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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15591, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973203

RESUMO

There is scarce information on whether inhibition of rumen methanogenesis induces metabolic changes on the host ruminant. Understanding these possible changes is important for the acceptance of methane-reducing practices by producers. In this study we explored the changes in plasma profiles associated with the reduction of methane emissions. Plasma samples were collected from lactating primiparous Holstein cows fed the same diet with (Treated, n = 12) or without (Control, n = 13) an anti-methanogenic feed additive for six weeks. Daily methane emissions (CH4, g/d) were reduced by 23% in the Treated group with no changes in milk production, feed intake, body weight, and biochemical indicators of health status. Plasma metabolome analyses were performed using untargeted [nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)] and targeted (LC-MS/MS) approaches. We identified 48 discriminant metabolites. Some metabolites mainly of microbial origin such as dimethylsulfone, formic acid and metabolites containing methylated groups like stachydrine, can be related to rumen methanogenesis and can potentially be used as markers. The other discriminant metabolites are produced by the host or have a mixed microbial-host origin. These metabolites, which increased in treated cows, belong to general pathways of amino acids and energy metabolism suggesting a systemic non-negative effect on the animal.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metano/análise , Metano/biossíntese , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21488-21494, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817550

RESUMO

Lakes are considered the second largest natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4). However, current estimates are still uncertain and do not account for diel variability of CH4 emissions. In this study, we performed high-resolution measurements of CH4 flux from several lakes, using an automated and sensor-based flux measurement approach (in total 4,580 measurements), and demonstrated a clear and consistent diel lake CH4 flux pattern during stratification and mixing periods. The maximum of CH4 flux were always noted between 10:00 and 16:00, whereas lower CH4 fluxes typically occurred during the nighttime (00:00-04:00). Regardless of the lake, CH4 emissions were on an average 2.4 higher during the day compared to the nighttime. Fluxes were higher during daytime on nearly 80% of the days. Accordingly, estimates and extrapolations based on daytime measurements only most likely result in overestimated fluxes, and consideration of diel variability is critical to properly assess the total lake CH4 flux, representing a key component of the global CH4 budget. Hence, based on a combination of our data and additional literature information considering diel variability across latitudes, we discuss ways to derive a diel variability correction factor for previous measurements made during daytime only.


Assuntos
Lagos/química , Metano/análise , Metano/biossíntese , Ritmo Circadiano , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(10): 9090-9095, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747114

RESUMO

Breeding cows for low CH4 emissions requires that the trait is variable and that it can be recorded with low cost from an adequate number of individuals and with high precision, but not necessarily with high accuracy if the trait is measured with high repeatability. The CH4:CO2 ratio in expired breath is a trait often used as a tracer with the production of CO2 predicted from body weight (BW), energy-corrected milk yield, and days of pregnancy. This approach assumes that efficiency of energy utilization for maintenance and production is constant. Data (307 cow-period observations) from 2 locations using the same setup for measuring CH4 and CO2 in respiration chambers were compiled, and observed production of CH4 and CO2 was compared with the equivalent predicted production using 2 different approaches. Carbon dioxide production was predicted using a previously reported model based on metabolic BW and energy-corrected milk production and a currently developed model based on energy requirements and the relationship between observed CO2 and heat production (models 1 and 2, respectively). Animals used were categorized (low, medium, and high efficiency) according to (1) residual feed intake and (2) residual milk production. Model 1 underestimated CH4 production by 15%, whereas model 2 overestimated CH4 by 1.4% for the whole database. Model 1 underestimated CO2 production by 2.8 and 0.9 kg/d for low- and high-efficiency cows, respectively, whereas model 2 underestimated CO2 production by 0.9 kg/d for low-efficient animals but overestimated it by 1.2 kg/d for high-efficiency cows. Efficient cows produce less heat, and consequently CO2, per unit of metabolic body weight and energy-corrected milk than inefficient cows, challenging the use of CO2 as a tracer gas. Because of biased estimates of CO2 production, the models overestimated CH4 production of high-efficiency cows by, on average, 17% relative to low-efficiency cows, respectively. Selecting low CH4-emitting cows using a CO2 tracer method can therefore favor inefficient cows over efficient cows.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Dieta/veterinária , Metano/biossíntese , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fazendas , Feminino , Indicadores e Reagentes , Leite , Termogênese
4.
Science ; 369(6507): 1094-1098, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855335

