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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133907, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973298

RESUMO

A multi-channel colorimetric device was developed for the low-cost and simultaneous determination of three important parameters in wine safety and quality- total iron (Fe), methanol (MeOH), and total phenols. The detection was performed by assembling light-dependent resistors and light-emitting diodes in a 3D printed chamber, which measured colorimetric signals horizontally transmitting through the microwells of an 8-well strip. This device demonstrated linear relationships (R2 greater than 0.99) for all analytes with detection limits of 0.04 mg/L, 2.26 mg/L, and 3.40 mg/L for Fe, MeOH, and total phenols, respectively. Wine sample measurements showed that the multi-channel device was as accurate as the professional spectrophotometer and could simultaneously provide the three target concentrations to facilitate the analysis. With the merits of low fabrication cost and ease of use, this device could be used as a general platform for multiple-target detection, demonstrating great potential for application in food analysis.


Assuntos
Vinho , Colorimetria , Análise de Alimentos , Metanol/análise , Fenóis/análise , Vinho/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 400: 134066, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075170

RESUMO

The paper outlines a procedure based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and QuEChERS pretreatment for the determination of patulin in selected berries and stone fruits. The mycotoxin was determined in the positive electrospray ionization mode utilizing the formation of its methanol adduct. The method was validated for 4 fruit matrices: strawberry (Rosaceae, Fragaria), raspberry (Rosaceae, Rubus), redcurrant (Rosaceae, Prunus) and sour cherry (Grossulariaceae, Ribes). The fruits were characterized by total phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanin contents and obtained results were within the ranges of 2.65-11.22 mg GAE/g, 1.06-4.67 mg CE/g, 0.05-1.44 mg cyd-3-glu/g, respectively. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.65 µg/kg to 3.01 µg/kg depending on the fruit type. The method was applied to 71 fruit samples collected in Poland. Analysis of moldy fruit samples has shown a high incidence of patulin contamination.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Patulina , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Frutas/química , Metanol/análise , Patulina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243332, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345537

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo manifestar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos metanólicos de Salix alba L. contra sete patógenos bacterianos Gram-positivos e Gram-negativos. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) e Neisseria gonorrhoeae e três isolados de fungos do ar, como Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, e Rhizopus stolonifer. Dois sorotipos diferentes de S. aureus e E. coli foram usados. Os resultados do método de difusão em ágar mostraram a resposta dependente da dose de extratos de plantas contra cepas de bactérias e fungos, enquanto alguns organismos foram considerados resistentes, e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus e R. stolonifer. A maior atividade antibacteriana foi registrada em 17.000 ± 1.732 de 100 mg/mL de extratos metanólicos de folhas contra S. pyogenes, enquanto a atividade da maioria dos patógenos diminuiu após 24 h de incubação. A maior atividade antifúngica foi relatada em 11,833 ± 1,0 contra A. ornatus a 50 mg/mL após 48 h do período de incubação. Esses achados experimentais endossam o uso de S. alba em formulações etnofarmacológicas e sugerem o uso de extratos metanólicos da referida planta para o desenvolvimento de fármacos que controlem a proliferação de doenças resistentes que causam micróbios patogênicos.


Assuntos
Salix , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Metanol , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285613

RESUMO

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Linho , Diabetes Mellitus , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Biofilmes , Metanol
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15493, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109567

RESUMO

The main effectors in the innate immune system of Bombyx mori L. are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we infected B. mori with varied inoculum sizes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25668 cells to investigate changes in morpho-anatomical responses, physiological processes and AMP production. Ultraviolet-visible spectra revealed a sharp change in λmax from 278 to 285 nm (bathochromic shift) in the hemolymph of infected B. mori incubated for 24 h. Further, Fourier Transform InfraRed studies on the hemolymph extracted from the infected B. mori showed a peak at 1550 cm-1, indicating the presence of α-helical peptides. The peptide fraction was obtained through methanol, acetic acid and water mixture (90:1:9) extraction, followed by peptide purification using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The fraction exhibiting antibacterial properties was collected and characterized by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight. A linear α-helical peptide with flexible termini (LLKELWTKMKGAGKAVLGKIKGLL) was found, corresponding to a previously described peptide from ant venom and here denominated as Bm-ponericin-L1. The antibacterial activity of Bm-ponericin-L1 was determined against ESKAPE pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the membrane disruption potential of Bm-ponericin-L1. Moreover, this peptide also showed promising antibiofilm activity. Finally, cell viability and hemolytic assays revealed that Bm-ponericin-L1 is non-toxic toward primary fibroblasts cell lines and red blood cells, respectively. This study opens up new perspectives toward an alternative approach to overcoming multiple-antibiotic-resistance by means of AMPs through invertebrates' infection with human pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Venenos de Formiga , Anti-Infecciosos , Bombyx , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Monofosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hemolinfa , Humanos , Metanol , Peptídeos/química , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Água
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113468, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076494

