were recorded, which cannot be specifically attributable to the plant activity. The median urinary and blood concentrations of the metals were lower than those reported in the literature and were below the occupational reference values at all three-time points. Our results are consistent with those reported for the cohort of local residents and with the ambient air measurements.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Incineração , Metais/sangue , Metais/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
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