RESUMO

Bacterial production of gaseous hydrocarbons such as ethylene and methane affects soil environments and atmospheric climate. We demonstrate that biogenic methane and ethylene from terrestrial and freshwater bacteria are directly produced by a previously unknown methionine biosynthesis pathway. This pathway, present in numerous species, uses a nitrogenase-like reductase that is distinct from known nitrogenases and nitrogenase-like reductases and specifically functions in C-S bond breakage to reduce ubiquitous and appreciable volatile organic sulfur compounds such as dimethyl sulfide and (2-methylthio)ethanol. Liberated methanethiol serves as the immediate precursor to methionine, while ethylene or methane is released into the environment. Anaerobic ethylene production by this pathway apparently explains the long-standing observation of ethylene accumulation in oxygen-depleted soils. Methane production reveals an additional bacterial pathway distinct from archaeal methanogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Etilenos/biossíntese , Metano/biossíntese , Metionina/biossíntese , Oxirredutases/química , Rhodospirillum rubrum/enzimologia , Anaerobiose , Proteínas de Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biocatálise , Vias Biossintéticas , Oxirredutases/classificação , Oxirredutases/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14119, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839563

RESUMO

In the present work, the effect of α-Fe2O3-nanoparticles (IONPs) supplementation at varying doses (0, 10, 20 and, 30 mg L-1) at the intermittent stage (after 12th day of growth period) was studied on the growth and biogas production potential of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Significant enhancements in microalgae growth were observed with all the tested IONPs doses, the highest (2.94 ± 0.01 g L-1) being at 20 mg L-1. Consequently, the composition of the biomass was also improved. Based on the precedent determinations, theoretical chemical oxygen demand (CODth) as well as theoretical and stoichiometric methane potential (TMP, and SMP) were also estimated. The CODth, TMP, SMP values indicated IONPs efficacy for improving biogas productivity. Further, the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was done for IONPs supplemented biomass. The BMP test revealed up to a 25.14% rise in biogas yield (605 mL g-1 VSfed) with 22.4% enhanced methane content for 30 mg L-1 IONPs supplemented biomass over control. Overall, at 30 mg L-1 IONPs supplementation, the cumulative enhancements in biomass, biogas, and methane content proffered a net rise of 98.63% in biomethane potential (≈ 2.86 × 104 m3 ha-1 year-1) compared to control. These findings reveal the potential of IONPs in improving microalgal biogas production.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/análise , Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chlorella/metabolismo , /administração & dosagem , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Biomassa , Metano/biossíntese , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(9): 7968-7982, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684452

RESUMO

A meta-analysis based on an individual-cow data set was conducted to investigate between-cow variations in the components and measurements of feed efficiency (FE) and to explore the associations among these components. Data were taken from 31 chamber studies, consisting of a total of 841 cow/period observations. The experimental diets were based on grass or corn silages, fresh grass, or a mixture of fresh grass and straw, with cereal grains or by-products as energy supplements, and soybean or canola meal as protein supplements. The average forage-to-concentrate ratio across all diets on a dry matter basis was 56:44. Variance component and repeatability estimates of FE measurements and components were determined using diet, period, and cow within experiment as random effects in mixed procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The between-cow coefficient of variation (CV) in gross energy intake (GE; CV = 0.10) and milk energy (El) output as a proportion of GE (El/GE; CV = 0.084) were the largest among all component traits. Similarly, the highest repeatability estimates (≥0.50) were observed for these 2 components. However, the between-cow CV in digestibility (DE/GE), metabolizability [metabolizable energy (ME)/GE], methane yield (CH4E/GE), proportional urinary energy output (UE/GE), and heat production (HP/GE), as well as the efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl), were rather small. The least repeatable component of FE was UE/GE. For FE measurements, the between-cow CV in residual energy-corrected milk (RECM) was larger than for residual feed intake (RFI), suggesting a greater possibility for genetic gain in RECM than in RFI. A high DE/GE was associated with increased CH4E/GE (r = 0.24), HP/GE (r = 0.12), ME/GE (r = 0. 91), energy balance as a proportion of GE (EB/GE; r = 0.35), and kl (r = 0.10). However, no correlation between DE/GE and GE intake or UE/GE was observed. Increased proportional milk energy adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)/GE) was associated with increases in DE/GE, ME/GE, EB/GE, and kl but decreases in UE/GE, CH4E/GE, and HP/GE, with no effect on GE intake. In conclusion, several mechanisms are involved in the observed differences in FE among dairy cows, and reducing CH4E yield (CH4E/GE) may inadvertently result in reduced GE digestibility. However, the selection of dairy cows with improved energy utilization efficiencies offers an effective approach to lower enteric CH4 emissions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Variação Biológica da População , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Brassica napus , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Grão Comestível , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Lactação , Metano/biossíntese , Leite , Poaceae/metabolismo , Silagem , Soja , Termogênese , Zea mays
7.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674157