RESUMO

Calanthe fimbriata Franch. is a Tujia ethnic herb, which has traditionally been used to treat gastric ulcers, chronic hepatitis, etc. We explored the chemical constitutes, gastroprotective effects, and the active fraction of C. fimbriata, as well as elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Firstly, four in vitro antioxidant tests were applied to determine the oxidation resistance of C. fimbriata methanol extract and its fractions. The gastroprotective effects were evaluated in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer rats, gastric histopathology was visualized by H&E staining, and the acidity of gastric juice was measured by titrating with NaOH solution. The contents of malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, gastrin, and the activity of H+K+-ATPase were estimated using commercial kits. EtOAc fraction of C. fimbriata methanol extract (CfEF) exhibited significant gastroprotective effects by ameliorating stomach pathological changes and elevating the pH value of gastric juice. It also manifested remarkable antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo. Using various chromatographic methods and spectroscopic techniques, 22 compounds were isolated and characterized from CfEF, in which alkaloids were the predominant components. All of these substances were derived from C. fimbriata for the first time. The results indicated that CfEF is a promising source of gastroprotective agents. The antioxidant activity of this herb, as well as prevention of gastrin secretion and inhibition of H+K+ -ATPase, was found to be the underlying mechanism of action.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos , Orchidaceae , Úlcera Gástrica , Animais , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Gástrica , Gastrinas/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Hidrogênio-Potássio/metabolismo , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle
7.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080247

RESUMO

Combretaceae, an immense family involving species (500) or genera (20), originates in tropical and subtropical regions. This family has evinced medicinal values such as anti-leishmanial, cytotoxic, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiprotozoal, and antifungal properties. Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius) methanol extract (CLM) was prepared, then compound isolation performed by open column chromatography, and compound structure was determined by spectroscopic techniques (13C NMR, IR spectroscopy, 1H-NMR, mass spectrometry UV-visible, and 2D correlation techniques). Molecular docking studies of ligand were performed on transcriptional regulators 4EY7 and 2GV9 to observe possible interactions. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of secondary metabolites including steroids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, anthraquinones, and flavonoids. The isolated compound was distinguished as lancifolamide (LFD). It showed cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer, murine lymphocytic leukemia, and normal cells, human embryonic kidney cells, and rat glioma cells with IC50 values of 0.72 µg/mL, 2.01 µg/mL, 1.55 µg/mL, and 2.40 µg/mL, respectively. Although no cytotoxic activity was noticed against human colon cancer and human lung cancer, LFD showed 24.04% inhibition against BChE and 60.30% inhibition against AChE and is therefore beneficial for Alzheimer's disease (AD). AChE and LFD interact mechanistically in a way that is optimum for neurodegenerative disorders, according to molecular docking studies. Methanol and dichloromethane extract of C. lancifolius and LFD shows antibacterial and antifungal activity against antibiotic resistance Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Salmonella Typhi, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively. LFD shows antiviral activity against HSV-1 with 26% inhibition IP. The outcomes of this study support the use of LFD for cognitive disorders and highlight its underlying mechanism, targeting AChE, DNA-POL, NF-KB, and TNF-α, etc., for the first time.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase , Combretaceae , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Combretaceae/química , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metanol , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos
8.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080355

