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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 816, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus varies depending on the healthcare facility, region and country. To understand its genetic diversity, transmission, dissemination, epidemiology and evolution in a particular geographical location, it is important to understand the similarities and variations in the population being studied. This can be achieved by using various molecular characterisation techniques. This study aimed to provide detailed molecular characterisation of South African mecA-positive S. aureus blood culture isolates by describing the SCCmec types, spa types and to lesser extent, the sequence types obtained from two consecutive national surveillance studies. METHODS: S. aureus blood culture isolates from a national laboratory-based and enhanced surveillance programme were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using automated systems. A real-time PCR assay confirmed the presence of the methicillin-resistance determinant, mecA. Conventional PCR assays were used to identify the SCCmec type and spa type, which was subsequently analysed using the Ridom StaphType™ software. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on selected isolates using conventional methods. MRSA clones were defined by their sequence type (ST), SCCmec type and spa type. RESULTS: A detailed description of findings is reported in this manuscript. SCCmec type III predominated overall followed by type IV. A total of 71 different spa types and 24 novel spa types were observed. Spa type t037 was the most common and predominated throughout followed by t1257. Isolates were multidrug resistant; isolates belonging to all SCCmec types were resistant to most of the antibiotics with the exception of type I; isolates with spa type t045 showed resistance to all antibiotics except vancomycin. The most diverse SCCmec-spa type complex was composed of the SCCmec type IV element and 53 different spa types. CONCLUSION: Although ST data was limited, thereby limiting the number of clones that could be identified, the circulating clones were relatively diverse.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Variação Genética , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Proteína Estafilocócica A/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/sangue , Hemocultura , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Humanos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Meticilina/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 621, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe an outbreak of cutaneous abscesses caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) among gold mine workers. METHODS: In February 2018, we retrospectively reviewed a random sample of 50 medical records from 243 cases and conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Pus aspirates were sent to the National Institute for Communicable Diseases from prospectively-identified cases (November 2017-March 2018). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected during a colonisation survey in February 2018. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were screened with a conventional PCR for lukS/F-PV. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine the genetic relatedness among the isolates. A sample of isolates were selected for whole genome sequencing (WGS). We conducted an assessment on biological risks associated with mining activities. RESULTS: From January 2017 to February 2018, 10% (350/3582) of mine workers sought care for cutaneous abscesses. Forty-seven medical files were available for review, 96% were male (n = 45) with a mean age of 43 years (SD = 7). About 52% (24/46) were involved in stoping and 28% (13/47) worked on a particular level. We cultured S. aureus from 79% (30/38) of cases with a submitted specimen and 14% (12/83) from colonisation swabs. All isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin. Seventy-one percent of S. aureus isolates (30/42) were PVL-PCR-positive. Six PFGE clusters were identified, 57% (21/37) were closely related. WGS analysis found nine different sequence types. PFGE and WGS analysis showed more than one cluster of S. aureus infections involving closely related isolates. Test reports for feed and product water of the mine showed that total plate counts were above the limits of 1000 cfu/ml, coliform counts > 10 cfu/100 ml and presence of faecal coliforms. Best practices were poorly implemented as some mine workers washed protective clothing with untreated water and hung them for drying at the underground surface. CONCLUSIONS: PVL-producing MSSA caused an outbreak of cutaneous abscesses among underground workers at a gold mining company. To our knowledge, no other outbreaks of PVL-producing S. aureus involving skin and soft tissue infections have been reported in mining facilities in South Africa. We recommend that worker awareness of infection prevention and control practices be strengthened.


Assuntos
Abscesso/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Adulto , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Ouro , Humanos , Leucocidinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Meticilina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineradores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
3.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 628-634, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842382