RESUMO

Achieving high animal productivity without degrading the environment is the primary target in pasture-based dairy farming. This study investigated the effects of changing the forage base in spring from grass-clover pastures to forb or legume-based pastures on milk yield, N utilization, and methane emissions of Jersey cows in Western Oregon. Twenty-seven mid-lactation dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of three pasture treatments: grass-clover-based pasture composed of festulolium, tall fescue, orchardgrass, and white clover (Grass); forb-based pasture composed of chicory, plantain, and white clover (Forb); and legume-based pasture composed of red clover, bird's-foot trefoil, berseem clover, and balansa clover (Legume). Pastures were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates (i.e., blocks) with each replicate grazed by a group of three cows. Production and nutritive quality of the forages, animal performance, milk components, nitrogen partitioning, and methane emissions were measured. Feed quality and dry matter intake (DMI) of cows were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for Legume and Forb vs. Grass, with consequent greater milk and milk solids yields (P < 0.01). Cows grazing Forb also had more (P < 0.01) lactose and linoleic acid in milk compared with cows grazing the other pastures, and less (P = 0.04) somatic cell counts compared with Grass. Cows grazing Forb had substantially less (P < 0.01) N in urine, milk, and blood compared with cows grazing the other pastures, with not only a greater (P < 0.01) efficiency of N utilization for milk synthesis calculated using milk urea nitrogen but also a larger (P < 0.01) fecal N content, indicating a shift of N from urine to feces. Both Forb and Legume had a diuretic effect on cows, as indicated by the lower (P < 0.01) creatinine concentration in urine compared with Grass. Methane emissions tended to be less (P = 0.07) in cows grazed on Forb vs. the other pastures. The results indicate that Forb pasture can support animal performance, milk quality, and health comparable to Legume pasture; however, Forb pasture provides the additional benefit of reduced environmental impact of pasture-based dairy production.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Chicória , Lactação/fisiologia , Medicago , Metano/biossíntese , Poaceae , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes , Feminino , Leite/fisiologia , Nitrogênio , Valor Nutritivo , Estações do Ano
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(9): 7983-7997, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534917

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to investigate factors related to variation in feed efficiency (FE) among cows. Data included 841 cow/period observations from 31 energy metabolism studies assembled across 3 research stations. The cows were categorized into low-, medium-, and high-FE groups according to residual feed intake (RFI), residual energy-corrected milk (RECM), and feed conversion efficiency (FCE). Mixed model regression was conducted to identify differences among the efficiency groups in animal and energy metabolism traits. Partial regression coefficients of both RFI and RECM agreed with published energy requirements more closely than cofficients derived from production experiments. Within RFI groups, efficient (Low-RFI) cows ate less, had a higher digestibility, produced less methane (CH4) and heat, and had a higher efficiency of metabolizable energy (ME) utilization for milk production. High-RECM (most efficient) cows produced 6.0 kg/d more of energy-corrected milk (ECM) than their Low-RECM (least efficient) contemporaries at the same feed intake. They had a higher digestibility, produced less CH4 and heat, and had a higher efficiency of ME utilization for milk production. The contributions of improved digestibility, reduced CH4, and reduced urinary energy losses to increased ME intake at the same feed intake were 84, 12, and 4%, respectively. For both RFI and RECM analysis, increased metabolizability contributed to approximately 35% improved FE, with the remaining 65% attributed to the greater efficiency of utilization of ME. The analysis within RECM groups suggested that the difference in ME utilization was mainly due to the higher maintenance requirement of Low-RECM cows compared with Medium- and High-RECM cows, whereas the difference between Medium- and High-RECM cows resulted mainly from the higher efficiency of ME utilization for milk production in High-RECM cows. The main difference within FCE (ECM/DMI) categories was a greater (8.2 kg/d) ECM yield at the expense of mobilization in High-FCE cows compared with Low-FCE cows. Methane intensity (CH4/ECM) was lower for efficient cows than for inefficient cows. The results indicated that RFI and RECM are different traits. We concluded that there is considerable variation in FE among cows that is not related to dilution of maintenance requirement or nutrient partitioning. Improving FE is a sustainable approach to reduce CH4 production per unit of product, and at the same time improve the economics of milk production.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Animais , Câmaras de Exposição Atmosférica/veterinária , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Calefação , Lactação , Masculino , Metano/biossíntese , Leite , Necessidades Nutricionais , Respiração
9.
Res Vet Sci ; 132: 88-96, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540589