RESUMO

Several species within the genera Cassia or Senna have a treasure of traditional medicines worldwide and can be a promising source of bioactive molecules. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic content and antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities of leaf methanolic extracts of C. fistula L., C. grandis L., S. alexandrina Mill., and S. italica Mill. The two Cassia spp. contained higher total polyphenolic content (42.23-49.75 mg GAE/g) than the two Senna spp., and C. fistula had significantly (p ˂ 0.05) the highest concentration. On the other hand, the Senna spp. showed higher total flavonoid content (41.47-59.24 mg rutin equivalent per g of extract) than that found in the two Cassia spp., and S. alexandrina significantly (p ˂ 0.05) accumulated the highest amount. HPLC-MS/MS analysis of 38 selected bioactive compounds showed that the majority of compounds were identified in the four species, but with sharp variations in their concentrations. C. fistula was dominated by epicatechin (8928.75 µg/g), C. grandis by kaempferol-3-glucoside (47,360.04 µg/g), while rutin was the major compound in S. italica (17,285.02 µg/g) and S. alexandrina (6381.85). The methanolic extracts of the two Cassia species exerted significantly (p ˂ 0.05) higher antiradical activity, metal reducing capacity, and total antioxidant activity than that recorded from the two Senna species' methanolic extracts, and C. fistula displayed significantly (p ˂ 0.05) the highest values. C. grandis significantly (p ˂ 0.05) exhibited the highest metal chelating power. The results of the enzyme inhibition activity showed that the four species possessed anti-AChE activity, and the highest value, but not significantly (p ≥ 0.05) different from those obtained by the two Cassia spp., was exerted by S. alexandrina. The Cassia spp. exhibited significantly (p ˂ 0.05) higher anti-BChE and anti-Tyr properties than the Senna spp., and C. grandise revealed significantly (p ˂ 0.05) the highest values. C. grandise revealed significantly (p ˂ 0.05) the highest α- amylase inhibition, while the four species had more or less the same effect against the α-glucosidase enzyme. Multivariate analysis and in silico studies showed that many of the identified phenols may play key roles as antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties. Thus, these Cassia and Senna species could be a promising source of natural bioactive agents with beneficial effects for human health.


Assuntos
Cassia , Senna (Planta) , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Metanol , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Rutina/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , alfa-Amilases
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 299: 115692, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084818

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a tree found in the Brazilian savannah, traditionally used to treat several diseases, including diabetes and hypertension. The anti-hypertensive activity of H. speciosa leaves (HSL) has been demonstrated in different models and is credited to the vasodilator effect and ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibition. The hypoglycemic effect of HSL has been also reported. AIM OF THE STUDY: To establish correlations between the biological activities elicited by H. speciosa extracts and the contents of their major compounds, aiming to define chemical markers related to the potential antihypertensive and antidiabetic effects of the species. Additionally, it aimed to isolate and characterize the chemical structure of a marker related to the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extracts of a single batch of H. speciosa leaves were prepared by extraction with distinct solvents (ethanol/water in different proportions; methanol/ethyl acetate), employing percolation or static maceration as extraction techniques, at different time intervals. The contents of chlorogenic acid, rutin and FlavHS (a tri-O-glycoside of quercetin) were quantified by a developed and validated HPLC-PDA method. Bornesitol was determined by HPLC-PDA after derivatization with tosyl chloride, whereas total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically. Identification of other constituents in the extracts was performed by UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The vasorelaxant activity was assayed in rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, and α-glucosidase inhibition was tested in vitro. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to evaluate the contribution of each marker to the biological responses. Isolation of compound 1 was carried out by column chromatography and structure characterization was accomplished by NMR and UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analyses. RESULTS: The contents of the chemical markers (mean ± s.d. % w/w) varied significantly among the extracts, including total flavonoids (2.68 ± 0.14 to 5.28 ± 0.29), bornesitol (5.11 ± 0.26 to 7.75 ± 0.78), rutin (1.46 ± 0.06 to 1.97 ± 0.02), FlavHS (0.72 ± 0.05 to 0.94 ± 0.14) and chlorogenic acid (0.67 ± 0.09 to 0.91 ± 0.02). All extracts elicited vasorelaxant effect (pIC50 between 4.97 ± 0.22 to 6.48 ± 0.10) and α-glucosidase inhibition (pIC50 between 3.49 ± 0.21 to 4.03 ± 0.10). PCA disclosed positive correlations between the vasorelaxant effect and the contents of chlorogenic acid, rutin, total flavonoids, and FlavHS, whereas a negative correlation was found with bornesitol concentration. No significant correlation between α-glucosidase inhibition and the contents of the above-mentioned compounds was found. On the other hand, PCA carried out with the areas of the ten major peaks from the chromatograms disclosed positive correlations between a peak ascribed to co-eluted triterpenes and α-glucosidase inhibition. A triterpene was isolated and identified as 3-O-ß-(3'-R-hydroxy)-hexadecanoil-lupeol. CONCLUSION: According to PCA results, the vasorelaxant activity of H. speciosa extracts is related to flavonoids and chlorogenic acid, whereas the α-glucosidase inhibition is associated with lipophilic compounds, including esters of lupeol like 3-O-ß-(3'-R-hydroxy)-hexadecanoil-lupeol, described for the first time for the species. These compounds can be selected as chemical markers for the quality control of H. speciosa plant drug and derived extracts.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , alfa-Glucosidases , Angiotensinas/análise , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/análise , Apocynaceae/química , Quimiometria , Ácido Clorogênico , Etanol , Flavonoides/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metanol , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos , Fenilefrina , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Quercetina/análise , Ratos , Rutina/farmacologia , Solventes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vasodilatadores/análise , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Água
10.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(5): 484-493, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117578