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of pediatric methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and the antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates. Methods: The clinical data of children with MRSA infection and antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates from 11 children's hospitals in Infectious Diseases Surveillance of Paediatrics (ISPED) group of China between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2018 were collected retrospectively. The children's general condition, high-risk factors, antimicrobial therapy and prognosis, differences in clinical disease and laboratory test results between different age groups, and differences of antibiotic sensitivity between community-acquired (CA)-MRSA and hospital-acquired (HA)-MRSA were analyzed. The t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for statistical analysis of the quantitative data and Chi-square test were used for comparison of rates. Results: Among the 452 patients, 264 were males and 188 were females, aged from 2 days to 17 years. There were 233 cases (51.5%) in the ≤1 year old group, 79 cases (17.5%) in the>1-3 years old group, 29 cases (6.4%) in the >3-5 years old group, 65 cases (14.4%) in the >5-10 years old group, and 46 cases (10.2%) in the>10 years old group. The main distributions of onset seasons were 55 cases (12.2%) in December, 47 cases (10.4%) in February, 46 cases (10.2%) in November, 45 cases (10.0%) in January, 40 cases (8.8%) in March. There were 335 cases (74.1%) CA-MRSA and 117 (25.9%) cases HA-MRSA. Among all cases, 174 cases (38.5%) had basic diseases or long-term use of hormone and immunosuppressive drugs. During the period of hospitalization, 209 cases (46.2%) received medical interventions. There were 182 patients (40.3%) had used antibiotics (ß-lactams, glycopeptides, macrolides, carbapenems, oxazolones, sulfonamides etc) 3 months before admission. The most common clinical disease was pneumonia (203 cases), followed by skin soft-tissue infection (133 cases), sepsis (92 cases), deep tissue abscess (42 cases), osteomyelitis (40 cases), and septic arthritis (26 cases), suppurative meningitis (10 cases). The proportion of pneumonia in the ≤1 year old group was higher than the >1-3 years old group,>3-5 years old group,>5-10 years old group,>10 years old group (57.5% (134/233) vs. 30.4% (24/79), 31.0% (9/29), 38.5% (25/65), 23.9% (11/46), χ(2)=17.374, 7.293, 7.410, 17.373, all P<0.01) The proportion of skin and soft tissue infections caused by CA-MRSA infection was higher than HA-MRSA (33.4% (112/335) vs. 17.9% (21/117), χ(2)=10.010, P=0.002), and the proportion of pneumonia caused by HA-MRSA infection was higher than CA-MRSA (53.0% (62/117) vs. 42.1% (141/335), χ(2)=4.166, P=0.041). The first white blood cell count of the ≤1 year old group was higher than that children > 1 year old ((15±8)×10(9)/L vs. (13±7)×10(9)/L, t=2.697, P=0.007), while the C-reactive protein of the ≤1 year old group was lower than the 1-3 years old group,>5-10 years old group,>10 years old group (8.00 (0.04-194.00) vs.17.00 (0.50-316.00), 15.20 (0.23-312.00), 21.79(0.13-219.00) mg/L, Z=3.207, 2.044, 2.513, all P<0.05), there were no significant differences in procalcitonin (PCT) between different age groups (all P>0.05). After the treatment, 131 cases were cured, 278 cases were improved, 21 cases were not cured, 12 cases died, and 10 cases were abandoned. The 452 MRSA isolates were all sensitive to vancomycin (100.0%), linezolid (100.0%), 100.0% resistant to penicillin, highly resistant to erythromycin (85.0%, 375/441), clindamycin (67.7%, 294/434), less resistant to sulfonamides (5.9%, 23/391), levofloxacin (4.5%, 19/423), gentamicin (3.2%, 14/438), rifampicin (1.8%, 8/440), minocycline (1.1%, 1/91). The antimicrobial resistance rates were not significantly different between the CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The infection of MRSA is mainly found in infants under 3 years old. The prevalent seasons are winter and spring, and MRSA is mainly acquired in the community. The main clinical diseases are pneumonia, skin soft-tissue infection and sepsis. No MRSA isolate is resistant to vancomycin, linezolid. MRSA isolates are generally sensitive to sulfonamides, levofloxacin, gentamicin, rifampicin, minocycline, and were highly resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. To achieve better prognosis. clinicians should initiate anti-infective treatment for children with MRSA infection according to the clinical characteristics of patients and drug sensitivity of the isolates timely and effectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804961

