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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445554

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of chitosan polymer on dentinal enzymatic activity by means of gelatin and in situ zymography. Human dentin was frozen and ground in a miller. Dentin powder aliquots were demineralized with phosphoric acid and treated with three different concentrations of lyophilized chitosan polymer (1, 0.5 and 0.1 wt%) dissolved in distilled water. Dentin proteins were extracted from each experimental group and electrophoresed under non-reducing conditions in 10% SDS-PAGE containing fluorescein-labeled gelatin. After 48 h in the incubation buffer at 37 °C, proteolytic activity was registered under long-wave UV light scanner and quantified by using Image J software. Furthermore, additional teeth (n = 4) were prepared for the in situ zymographic analysis in unrestored as well as restored dentin pretreated with the same chitosan primers. The registered enzymatic activity was directly proportional to the chitosan concentration and higher in the restored dentin groups (p < 0.05), except for the 0.1% chitosan primer. Chitosan 0.1% only showed faint expression of enzymatic activity compared to 1% and 0.5% concentrations. Chitosan 0.1% dissolved in water can produce significant reduction in MMPs activity and could possibly contribute to bond strength preservation over time.


Assuntos
Quelantes/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Dentina/enzimologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Teste de Materiais
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360823

RESUMO

Many matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are produced in the mammalian reproductive system and participate in the regulation of its functions. In birds, the limited information available thus far indicates that MMPs are significant regulators of avian ovarian and oviductal functions, too. Some MMPs and inhibitors of MMPs are present in the hen reproductive tissues and their abundances and/or activities change according to the physiological state. The intraovarian role of MMPs likely includes the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during folliculogenesis, follicle atresia, and postovulatory regression. In the oviduct, MMPs are also involved in ECM turnover during oviduct development and regression. This study provides a review of the current knowledge on the presence, activity, and regulation of MMPs in the female reproductive system of birds.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Oviductos/metabolismo , Inibidores Teciduais de Metaloproteinases/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino
3.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(4)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328190

RESUMO

Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC) apoptosis is the initial stage of adult pulmonary hypertension (PH), which involves high pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular remodeling. However, the mechanism regulating PMVEC apoptosis and its involvement in the early stages of neonatal hypoxic PH (HPH) pathogenesis are currently unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on hypoxia­induced apoptosis in PMVECs. PMVECs isolated from neonatal Sprague­Dawley rats were transfected with lentivirus with or without HSP70, or treated with the synthetic HSP70 inhibitor N­formyl­3,4­methylenedioxy­benzylidene-g-butyrolactam under hypoxic conditions (5% O2) for 24, 48 or 72 h. PMVEC apoptosis was evaluated by performing flow cytometry and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assays. The expression levels of HSP70, hypoxia­inducible factor­1α (HIF­1α) and apoptosis­associated proteins were determined by conducting reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and western blotting. Following 24, 48 or 72 h of hypoxia, the apoptotic rates of PMVECs were significantly elevated compared with cells under normoxic conditions. The MMP was significantly reduced, whereas the mRNA and protein expression levels of HIF­1α, cytochrome c (cyt C), caspase­3 and HSP70 were enhanced by hypoxia compared with those under normoxic conditions. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression levels of B­cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl­2) were significantly downregulated in the hypoxia group compared with those in the normoxia group. In hypoxic PMVECs, HSP70 overexpression decreased the apoptotic rate and the expression levels of cyt C, downregulated the expression levels of caspase­3 and HIF­1α, and increased the MMP and the expression levels of Bcl­2. HSP70 inhibition resulted in the opposite outcomes compared with those of HSP70 overexpression. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that HSP70 may inhibit mitochondrial pathway­mediated apoptosis in isolated neonatal rat PMVECs in early­stage hypoxia, which may be associated with HSP70­mediated HIF­1α downregulation. Overall, HSP70 may be protective against neonatal HPH through the HSP70/HIF­1α pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Microvasos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Microvasos/citologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Regulação para Cima
4.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299403