RESUMO

The grazing of Zebu cattle in poor-quality tropical pastures during the dry season has an increased environmental impact and cost of production. The use of condensed tannins (CT) as a natural feed additive to modulate ruminal archaea can mitigate the methane emissions from cattle in tropical systems. We investigated the effects of CT on in vivo methane emissions and rumen microbiota ecology in beef cattle. Batch experiments were also conducted to evaluate the impact of dietary CT on the biogas production from beef cattle manure. Six adult rumen-cannulated Nellore cattle were used in a double 3 × 3 Latin square design. Treatments consisted of three diets containing either a 0%, 1.25% or 2.5% CT additive from Acacia mimosa extract. The experimental period consisted of 63 days, and methane production was measured using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) technique from Day 16 to 21 of each feeding period. Adding Acacia extract to the diets reduced daily methane emissions per animal. Methane suppression occurred more by reduction of intake than by the direct effect on methanogenic archaea. We verified that CT directly suppresses archaea rumen communities and increases total rumen bacteria. Our study indicates that CT benefit rumen Fibrobactersuccinogenes and Ruminoccous flavefaciens populations and have no negative effect on biogas production from cattle manure. Acacia extract as a feed additive has promising potential as part of an overall nutritional strategy to reduce the methanogenesis from Zebu beef cattle in tropical systems.


Assuntos
Archaea/efeitos dos fármacos , Biocombustíveis/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Metano/biossíntese , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Archaea/metabolismo , Brasil , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino , Rúmen/microbiologia , Clima Tropical
10.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126840, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387725

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion is a technology that simultaneously treats waste and generates energy in the form of biogas. Unfortunately, when a high organic loading rate is applied, anaerobic digestion can suffer from volatile fatty acid accumulation that results in pH drop and decreased biogas production. In particular, propionic acid has shown to inhibit biogas production even at a very low concentration. Therefore, the kinetics of biogas production in relation to propionic acid concentration needs to be investigated. In batch experiments on anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure in the present study, cumulative biogas production showed little inhibition by propionic acid in the concentration range of 6.5-14.6 mM, but a lag phase of 9.4, 16.3 and 60.8 d was detected in the digesters with initial propionic acid concentrations of 22.7, 36.2, and 56.4 mM, respectively. After the lag phase, these digesters accelerated to specific biogas yields of 0.59-0.70 L g-VS-1. The similar specific biogas yields across all of the digesters at initial propionic acid concentrations of 6.5-56.4 mM indicated reversibility of the inhibition. The reversibility was made possible by microbial acclimation and the shift to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis in syntrophy with acetogenic bacteria. Evidently, an increase of hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus abundances was found at 36.2 and 56.4 mM. Batch digestion experiments must be extended beyond the lag phase in order to fully reveal the inhibition kinetics. This paper highlights the need for a standard protocol that experimentally evaluates inhibition in anaerobic digestion.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/microbiologia , Propionatos/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Alimentos , Cinética , Esterco , Metano/biossíntese , Eliminação de Resíduos
11.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126805, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387911