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious public health problem. There is limited information regarding the genetics of MRSA strains among the native Iraqi and incoming Syrian refugee communities. We aimed to characterize the genotypes and different virulence factors of MRSA in strains isolated from these two communities. Frozen MRSA strains (125) isolated from the native Iraqi and Syrian refugee communities were used in this study. PCR (singleplex and multiplex) and agr typing was used for the genotypic analysis of different virulence genes. We tested for the presence of virulence genes including pvl, arcA, tst, lukE/lukD, hla, hlb, eta, etb and agr. Prevalence of arcA MRSA in the Iraqi community (56.58%) was significantly higher (p = 0.008) than that in the Syrian refugee community (32.66%). Prevalence of lukE-lukD was also significantly higher (p = 0.001) in the Iraqi (82.89%) compared to that in the Syrian refugee community (57.14%). Further, prevalence of hla MRSA in the Iraqi community was (93.4%) and in the Syrian refugee community was (71.4%); (p = 0.0008). No significant differences were observed in the prevalence of pvl, tst, eta, etb and hlb. The most dominant agr types in both Iraqi (76.1% and 10.5%) and Syrian refugee (44.9% and 18.37%) communities were I and III. To sum up, no significant differences were observed between the groups for a majority of virulence factors. This is the first investigation of MRSA genotypes and virulence in both these communities. These results could be useful for further studies that assess the genetic relatedness of strains in the region for epidemiological and monitoring purposes, which would be crucial to limiting the spread of MRSA.


Assuntos
Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Refugiados , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exotoxinas/genética , Exotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Meticilina/farmacologia , Meticilina/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Síria , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Virulência/isolamento & purificação
5.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(2): 223-234, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723278

RESUMO

Biofilm-related infections are considered as among the foremost causes of treatment failure nowadays. One of the most common causes of biofilm-related infections is Staphylococcus aureus. It becomes extremely difficult to determine the appropriate treatment protocol while biofilm-related infections are coexisting with bacterial methicillin resistance. The aim of this study was to observe the potential of biofilm formation of methicillin-sensitive and -resistant S.aureus strains isolated from different clinical specimens and to determine reliable and effective methods for biofilm detection. A total of 200 S.aureus strains (100 methicillin-resistant and 100 methicillin-susceptible) isolated from 107 wound, 93 blood and catheter specimens, which were accepted as causative agents, included in the study. In order to determine the methicillin sensitivity, oxacillin minimal inhibitory concentration value obtained by an automated system and cefoxitin disc diffusion method were evaluated together. Biofilm formation was investigated by modified Christensen (MC), MTT, BioTimer and Congo Red Agar (CRA) methods, and the presence of ica operon responsible for biofilm formation was also observed by polymerase chain reaction. It has been shown that methicillin-resistant isolates produce biofilms in a shorter time and higher rate, and their biofilm structure is denser than methicillin-sensitive isolates in all MC, MTT and BioTimer methods. There was no difference between blood and wound isolates in biofilm formation. The most sensitive and specific conventional methods were MTT and BioTimer methods respectively. There was no significant difference between the isolates containing a gene region of icaADBC operon and the biofilm forming isolates according to MC, MTT, BioTimer and CCA methods. There was a high correlation between the presence of biofilm and ica positivity, and the tendency to form biofilm augmented as the number of ica genes increased. It has been emphasized that more virulent strains such as methicillin-resistant S.aureus have a higher tendency to form biofilm, and these two resistance mechanisms have been shown to support each other as cascade. ica detection may be an important reagent in itself for the detection of virulent strains, thus detection of the ica presence may be an early marker of treatment decisions, determination of protection strategies, and struggle with biofilm-related infections. In cases where molecular methods are not available, the existence of quick, easy-to-apply and reliable conventional methods to detect biofilm formation is extremely important. All conventional methods used in this study seem to be sufficient in this respect. MC and MTT methods stand out in terms of biofilm quantitation. BioTimer method is a very new and remarkable test used to detect biofilm formation. In conclusion, determining the potential of biofilm formation of colonizing or causative agents and taking essential precautions before interventional procedures will decrease biofilm related infections and related morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
6.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(9): 1360-1362, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507402

RESUMO

A pre-school aged boy presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department with a high grade fever and neck pain and stiffness. Blood culture was positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Doppler ultrasound of the neck revealed partial thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein. He was diagnosed with Lemierre's syndrome (LS) and treated with a prolonged course of antibiotics and anticoagulation. After discharge home, he was followed in the outpatient clinics and had a full recovery. This case report will highlight the presentation of LS and will briefly review the microbiology of this condition.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Lemierre/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Lemierre/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Veias Jugulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Lemierre/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 5947-5963, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359985