RESUMO

A wide range of mediators are released from the pulp tissue because of bacterial invasion which causes inflammation. Interleukins (ILs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a leading role in initiating and spreading of inflammation because of their synergic action. Biomarkers such as ILs and MMPs can be identified via several methods, establishing the inflammatory response of the dental pulp. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the levels of ILs and/or MMPs in human dental pulp. PubMed, OVID, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science and Wiley online library databases were searched for original clinical studies. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, a quality assessment of studies was performed based on a modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale. In the review were included articles that evaluated the presence of ILs and/or MMPs in pulp tissue using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or western blot or multiplex assay. Six articles were included in the present synthesis. Although various diagnostic methods were used, statistically significant higher levels of ILs and/or MMPs were mostly found in the experimental groups compared to healthy pulp samples. The biomarkers studied can be a promising tool to evaluate pulp tissue health or even in pulpitis treatment.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária/patologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Polpa Dentária/imunologia , Polpa Dentária/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203475

RESUMO

Background: During orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), applied orthodontic forces cause an extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the periodontal ligament (PDL). This is mainly orchestrated by different types of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), which are both secreted by periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies already investigated the influence of applied orthodontic forces on the expression of MMPs and TIMPs. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs during OTM and the influence of specific orthodontic force-related parameters. Methods: Electronic article search was performed on PubMed and Web of Science until 31 January 2021. Screenings of titles, abstracts and full texts were performed according to PRISMA, whereas eligibility criteria were defined for in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively, according to the PICO schema. Risk of bias assessment for in vitro studies was verified by specific methodological and reporting criteria. For in vivo studies, risk of bias assessment was adapted from the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for analytical cross-sectional study. Results: Electronic article search identified 3266 records, from which 28 in vitro and 12 in vivo studies were included. The studies showed that orthodontic forces mainly caused increased MMPs and TIMPs expression levels, whereas the exact effect may depend on various intervention and sample parameters and subject characteristics. Conclusion: This systematic review revealed that orthodontic forces induce a significant effect on MMPs and TIMPs in the PDL. This connection may contribute to the controlled depletion and formation of the PDLs' ECM at the compression and tension site, respectively, and finally to the highly regulated OTM.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Inibidores Teciduais de Metaloproteinases/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico , Inibidores Teciduais de Metaloproteinases/genética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206113

RESUMO

Airway inflammation plays a central role in bronchiectasis. Protease-antiprotease balance is crucial in bronchiectasis pathophysiology and increased presence of unopposed proteases activity may contribute to bronchiectasis onset and progression. Proteases' over-reactivity and antiprotease deficiency may have a role in increasing inflammation in bronchiectasis airways and may lead to extracellular matrix degradation and tissue damage. Imbalances in serine proteases and matrix-metallo proteinases (MMPs) have been associated to bronchiectasis. Active neutrophil elastase has been associated with disease severity and poor long-term outcomes in this disease. Moreover, high levels of MMPs have been associated with radiological and disease severity. Finally, severe deficiency of α1-antitrypsin (AAT), as PiSZ and PiZZ (proteinase inhibitor SZ and ZZ) phenotype, have been associated with bronchiectasis development. Several treatments are under study to reduce protease activity in lungs. Molecules to inhibit neutrophil elastase activity have been developed in both oral or inhaled form, along with compounds inhibiting dipeptydil-peptidase 1, enzyme responsible for the activation of serine proteases. Finally, supplementation with AAT is in use for patients with severe deficiency. The identification of different targets of therapy within the protease-antiprotease balance contributes to a precision medicine approach in bronchiectasis and eventually interrupts and disrupts the vicious vortex which characterizes the disease.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo , Bronquiectasia/enzimologia , Bronquiectasia/genética , Bronquiectasia/patologia , Humanos , Elastase de Leucócito , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Serina Proteases/genética , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/patologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202757