RESUMO

Large amounts of agricultural solid wastes (ASWs) and animal dung are produced annually causing serious environmental problem that requires proper treatment. The present study proposes a strategy for optimizing the anaerobic co-digestion of ASWs and cow dung (CD), identifies the key factors governing the co-digestion performance and evaluates the effect of NaHCO3 alkalinity treatment on improving the economy and performance of anaerobic digestion (AD). The results revealed that the highest cumulative methane production (CMP) of 297.99 NL/kgVS can be generated by co-digestion of ASWs and CD at a ratio of 60:40. Further improvement was achieved via alkalinity treatment with 1.0 g of NaHCO3/gVS leading to decrease in lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents of feedstock by 3.5%, 10.5% and 15.9%, respectively, converting them to soluble fractions and improving the CMP by 11.2-29.7% based on substrate quality. The improved CMP in the chemically treated substrates reflects a 19% increase in the generated revenue. The kinetics of the AD process was successfully fitted to modified Gompertz model with very low standard deviation residuals (SDR) ≤ 5.21 and R2 ≥ 0.979. Results confirm that the proposed strategy is an effective method for producing biogas from co-digestion of ASWs and CD.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biocombustíveis , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Anaerobiose , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Bovinos , Celulose , Cinética , Lignina/química , Metano/biossíntese , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6087-6099, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389470

RESUMO

Our objective was to determine the effects of replacing alfalfa silage (AS) neutral detergent fiber (NDF) with corn silage (CS) NDF at 2 levels of forage NDF (FNDF) on enteric methane (CH4), lactation performance, ruminal fluid characteristics, digestibility, and metabolism of N and energy in Holstein and Jersey cows. Twelve Holstein and 12 Jersey cows (all primiparous and mid-lactation) were used in a triplicated split-plot 4 × 4 Latin square experiment, where breed and diet formed the main and subplots, respectively. The 4 iso-nitrogenous and iso-starch dietary treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of FNDF [19 (low FNDF, LF) and 24% (high FNDF, HF) of dry matter] and 2 sources of FNDF (70:30 and 30:70 ratio of AS NDF to CS NDF). Soyhull (non-forage NDF) and corn grain were respectively used to keep dietary NDF and starch content similar across diets. Total collection of feces and urine over 3 d was performed on 8 cows (1 Latin square from each breed). The difference in dry matter intake (DMI) between Holsteins and Jerseys was greater when fed AS than CS. Compared with Jerseys, Holstein cows had greater body weight (48%), DMI (34%), fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM; 31%) and CH4 production (22%; 471 vs. 385 g/d). However, breed did not affect CH4 intensity (g/kg of FPCM) or yield (g/kg of DMI), nutrient digestibility, and N partitioning. Compared with HF, LF-fed cows had greater DMI (10%), N intake (8%), and FPCM (5%), but they were 5% less efficient (both FPCM/DMI and milk N/intake N). Compared with HF, LF-fed cows excreted 11 and 17% less urinary N (g/d and % of N intake, respectively). In spite of lower (2.5%) acetate and higher (10%) propionate (mol/100 mol ruminal volatile fatty acids) LF-fed cows had greater (6%) CH4 production (g/d) than did HF-fed cows, most likely due to increased DMI, as affected mainly by the soyhulls. Compared with AS, CS-fed cows had greater DMI (7%) and FPCM (4%), but they were less efficient (5%), and CH4 yield (g/kg of DMI) was reduced by 8%. In addition, per unit of gross energy intake, CS-fed cows lost less urinary energy (15%) and CH energy (11%) than did AS-fed cows. We concluded that, in contrast to level and source of FNDF, breed did not affect digestive and metabolic efficiencies, and, furthermore, neither breed nor dietary treatments affected CH4 intensity. The tradeoff between CH4 and N losses may have implications in future studies assessing the environmental effects of milk production when approached from a whole-farm perspective.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/biossíntese , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Feminino , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6054-6069, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418697