RESUMO

Background: Brown algae have gained worldwide attention due to their significant biological activities, such as antidiabetic properties. In the present study, the antidiabetic properties of six brown algae from the Persian Gulf were investigated. Methods: An experimental study was conducted from 2017 to 2019 to examine the inhibitory effects of six brown algae against the α-glucosidase activity. Methanol (MeOH) and 80% MeOH extracts of Colpomenia sinuosa, Sargassum acinaciforme, Iyengaria stellata, Sirophysalis trinodis, and two accessions of Polycladia myrica were analyzed. The effect of 80% MeOH extracts of Sirophysalis trinodis on blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was evaluated. Chemical constituents of brown algae were analyzed using thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The 80% MeOH extracts of Iyengaria stellata (IC50=0.33±0.15 µg/mL) and Colpomenia sinuosa (IC50=3.50±0.75 µg/mL) as well as the MeOH extracts of Colpomenia sinuosa (IC50=3.31±0.44 µg/mL) exhibited stronger inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase than the acarbose (IC50=160.15±27.52 µg/mL, P<0.001). The 80% MeOH extracts of Sirophysalis trinodis reduced postprandial blood glucose levels in diabetic rats compared to the control group (P=0.037). Fucoxanthin was characterized as the major antidiabetic agent in most of the algal extracts. Conclusion: Sirophysalis trinodis is recommended as a novel source for isolation and identification of potential antidiabetic compounds due to its high in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Feófitas , Acarbose , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Oceano Índico , Metanol , Feófitas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Estreptozocina/análise , alfa-Glucosidases
11.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 5(4): 377-388, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chukrasia velutina is an enthnomedicinally used plant reported to have significant medicinal values. The present study aimed to explore the pharmacological activities of bark methanol extract using in vitro, in vivo and in silico models. METHODS: The study was designed to investigate the pharmacological effects of methanol extract of Chukrasia velutina bark (MECVB) through in vitro, in vivo and in silico assays. Analgesic activity was tested using formalin-induced nociception and acetic acid-induced writhing assays while the antipyretic effect was tested using yeast-induced hyperthermia in mice model. The antioxidant effect was tested using the DPPH and reducing power assay and the cytotoxic screening was tested using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, in silico studies were conducted using computer aided methods. RESULTS: In the acetic acid-induced writhing assay, the extract showed 28.36% and 56.16% inhibition of writhing for doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, a dose-dependent formalin-induced licking response was observed in both early and late phase. In yeast-induced pyrexia, the MECVB exhibited (p < 0.05) antipyretic effect. The extract demonstrated an IC50 value of 78.86 µg/ml compared with ascorbic acid (IC50 23.53 µg/ml) in the DPPH scavenging assay. The compounds sitosterol, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin and scopoletin were seen be effective in molecular docking scores against COX-I (2OYE), COX-II (6COX) and human peroxiredoxin 5 (1HD2). In ADME/T analysis, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin and scopoletin satisfied Lipinski's rule of five and thus are potential drug candidates. CONCLUSION: The bark of Chukrasia velutina showed significant analgesic and antipyretic properties and is a potential source of natural anti-oxidative agents.