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the application of homocysteine as well as its effect under the condition of aerobic physical activity on the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in cardiac tissue and on hepato-renal biochemical parameters in sera of rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 10, per group): C: 0.9% NaCl 0.2 mL/day subcutaneous injection (s.c.); H: homocysteine 0.45 µmol/g b.w./day s.c.; CPA saline (0.9% NaCl 0.2 mL/day s.c.) and a program of physical activity on a treadmill; and HPA homocysteine (0.45 µmol/g b.w./day s.c.) and a program of physical activity on a treadmill. Subcutaneous injection of substances was applied 2 times a day at intervals of 8 h during the first two weeks of experimental protocol. Hcy level in serum was significantly higher in the HPA group compared to the CPA group (p < 0.05). Levels of glucose, proteins, albumin, and hepatorenal biomarkers were higher in active groups compared with the sedentary group. It was demonstrated that the increased activities of LDH (mainly caused by higher activity of isoform LDH2) and mMDH were found under the condition of homocysteine-treated rats plus aerobic physical activity. Independent application of homocysteine did not lead to these changes. Physical activity leads to activation of MMP-2 isoform and to increased activity of MMP-9 isoform in both homocysteine-treated and control rats.


Assuntos
Hiper-Homocisteinemia/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Biomarcadores , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Ativação Enzimática , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/etiologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Ratos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Inflamm Res ; 70(8): 847-858, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognizing only sharp elevation in a short period of time, the COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 propagation is more and more marked in the whole world. Induced inflammation afterwards infection engenders a high infiltration of immune cells and cytokines that triggers matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activation. These endopeptidases are mediators of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM), a basic element for alveoli structure and gas exchange. METHODS: When immune cells, MMPs, secreted cytokines and several other mediators are gathered a pathological matrix remodeling occurs. This phenomenon tends to tissue destruction in the first place and a pulmonary hypertrophy and fibrosis in the second place. FINDINGS: After pathological matrix remodeling establishment, pathological diseases take place even after infection state. Since post COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis is an emerging complication of the disease, there is an urge to better understand and characterize the implication of ECM remodeling during SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: Targeting MMPs and their inhibitors could be a probable solution for occurred events since there are many cured patients that remain with severe sequels even after the end of infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Comunicação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Fibrose/imunologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Sistema Imunitário , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201564

RESUMO

Obesity increases the risk of hip osteoarthritis (OA). Recent studies have shown that adipokine extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT or visfatin) induces the production of IL-6 and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) in chondrocytes, suggesting it may promote articular cartilage degradation. However, neither the functional effects of extracellular visfatin on human articular cartilage tissue, nor its expression in the joint of hip OA patients of varying BMI, have been reported. Hip OA joint tissues were collected from patients undergoing joint replacement surgery. Cartilage explants were stimulated with recombinant human visfatin. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMPs were measured by ELISA and Luminex. Localisation of visfatin expression in cartilage tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Cartilage matrix degradation was determined by quantifying proteoglycan release. Expression of visfatin was elevated in the synovial tissue of hip OA patients who were obese, and was co-localised with MMP-13 in areas of cartilage damage. Visfatin promoted the degradation of hip OA cartilage proteoglycan and induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1, CCL20, and CCL4) and MMPs. The elevated expression of visfatin in the obese hip OA joint, and its functional effects on hip cartilage tissue, suggests it plays a central role in the loss of cartilage integrity in obese patients with hip OA.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Osteoartrite do Quadril/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Articulação do Quadril/metabolismo , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NAD/metabolismo , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Osteoartrite do Quadril/patologia , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208719