RESUMO

A growing need exists for the development of practical feeding strategies to mitigate methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of milk replacer feeding intensity (MFI) in calves on CH4 emission, rumen development, and performance. Twenty-eight female newborn Holstein calves were randomly assigned to 2 feeding groups, offered daily either 10% of the body weight (BW) in colostrum and subsequently 10% of the BW in milk replacer (MR; 10%-MR), or 12% of the BW in colostrum followed by 20% of the BW in MR (20%-MR). In wk 3, half of each feeding group was equipped with a permanent rumen cannula. Both groups were weaned at the end of wk 12. Hay and calf starter (mixture of pelleted grains) were offered from d 1 until wk 14 and 16, respectively. A total mixed ration was offered from wk 11 onward. Feed intake was measured daily and BW, anatomical measures, and rumen size weekly. Methane production and gastrointestinal passage rate were measured pre-weaning in wk 6 and 9 and post-weaning in wk 14 and 22, with additional estimation of organic matter digestibility. Rumen fluid, collected in wk 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 14, 18, and 22, was analyzed for volatile fatty acid concentrations. Although the experimental period ended in wk 23, rumen volume of 17 calves was determined after slaughter in wk 34. Data was analyzed using ANOVA for the effects of feeding group, cannulation, and time, if applicable. Dry matter intake (DMI) of solid feed (SF) in 20%-MR animals was lower pre-weaning in wk 6 to 10 but mostly higher post-weaning. From wk 6 onward, anatomical measures and BW were greater in 20%-MR animals, and only the differences in body condition score gradually ceased post-weaning. Following the amount of SF intake, 10%-MR calves emitted more CH4 pre-weaning in wk 9, whereas post-weaning the 20%-MR group tended to have higher levels. Methane emission intensity (CH4/BW) was lower pre-weaning in 20%-MR animals but was comparable to the 10%-MR group post-weaning. Methane yield (CH4/DMI of SF) and estimated post-weaning organic matter digestibility were not affected by MFI. Rumen size normalized to heart girth was greater in 10%-MR calves from wk 5 to 10, but differences did not persist thereafter. In wk 34, rumen volume was higher in 20%-MR calves, but normalization to BW revealed no difference between feeding groups. In conclusion, high MFI reduces CH4 emission from calves pre-weaning, although this effect ceases post-weaning.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Metano/biossíntese , Substitutos do Leite/farmacologia , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Líquidos Corporais , Peso Corporal , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Feminino , Substitutos do Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , Rúmen/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460612

RESUMO

The methane production and the microbial community dynamics of thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (AD) of corn stover, swine manure and effluent were conducted at total solid (TS) content of 5%, 10% and 15%, the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 20, 30 and 40 and the effluent volumetric percentage (EVP) of 20%, 40% and 60%. For batches with 5% TS, the highest methane yield of 238.5-283.1 mL g-1 volatile solid (VS) and the specific methane productivity of 138.5-152.2 mL g-1 initial VS were obtained at the C/N ratios of 20 and 30. For the mixtures with 10% and 15% TS, the highest methane yield was 341.9 mL g-1 VS and 351.2 mL g-1 VS, respectively, when the C/N ratio of 20% and 60% EVP conditions were maintained. Co-digestion of swine manure with corn stover caused an obvious shift in microbial population, in which the archaeal population changed from 0.3% to 2.8% and the bacterial community changed from 97.2% to 99.7%. The experimental batches with the highest relative abundance of the archaeal population (2.00% of total microbial population for 5% TS, 1.74% for 10% TS and 2.76% for 15% TS) had the highest rate of methanogenesis subsequently enhancing methane production (283.08 mL g-1 VS for 5% TS, 341.91 mL g-1 VS for 10% TS and 351.23 mL g-1 VS for 15% TS). The results of microbiome analysis enabled understanding the key populations in biomethane generation.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Esterco/análise , Metano/biossíntese , Microbiota , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Zea mays/química , Anaerobiose , Animais , Archaea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Anaeróbias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biocombustíveis/análise , Carbono/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Nitrogênio/análise , Suínos
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6178-6189, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418694