Assuntos
Antipiréticos , Meliaceae , Ácido Acético/análise , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Computadores , Formaldeído/análise , Humanos , Metanol/análise , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Escopoletina/análise
12.
J Org Chem ; 87(18): 12087-12095, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049485

RESUMO

A study involving the use of Mg-MeOH for the double reductive cleavage of both N-S and C-S bonds in a series of 11 benzo-fused cyclic sulfonamides is reported. Examples where the sulfonamide nitrogen atom is part of a pyrrolidine ring effectively undergo reduction, as long as a methoxy substituent is not para-positioned in the aromatic ring, relative to the sulfonyl group. In contrast, if the nitrogen atom is contained within an aromatic ring (pyrrole or indole), the presence of a para-methoxy substituent does not prohibit reduction. If deuterated methanol is used, aromatic ortho-deuterium incorporation was observed. To better understand how structure affects reactivity, density functional theory calculations were performed using three functionals. Results using CAM-B3LYP were found to best correlate with experimental observations, and these demonstrate the impact that the different aromatic substitution patterns and types of N-atom have on the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and adiabatic electron affinities.


Assuntos
Metanol , Sulfonamidas , Deutério , Indóis , Nitrogênio , Pirróis , Pirrolidinas , Sulfanilamida
13.
Anal Chem ; 94(36): 12292-12296, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048752

RESUMO

A key element of successful lipidomics analysis is a sufficient extraction of lipid molecules typically by two-phase systems such as chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer (B&D). However, numerous metabolomics and lipidomics studies today apply easy to use one-phase extractions. In this work, quantitative flow injection analysis high-resolution mass spectrometry was applied to benchmark the lipid recovery of popular one-phase extraction methods for human plasma samples. The following organic solvents were investigated: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), 2-propanol (IPA), 1-butanol (BuOH), acetonitrile (ACN) and the solvent mixtures BuOH/MeOH (3:1) and MeOH/ACN (1:1). The recovery of polar lysophospholipids was sufficient for all tested solvents. However, nonpolar lipid classes such as triglycerides (TG) and cholesteryl esters (CE) revealed extraction efficiencies less than 5% due to precipitation in polar solvents EtOH, MeOH, MeOH/ACN, and ACN. Sample pellets also contained a substantial amount of phospholipids, for example, more than 75% of total phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin for ACN. The loss of lipids by precipitation was directly related to the polarity of solvents and lipid classes. Although, lipid recovery increased with the volume of organic solvent, recovery in polar MeOH remains incomplete also for less polar lipid classes such as ceramides. Addition of stable isotope-labeled internal standards prior to lipid extraction could compensate for insufficient lipid recovery for polar lipid classes including lysolipids and phospholipids but not for nonpolar CE and TG. In summary, application of one-phase extractions should be limited to polar lipid classes unless sufficient recovery/solubility of nonpolar lipids has been demonstrated. The presented data reveal that appropriate lipid extraction efficiency is fundamental to achieve accurate lipid quantification.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Lipidômica , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metanol/química , Fosfolipídeos , Solventes/química , Triglicerídeos
14.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 146, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteric methane emissions from dairy cows are an environmental problem as well as a gross feed energy loss to the animal. Methane is generated in the rumen by methanogenic archaea from hydrogen (H2) + carbon dioxide and from H2 + methanol or methylamines. The methanogenic substrates are provided by non-methanogens during feed fermentation. Methane mitigation approaches have yielded variable results, partially due to an incomplete understanding of the contribution of hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic archaea to methanogenesis. Research indicates that 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP) reduces enteric methane formation in dairy cows by inhibiting methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), the enzyme responsible for methane formation. The purpose of this study was to utilize metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches to investigate the effect of 3-NOP on the rumen microbiome and to determine the fate of H2 that accumulates less than expected under inhibited methanogenesis. RESULTS: The inhibitor 3-NOP was more inhibitory on Methanobrevibacter species than methanol-utilizing Methanosphaera and tended to reduce the gene expression of MCR. Under inhibited methanogenesis by 3-NOP, fluctuations in H2 concentrations were accompanied by changes in the expression of [FeFe] hydrogenases in H2-producing bacteria to regulate the amount of H2 production. No previously reported alternative H2 sinks increased under inhibited methanogenesis except for a significant increase in gene expression of enzymes involved in the butyrate pathway. CONCLUSION: By taking a metatranscriptomic approach, this study provides novel insights on the contribution of methylotrophic methanogens to total methanogenesis and regulation of H2 metabolism under normal and inhibited methanogenesis by 3-NOP in the rumen. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Euryarchaeota , Metano , Animais , Bovinos , Euryarchaeota/metabolismo , Feminino , Metano/metabolismo , Methanobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Metanol/metabolismo , Propanóis , Rúmen/microbiologia , Transcriptoma
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(9): 4717-4726, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096612