RESUMO

Synovitis of the knee synovium is proven to be a precursor of knee osteoarthritis (OA), leading to a radiologically advanced stage of the disease. This study was conducted to elucidate the expression pattern of different inflammatory factors-NF-kB, iNOS, and MMP-9 in a subpopulation of synovial cells. Thirty synovial membrane intra-operative biopsies of patients (ten controls, ten with early OA, and ten with advanced OA, according to the Kellgren-Lawrence radiological score) were immunohistochemically stained for NF-kB, iNOS, and MMP9, and for different cell markers for macrophages, fibroblasts, leukocytes, lymphocytes, blood vessel endothelial cells, and blood vessel smooth muscle cells. The total number of CD68+/NF-kB+ cells/mm2 in the intima of early OA patients (median = 2359) was significantly higher compared to the total number of vimentin+/Nf-kB+ cells/mm2 (median = 1321) and LCA+/NF-kB+ cells/mm2 (median = 64) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The total number of LCA+/NF-kB+ cells/mm2 in the subintima of advanced OA patients (median = 2123) was significantly higher compared to the total number of vimentin+/NF-kB+ cells/mm2 (median = 14) and CD68+/NF-kB+ cells/mm2 (median = 29) (p < 0.0001). The total number of CD68+/iNOS+ cells/mm2 in the intima of both early and advanced OA patients was significantly higher compared to the total number of vimentin+/iNOS+ cells/mm2 and LCA+/iNOS+ cells/mm2 (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively). The total number of CD68+/MMP-9+ cells/mm2 in the intima of both early and advanced OA patients was significantly higher compared to the total number of vimentin+/MMP-9+ cells/mm2 and CD5+/MMP-9+ cells/mm2 (p < 0.0001). Macrophages may have a leading role in OA progression through the NF-kB production of inflammatory factors (iNOS and MMP-9) in the intima, except in advanced OA, where leukocytes could have a dominant role through NF-kB production in subintima. The blocking of macrophageal and leukocyte NF-kB expression is a possible therapeutic target as a disease modifying drug.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Osteoartrite do Joelho/metabolismo , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26135, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114996

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant tumor which ranks fourth in cancer-related death. However, the specificity and sensitivity of traditional biomarkers such as carbohydrate antigen 19-9 no longer meet the clinical requirements.Tools as ONCOMINE and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) were used to analyze the differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in PC and adjacent tissues. For further analysis, we adopted database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID 6.8), transcriptional regulatory relationships unraveled by sentence-based text (TRRUST) and other tools. We also identified drugs targeted the selected MMPs.Eight MMPs (MMP1, MMP2, MMP7, MMP9, MMP11, MMP12, MMP14, and MMP28) were differentially expressed in PC and adjacent tissue. MMP1 (P = .0189), MMP7 (P = .000216), MMP11 (P = .0209), MMP14 (P = .00611) were correlated with the pathological stages of PC. Patients with higher expression of MMP1 (P = .0011), MMP2 (P = .011), MMP7 (P = .0081), MMP9 (P = .046), MMP11 (P = .0019), MMP12 (P = .0011), MMP14 (P = .0011), and MMP28 (P = 6.3e-06) showed poor prognosis. Ten transcription factors were associated with the up-regulation of selected MMPs. Marimastat (DB00786) was found to target selected MMPs.Our research revealed that selected MMPs played an important role in the early diagnosis and prognosis of PC.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/classificação , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloendopeptidases , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Prognóstico
12.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064104

RESUMO

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predominantly have a respiratory tract infection with various symptoms and high mortality is associated with respiratory failure second to severe disease. The risk factors leading to severe disease remain unclear. Here, we reanalyzed a published single-cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq) dataset and found that bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with severe disease compared to those with mild disease contained decreased TH17-type cells, decreased IFNA1-expressing cells with lower expression of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR8, increased IgA-expressing B cells, and increased hyperactive epithelial cells (and/or macrophages) expressing matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which may together contribute to the pulmonary pathology in severe COVID-19. We propose IFN-I (and TLR7/TLR8) and PAI-1 as potential biomarkers to predict the susceptibility to severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Hialuronan Sintases/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Mucina-1/metabolismo , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th17/patologia
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3772-3790, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109586