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of incorporating lemon leaves and rice straw into the compound feed of diets for dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats (n = 5 per group) in mid-lactation were used in a crossover design experiment (2 treatments across 2 periods). Goats were fed a mixed ration with barley grain (control, CON) or CON plus lemon leaves [189 g/kg of dry matter (DM)] and rice straw (120 g/kg of DM) in place of barley grain (LRS). Soybean oil (19 g/kg of DM) was added to the LRS diet to make it isoenergetic (17 MJ of gross energy/kg of DM) relative to CON. After 14 d on their respective treatments, goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages for another 7 d. Subsequently, feed intake, total fecal and urine output, and milk yield were recorded daily over the first 5 d. During the last 2 d, ruminal fluid and blood samples were collected, along with individual gas exchange measurements recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. No differences in DM intake were detected, and ME intake in LRS was lower than in CON (1,095 vs. 1,180 kJ/kg of metabolic body weight). No differences were observed in milk production, but milk fat content was greater in LRS (6.4%) than in CON (5.6%). Greater concentrations of monounsaturated (14.94 vs. 11.96 g/100 g of milk fat) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (4.53 vs. 4.03 g/100 g of milk fat) were detected in the milk of goats fed LRS compared with CON. Atherogenicity (2.68 vs.1.91) and thrombogenic (4.58 vs. 2.81) indices were lower with LRS compared with CON. Enteric CH4 emission was lower in LRS (24.3 g/d) compared with CON (31.1 g/d), probably due to the greater lipid content and unsaturated fatty acid profile of lemon leaves and the soybean oil added in the LRS diet. Overall, data suggest that incorporating lemon leaves and rice straw into lactating goat diets is effective in reducing CH4 emissions while allowing improvements in milk fat production and milk thrombogenic index without affecting production performance. Thus, their inclusion in compound feeds fed to small ruminants appears warranted and would have multiple positive effects, as on efficiency of nutrient use, human health, and the environment.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Dieta/veterinária , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/biossíntese , Oryza , Folhas de Planta/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Metabolismo Energético , Fezes , Feminino , Cabras/metabolismo , Leite/química , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7777, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385383

RESUMO

Steroid estrogens, as typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), have raised an increasing concern due to their endocrine disrupting effects on aquatic animals and potential hazards on human health. Batch experiments were conducted to study 17 beta-estradiol (E2) removal and Estradiol Equivalent Quantity (EEQ) elimination by anaerobic granular sludge (AnGS) combined with different valence iron sources. Results showed that E2 was effectively biodegraded and transformed into E1 by AnGS. The addition of different valence iron sources all promoted E2 degradation, reduced E2 Equivalent Quotient (EEQ) concentration, and increased methane production in the batch experiments. The enhancement effect of zero-valent iron (ZVI) on E2 removal and EEQ elimination was stronger than that of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in our experiments. The enhancement effect proportion of ZVI corrosion, Fe2+, and Fe3+ in the process of E2 degradation by AnGS combined with ZVI were 42.26%, 40.21% and 17.53%, respectively.


Assuntos
Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Estradiol/metabolismo , Esgotos , Biotecnologia/métodos , Biotransformação , Estradiol/análise , Estrogênios/análise , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Metano/análise , Metano/biossíntese
17.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(2): 137-141, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331776

RESUMO

We had developed a new pretreatment system using cow rumen fluid to improve the methane production from lignocellulosic substrates. However, the pretreatment conditions differ from the in-situ rumen environment, therefore different microbes may be involved in plant cell wall decomposition. In the current study, shotgun metagenomic analysis using MiSeq platform was performed to elucidate the bacteria which produce cellulase and hemicellulase in this pretreatment system. The rumen fluid which contained waste paper pieces (0.1% w/v) were incubated at 37°C during 120 h. The fluid samples were collected from the reactor at each time-point and analyzed for chemical properties. Rumen microbial DNA was extracted from 0-h and 60-h samples and subjected to shotgun-metagenomic analysis. After pretreatment, approximately half of cellulose and hemicellulose contents of the waste paper were decomposed and some volatile fatty acids were accumulated. Clostridia (e.g., Ruminococcus and Clostridium) were the predominant bacteria before and after 60-h pretreatment, and their relative abundance was increased during pretreatment. However, Prevotella and Fibrobacter, one of the most dominant bacteria in-situ rumen fluid, were observed less than 3% before incubation and they were decreased after pretreatment. Genes encoding cellulase and hemicellulase were mainly found in Ruminococcus, Clostridium, and Caldicellulosiruptor. Calicellulosiruptor, which had not been previously identified as the predominant genus in lignocellulose decomposition in in-situ rumen conditions, might be considered as the main fibrolytic bacterium in this system. Thus, this study demonstrated that the composition of fibrolytic bacteria in this system was greatly different from those in the in-situ rumen.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/enzimologia , Microbiologia Industrial , Lignina/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Rúmen/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Bovinos , Celulase/genética , Celulase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Metano/biossíntese
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231623, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294115