RESUMO

Adding external carbon sources is an important method for advanced nitrogen removal of secondary effluent in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In order to compare the denitrification performance and economy of different carbon sources sufficiently, as well as the effect of long-term addition of carbon sources on the microbial population structure, four single carbon sources (methanol, ethanol, glucose, and sodium acetate) and four types of composite carbon sources were prepared by mixing sodium acetate and ethanol with a higher reaction rate and cheap glucose. The results showed that the effluent ρ(NOx--N) concentration of all systems was less than 1.0 mg·L-1 during the experiment. For single-carbon source systems, ethanol had the fastest denitrification rate, followed by sodium acetate and methanol; that of the glucose was the slowest. In the composite carbon source systems, the sodium acetate/glucose (1:1) with COD/ρ(N) was 6, which was equivalent to the results of sodium acetate/glucose (1:3), ethanol/glucose(1:1), and ethanol/glucose (1:3) with COD/ρ(N) of 9, 10, and 10, respectively. The sodium acetate/glucose (1:1) system had the fastest reaction rate and the best economy. High-throughput sequencing results showed that after more than 70 days of operation, the structure of the microbial community had changed completely. In the glucose-related system, the abundance of Candidatus Saccharibacteria, which is not popular in typical nitrogen removal systems, increased from 1.16% of seed sludge to 47.37%, and Saccharibacteria_genera_incertae_sedis correspondingly became the dominant community. This study not only provides a more comprehensive comparison for the selection of carbon sources in WWTPs with ultimate nitrogen removal but also provides basic data for the role of carbon sources in the domestication of microbial communities.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Nitrogênio , Bactérias , Carbono/química , Desnitrificação , Etanol/química , Glucose , Metanol/química , Nitrogênio/química , Acetato de Sódio
16.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(6): 537-548, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098189

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The oriental fruit fly <i>Bactrocera dorsalis</i> (Hendel) is one of the most important insect pest species of fruit and vegetable crops in the tropical and subtropical regions. This study aimed to determine the attraction of female and male <i>B. dorsalis</i> fruit flies to the aroma of fruit juice from the host plants as well as their attraction to methanol extract, ethyl acetate extract and distillate water of selected host fruits. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The attractiveness of the juice and extract/distillate water of the host fruits to <i>B. dorsalis</i> fruit flies was carried out in an experimental cage measuring 200×200×200 cm that was placed in the laboratory. The volatile compounds in the juice, methanol extract, ethyl acetate extract and distillate water of the selected fruits were analyzed using GCMS-Pyrolysis. <b>Results:</b> The results show that among the eight fruit juice aromas tested, the ones that significantly affected the number of trapped female <i>B. dorsalis</i> were the aromas of banana juice, papaya juice and chilli juice. The results of the analysis by GCMS-Pyrolysis showed that the methanol extract of banana fruit contains one volatile compound that was previously reported to have the ability to attract female <i>B. dorsalis</i> fruit flies. Two volatile compounds in the banana distillate water were also reported to have the ability to attract female <i>B. dorsalis</i> and other fruit flies. <b>Conclusion:</b> From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the methanol extract and distillate water of the green <i>Ambon lumut</i> banana fruit of <i>Musa acuminata</i> Colla has the potential to be developed as an attractant of female <i>B. dorsalis</i>.


Assuntos
Musa , Tephritidae , Animais , Frutas , Metanol , Água
17.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 239, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer remains one of the significant causes of mortality in women due to the limitations of current treatment strategies and their associated side effects. Investigation of alternative medicine, including phytomedicine, has shown effective anti-cancer potential with fewer side effects. Azadirachta indica (commonly known as neem) is known for its medicinal properties. The present study investigated the anti-cancer potential of methanolic neem stem bark extract (MNBE) against cervical cancer using HeLa, SiHa, and ME-180 cell lines. METHODS: Cytotoxic effect of MNBE on cultured cell lines was evaluated by MTT and clonogenic assay. The growth-inhibiting effect of MNBE was further confirmed by performing cell cycle analysis and apoptosis assay using flow cytometry. The anti-migratory effect of MNBE was evaluated by using wound healing and Boyden chamber assay. Real-time PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression, and western blot and flow cytometry was used to determine the protein levels of growth and migration-related genes. RESULTS: MNBE significantly suppressed the growth and survival of cervical cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, the growth inhibitory effect of MNBE was specific to cervical cancer cells than normal cells. Cell cycle arrest was correlated to transcriptional downregulation of cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), cyclin A, and cyclin B. Additionally, MNBE treatment resulted in the upregulation of active caspase-3 protein and downregulation of prosurvival genes, Bcl2, and survivin at mRNA level and NFkB-p65 at the protein level. Furthermore, MNBE inhibited the migration of cervical cancer cells accompanied by modulation of migration-related genes, including zona occludens-1 (ZO-1), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), N-cadherin, snail, and E-cadherin. CONCLUSION: In summary, the present study provides the first evidence of MNBE in restricting cervical cancer cell growth and migration, which warrants further investigation for developing novel anti-cancer drugs.