RESUMO

Multiple epidemiological studies have suggested that industrialization and progressive urbanization should be considered one of the main factors responsible for the rising of atherosclerosis in the developing world. In this scenario, the role of trace metals in the insurgence and progression of atherosclerosis has not been clarified yet. In this paper, the specific role of selected trace elements (magnesium, zinc, selenium, iron, copper, phosphorus, and calcium) is described by focusing on the atherosclerotic prevention and pathogenesis plaque. For each element, the following data are reported: daily intake, serum levels, intra/extracellular distribution, major roles in physiology, main effects of high and low levels, specific roles in atherosclerosis, possible interactions with other trace elements, and possible influences on plaque development. For each trace element, the correlations between its levels and clinical severity and outcome of COVID-19 are discussed. Moreover, the role of matrix metalloproteinases, a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, as a new medical therapeutical approach to atherosclerosis is discussed. Data suggest that trace element status may influence both atherosclerosis insurgence and plaque evolution toward a stable or an unstable status. However, significant variability in the action of these traces is evident: some - including magnesium, zinc, and selenium - may have a protective role, whereas others, including iron and copper, probably have a multi-faceted and more complex role in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic plaque. Finally, calcium and phosphorus are implicated in the calcification of atherosclerotic plaques and in the progression of the plaque toward rupture and severe clinical complications. In particular, the role of calcium is debated. Focusing on the COVID-19 pandemia, optimized magnesium and zinc levels are indicated as important protective tools against a severe clinical course of the disease, often related to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to cause a systemic inflammatory response, able to transform a stable plaque into an unstable one, with severe clinical complications.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Cálcio/sangue , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cobre/sangue , Cobre/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/metabolismo , Magnésio/sangue , Magnésio/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Fósforo/sangue , Fósforo/metabolismo , Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Selênio/sangue , Selênio/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Oligoelementos/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073992

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is an active process, regulating new vessel growth, and is crucial for the survival and growth of tumours next to other complex factors in the tumour microenvironment. We present possible molecular imaging approaches for tumour vascularisation and vitality, focusing on radiopharmaceuticals (tracers). Molecular imaging in general has become an integrated part of cancer therapy, by bringing relevant insights on tumour angiogenic status. After a structured PubMed search, the resulting publication list was screened for oncology related publications in animals and humans, disregarding any cardiovascular findings. The tracers identified can be subdivided into direct targeting of angiogenesis (i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor, laminin, and fibronectin) and indirect targeting (i.e., glucose metabolism, hypoxia, and matrix metallo-proteases, PSMA). Presenting pre-clinical and clinical data of most tracers proposed in the literature, the indirect targeting agents are not 1:1 correlated with angiogenesis factors but do have a strong prognostic power in a clinical setting, while direct targeting agents show most potential and specificity for assessing tumour vascularisation and vitality. Within the direct agents, the combination of multiple targeting tracers into one agent (multimers) seems most promising. This review demonstrates the present clinical applicability of indirect agents, but also the need for more extensive research in the field of direct targeting of angiogenesis in oncology. Although there is currently no direct tracer that can be singled out, the RGD tracer family seems to show the highest potential therefore we expect one of them to enter the clinical routine.


Assuntos
Oncologia/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neovascularização Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Integrinas/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Oncologia/instrumentação , Neoplasias/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074034