RESUMO

Biogenic CBM is an important component of detected CBM, which is formed by coal biodegradation and can be regenerated by anaerobic microorganisms. One of the rate-limiting factors for microbial degradation is the bioavailability of coal molecules, especially for anthracite which is more condense and has higher aromaticity compared with low-rank coal. In this paper, NaOH solution with different concentrations and treating time was employed to pretreat anthracite from Qinshui Basin to alter the coal structure and facilitate the biodegradation. The results showed that the optimal pretreatment conditions were 1.5 M NaOH treating for 12 h, under which the biomethane production was increased by 17.65% compared with untreated coal. The results of FTIR and XRD showed that NaOH pretreatment mainly reduced the multi-substituted aromatics, increased the C-O in alcohols and aromatic ethers and the branching degree of aliphatic chain, and decreased the aromatic ring structure, resulting in the improvement of coal bioavailability and enhancement of biomethane yield. And some organics with potential to generate methane were released to filtrate as revealed by GC-MS. Our results suggested that NaOH was an effective solution for pretreating coal to enhance biogenic methane production, and anthracite after treating with NaOH could be the better substrate for methanogenesis.


Assuntos
Archaea/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Carvão Mineral/microbiologia , Metano/biossíntese , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metano/análise , Energia Renovável , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Difração de Raios X
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(5): 2433-2441, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297043

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of either urea or NaOH in dehydrated acerola (Malpighia emarginata) fruit residue (DAFR) on chemical composition, in vitro rumen degradability, and gas and methane production. A completely randomized design was used with the following seven treatments: control, without chemical treatment, or pretreatment of DAFR with urea or NaOH at 20, 40, or 60 g/kg dry matter (DM). DM degradability and gas and methane production of DAFR were evaluated by semi-automated in vitro gas production technique. DAFR treated with urea or NaOH at concentrations of 40 and 60 g/kg DM decreased its neutral detergent fiber (P = 0.0115) and lignin (P < 0.0001) content, and this reduction was greater with the highest concentration (60 g/kg DM). In all tested concentrations, urea and NAOH were effective to increase the DM effective degradability of DAFR compared with the control treatment, although treatments with a concentration of 60 g/kg DM presented the highest values (P < 0.0001). Treatment of DAFR with NaOH or urea at 60 g/kg DM promotes greater lignin solubilization and DM degradability and lower gas and methane production in in vitro rumen fermentation.


Assuntos
Digestão , Malpighiaceae/química , Metano/biossíntese , Rúmen/metabolismo , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Ureia/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Brasil , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Carneiro Doméstico
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6145-6156, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278563

RESUMO

This experiment was designed to test the effect of inclusion rate of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), a methane inhibitor, on enteric methane emissions in dairy cows. The study was conducted with 49 multiparous Holstein cows in a randomized complete block design in 2 phases; phase 1 was with 28 cows, and phase 2 with 21 cows. Cows were fed a basal total mixed ration ad libitum and were blocked based on days in milk, milk yield, and enteric methane emissions during a 14-d covariate period. Treatments were control (no 3-NOP) and 40, 60, 80, 100, 150, and 200 mg of 3-NOP/kg of feed dry matter. Following a 14-d adaptation period, enteric gaseous emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen) were measured using the GreenFeed system (C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) over a 3-d period. Compared with the control, inclusion rate of 3-NOP quadratically decreased daily enteric methane emissions from 22 to 40%. Maximum mitigation effect was achieved with the 3 highest 3-NOP doses (with no statistical difference among 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg). The decrease in methane emission yield and emission intensity ranged from 16 to 36% and from 25 to 45%, respectively. Emissions of hydrogen quadratically increased 6- to 10-fold, compared with the control; the maximum increase was with 150 mg/kg 3-NOP. Treatment did not affect daily emissions of carbon dioxide, but a linear increase in carbon dioxide emission yield was observed with increasing 3-NOP doses. Dry matter intake and milk yield of the cows was not affected by 3-NOP. Milk fat concentration and yield were increased by 3-NOP due to increased concentration of de novo synthetized short-chain fatty acids in milk. Inclusion of 3-NOP also tended to increase milk urea nitrogen but had no other effects on milk components. In this short-term experiment, 3-NOP decreased enteric methane emissions without affecting dry matter intake or milk yield and increased milk fat in dairy cows. Maximum mitigation effect was achieved at 100 to 200 mg/kg of feed dry matter.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Metano/biossíntese , Propanóis/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Rúmen/química
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