Assuntos
Azadirachta , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Apoptose , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/farmacologia , Metanol/farmacologia , Metanol/uso terapêutico , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5243, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068201

RESUMO

Methanol is a liquid with high energy storage capacity that holds promise as an alternative substrate to replace sugars in the biotechnology industry. It can be produced from CO2 or methane and its use does not compete with food and animal feed production. However, there are currently only limited biotechnological options for the valorization of methanol, which hinders its widespread adoption. Here, we report the conversion of the industrial platform organism Escherichia coli into a synthetic methylotroph that assimilates methanol via the energy efficient ribulose monophosphate cycle. Methylotrophy is achieved after evolution of a methanol-dependent E. coli strain over 250 generations in continuous chemostat culture. We demonstrate growth on methanol and biomass formation exclusively from the one-carbon source by 13C isotopic tracer analysis. In line with computational modeling, the methylotrophic E. coli strain optimizes methanol oxidation by upregulation of an improved methanol dehydrogenase, increasing ribulose monophosphate cycle activity, channeling carbon flux through the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and downregulating tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. En route towards sustainable bioproduction processes, our work lays the foundation for the efficient utilization of methanol as the dominant carbon and energy resource.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Metanol , Carbono/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Engenharia Metabólica , Metanol/metabolismo , Pentoses
19.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080185

RESUMO

Dimethyl carbonate is a generally used chemical substance which is environmentally sustainable in nature and used in a range of industrial applications as intermediate. Although various methods, including methanol phosgenation, transesterification and oxidative carbonylation of methanol, have been developed for large-scale industrial production of DMC, they are expensive, unsafe and use noxious raw materials. Green production of DMC from CO2 and methanol is the most appropriate and eco-friendly method. Numerous catalysts were studied and tested in this regard. The issues of low yield and difficulty in tests have not been resolved fundamentally, which is caused by the inherent problems of the synthetic pathway and limitations imposed by thermodynamics. Electron-assisted activation of CO2 and membrane reactors which can separate products in real-time giving a maximum yield of DMC are also being used in the quest to find more effective production method. In this review paper, we deeply addressed green production methods of DMC using Zr/Ce/Cu-based nanocomposites as catalysts. Moreover, the relationship between the structure and activity of catalysts, catalytic mechanisms, molecular activation and active sites identification of catalysts are also discussed.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Metanol , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Formiatos/química , Metanol/química , Óxidos
20.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080271

RESUMO

Cannabis is the most consumed illicit drug worldwide, and its legal status is a source of concern. This study proposes a rapid procedure for the simultaneous quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN) in urine samples. Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) was used to pre-concentrate the analytes, which were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The procedure was previously optimized, and the final conditions were: conditioning with 50 µL methanol and 50 µL of water, sample load with two draw-eject cycles, and washing with 310 µL of 0.1% formic acid in water with 5% isopropanol; the elution was made with 35 µL of 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol. This fast extraction procedure allowed quantification in the ranges of 1-400 ng/mL for THC and CBD, 5-400 ng/mL for CBN and 11-OH-THC, and 10-400 ng/mL for THC-COOH with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99. The limits of quantification and detection were between 1 and 10 ng/mL using 0.25 mL of sample. The extraction efficiencies varied between 26 and 85%. This analytical method is the first allowing the for determination of cannabinoids in urine samples using MEPS, a fast, simple, and low-cost alternative to conventional techniques.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Canabinoides , Canabidiol/análise , Canabinoides/análise , Canabinol/análise , Dronabinol/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metanol/análise , Água
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