RESUMO

In certain diseases of the pancreas, pancreatic stellate cells form an important part of fibrosis and are critical for the development of cancer cells. A hypoxic condition develops within the tumor, to which pancreatic stellate cells adapt and are able to proliferate. The consequence is the growth of the tumor. Melatonin, the product of the pineal gland, is gaining attention as an agent with therapeutic potential against pancreatic cancers. Its actions on tumor cells lead, in general, to a reduction in cell viability and proliferation. However, its effects on pancreatic stellate cells subjected to hypoxia are less known. In this study, we evaluated the actions of pharmacological concentrations of melatonin (1 mM-1 µM) on pancreatic stellate cells subjected to hypoxia. The results show that melatonin induced a decrease in cell viability at the highest concentrations tested. Similarly, the incorporation of BrdU into DNA was diminished by melatonin. The expression of cyclins A and D also was decreased in the presence of melatonin. Upon treatment of cells with melatonin, increases in the expression of major markers of ER stress, namely BIP, phospho-eIF2α and ATF-4, were detected. Modulation of apoptosis was noticed as an increase in caspase-3 activation. In addition, changes in the phosphorylated state of p44/42, p38 and JNK MAPKs were detected in cells treated with melatonin. A slight decrease in the content of α-smooth muscle actin was detected in cells treated with melatonin. Finally, treatment of cells with melatonin decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3, 9 and 13. Our observations suggest that melatonin, at pharmacological concentrations, diminishes the proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells subjected to hypoxia through modulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and the activation of crucial MAPKs. Cellular responses might involve certain ER stress regulator proteins. In view of the results, melatonin could be taken into consideration as a potential therapeutic agent for pancreatic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina A/metabolismo , Ciclina D/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Células Estreladas do Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Pâncreas/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Bromodesoxiuridina/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
16.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 426: 115593, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038713

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the group of enzymes that belong to the family of zinc dependent endopeptidases. These proteases degrade collagen and other important proteins in extracellular matrix (ECM) and regulate cytoskeletal proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines, thereby play significant role during organogenesis and normal tissue turnover. Recent studies highlight the tumorigenic functions of MMPs by modulating tumor microenvironment. Dysregulated MMPs/TIMPs cause an imbalance in crucial cell signals, and lead to serious pathological conditions related to inflammation, uncontrolled cell growth, ECM degradation, increased cell migration, cell death resistance, replicative immortality and the establishment of metastatic niche at secondary sites. Recently established correlation between the higher expression of active MMPs and cancer aggressiveness makes them probable target candidate of cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. The present review focuses on the tumourigenic functions of MMPs and recent advancements in the development of MMP inhibitors of therapeutic potential in cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(22): 25771-25782, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030437

RESUMO

The suppression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth by nonsurgical therapy is currently not an option, and AAA is considered an irreversible destructive disease. The formation and development of AAA is associated with the progressive deterioration of the aortic wall. Infiltrated macrophages and resident vascular smooth muscle cells oversecrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which cause the loss of crucial aortic extracellular matrix (ECM) components, thus weakening the aortic wall. Stabilization of the aortic ECM could enable the development of novel therapeutic options for preventing and reducing AAA progression. In the present work, we studied the biochemical and biomechanical interactions of pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) on mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. PGG is a naturally occurring ECM-stabilizing polyphenolic compound that has been studied in various applications, including vascular health, with promising results. With its known limitations of systemic administration, we also studied the administration of PGG when encapsulated within poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). Treatment with collagenase and elastase enzymes was used to mimic a pathway of degenerative effects seen in the pathogenesis of human AAA. PGG and PLGA(PGG) NPs were added to enzyme-treated cells in either a suppressive or preventative scenario. Biomolecular interactions were analyzed through cell viability, cell adhesion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion. Biomechanical properties were studied through atomic force microscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. Our results suggest that PGG or PLGA(PGG) NPs caused minor to no cytotoxic effects on the C2C12 cells. Both PGG and PLGA(PGG) NPs showed reduction in ROS and MMP-2 secretion if administered after enzymatic ECM degradation. A quantitative comparison of Young's moduli showed a significant recovery in the elastic properties of the cells treated with PGG or PLGA(PGG) NPs after enzymatic ECM degradation. This work provides preliminary support for the use of a pharmacological therapy for AAA treatment.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão Celular , Matriz Extracelular/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/administração & dosagem , Mioblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Poliésteres/química , Animais , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Técnicas In Vitro , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mioblastos/citologia , Nanopartículas/química
18.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 4681041, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959214

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to investigate the action of doxycycline hyclate (Dx) in the skin wound healing process in Wistar rats. We investigated the effect of Dx on inflammatory cell recruitment and production of inflammatory mediators via in vitro and in vivo analysis. In addition, we analyzed neovascularization, extracellular matrix deposition, and antioxidant potential of Dx on cutaneous repair in Wistar rats. Male animals (n = 15) were divided into three groups with five animals each (protocol: 72/2017), and three skin wounds (12 mm diameter) were created on the back of the animals. The groups were as follows: C, received distilled water (control); Dx1, doxycycline hyclate (10 mg/kg/day); and Dx2, doxycycline hyclate (30 mg/kg/day). The applications were carried out daily for up to 21 days, and tissues from different wounds were removed every 7 days. Our in vitro analysis demonstrated that Dx led to macrophage proliferation and increased N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) production, besides decreased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and metalloproteinases (MMP), which indicates that macrophage activation and COX-2 inhibition are possibly regulated by independent mechanisms. In vivo, our findings presented increased cellularity, blood vessels, and the number of mast cells. However, downregulation was observed in the COX-2 and PGE2 expression, which was limited to epidermal cells. Our results also showed that the downregulation of this pathway benefits the oxidative balance by reducing protein carbonyls, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition, there was an increase in the antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) after Dx exposure, which demonstrates its antioxidant potential. Finally, Dx increased the number of types I collagen and elastic fibers and reduced the levels of MMP, thus accelerating the closure of skin wounds. Our findings indicated that both doses of Dx can modulate the skin repair process, but the best effects were observed after exposure to the highest dose.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899120

RESUMO

Fibronectin type III domain­containing protein 1 (FNDC1) is a protein that contains a major component of the structural domain of fibronectin. Although many studies have indicated that FNDC1 serves vital roles in the development of various diseases, the role of FNDC1 in the progression of breast cancer (BC) remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological functions of FNDC1 in BC cells and the associated mechanisms. The expression levels of FNDC1 in BC tissues and normal breast tissues were analyzed using The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). Kaplan­Meier curves were mined from TCGA to examine the clinical prognostic significance of FNDC1 mRNA in patients with BC. The expression of FNDC1 was knocked down by transfection with shRNA in BC cells. Cell viability, colony formation ability, migration and invasion were assayed following the silencing of FNDC1 in BC cells. The expression of proteins was measured using a western blotting assay. The bioinformatic data indicated that the FNDC1 mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated in BC tissues compared with normal breast tissues, and the high mRNA expression levels of FNDC1 were associated with a lower overall survival in patients with BC. The downregulation of FNDC1 inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of BC cells. Investigation of the mechanisms revealed that the silencing of FNDC1 decreased the protein expression levels of MMPs and epithelial­to­mesenchymal markers. Furthermore, the silencing of FNDC1 led to the inactivation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. FNDC1 was highly upregulated and acted as an oncogene in BC. Therefore, targeting FNDC1 may be a potential strategy for the treatment of BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810259

RESUMO

Proteases play a crucial role in the progression and metastasis of ovarian cancer. Pericellular protein degradation and fragmentation along with remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is accomplished by numerous proteases that are present in the ovarian tumor microenvironment. Several proteolytic processes have been linked to cancer progression, particularly those facilitated by the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. These proteases have been linked to enhanced migratory ability, extracellular matrix breakdown, and development of support systems for tumors. Several studies have reported the direct involvement of MMPs with ovarian cancer, as well as their mechanisms of action in the tumor microenvironment. MMPs play a key role in upregulating transcription factors, as well as the breakdown of structural proteins like collagen. Proteolytic mechanisms have been shown to enhance the ability of ovarian cancer cells to migrate and adhere to secondary sites allowing for efficient metastasis. Furthermore, angiogenesis for tumor growth and development of metastatic implants is influenced by upregulation of certain proteases, including MMPs. While proteases are produced normally in vivo, they can be upregulated by cancer-associated mutations, tumor-microenvironment interaction, stress-induced catecholamine production, and age-related pathologies. This review outlines the important role of proteases throughout ovarian cancer progression and metastasis.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Proteólise , Microambiente Tumoral
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