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a significant opportunistic pathogen in humans, dairy cattle, and camels. The presence of antibiotic-resistant and heat-resistant bacteria in camel milk has become a potential public health issue. The phenotypic and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains recovered from pasteurized camel milk distributed in retail markets of Saudi Arabia was assessed. A total of 100 samples were collected between March and May 2017. Out of the 20 S. aureus isolates that were recovered from the pasteurized camel milk, 10 were found to be resistant to cefoxitin (30 µg) and, thus, were designated as methicillin-resistant strains. The resistance ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates for a different class of antibiotics was determined by performing the antimicrobial susceptibility test and was estimated to be approximately 60%. Polymerase chain reaction assay was performed to amplify the methicillin-resistant gene mecA, and furthermore, nucleotide sequencing was performed to detect and verify the presence of methicillin-resistant strains. Upon sequencing the putative S. aureus methicillin-resistant strains, we obtained 96 to 100% similarity to the penicillin-binding protein 2a gene (mecA) of the S. aureus strain CS100. Moreover, the 10 methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were also identified to be heat resistant and were stable at temperatures up to 85°C for 60 s, with 3 isolates being heat resistant even at 90°C for 60 or 90 s. The mean decimal reduction time (D85 value) was 111 s for all the 10 isolates. No difference was observed in the profile of total protein between the 10 methicillin- and heat-resistant S. aureus isolates and the S. aureus strain ATCC 29737, which was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analyses. Therefore, we could conclude that a relatively high percentage of the tested pasteurized camel milk samples were contaminated with S. aureus (20%) and methicillin- and heat-resistant S. aureus (10%).


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Camelus/microbiologia , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefoxitina/farmacologia , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Arábia Saudita , Termotolerância
8.
Intern Med ; 59(14): 1769-1772, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296002

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300, belonging to sequence type (ST) 8, is a rare cause of necrotizing fasciitis in the USA. We herein report a case of monomicrobial Fournier's gangrene caused by an ST8, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (designated ksw1). Whole-genome sequencing and analyses for virulence determinants revealed that, unlike USA300, ksw1 lacked virulence genes, such as Panton-Valentine leukocidin and SCCmec, while harboring the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 gene. These genomic features correlate with ST8 CA-MRSA/J, which is the major genotype of ST8 in Japan.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/efeitos adversos , Enterotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Gangrena de Fournier/etiologia , Gangrena de Fournier/microbiologia , Leucocidinas/efeitos adversos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Superantígenos/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Gangrena de Fournier/diagnóstico , Gangrena de Fournier/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Virulência/genética
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 243: 108631, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273010

RESUMO

This work aimed at characterizing four Staphylococcus aureus and 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), recovered from the air and liquid manure tank of two swine farms with intensive- and semi-extensive-production types, for their antimicrobial resistance pheno-/genotypes and their virulence gene content. Molecular typing was performed by spa typing, MLST, agr typing, and SCCmec typing, where applicable. Conjugation experiments were performed to assess the transferability of the linezolid resistance gene cfr, and its genetic environment was determined by Whole-Genome-Sequencing. The four S. aureus (intensive-production farm, IP-farm) were typed as t011-agrI-CC398-ST398, were scn-negative and two of them were methicillin-resistant (MRSA) with the mecA gene (SCCmec-V). Multidrug resistance was seen in 87 % of the CoNS. Statistically significant differences among the antimicrobial resistance rates of CoNS from the two farms were observed for cefoxitin, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Eight methicillin-resistant CoNS, which were recovered from the IP-farm, carried the mecA gene. One S. simulans isolate was PVL-positive and three S. cohnii eta-positive. One S. equorum and one S. arlettae showed linezolid resistance and carried the cfr gene (IP-farm), which was non-transferable by conjugation into S. aureus. The cfr genetic context in both isolates was identical, with the lsa(B) gene located upstream of cfr. The environment of swine farms might contribute to the dissemination of CoNS that show multidrug resistance and harbor important virulence factors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Exotoxinas/genética , Leucocidinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Microbiologia do Ar , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Coagulase , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Fazendas , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco/microbiologia , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Suínos , Fatores de Virulência/genética
10.
Vet Surg ; 49(5): 971-976, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) (resistance genes, qac A/B, smr, qacG, and qacJ, in clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) and methicillin-resistant S pseudintermedius (MRSP) from dogs and the impact on in vitro chlorhexidine susceptibility. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Seventy isolates from dogs colonized or infected with MRSP (n = 50) or MSSP (n = 20). METHODS: Agar dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chlorhexidine digluconate. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of QAC resistance genes, qacA/B, smr, qacG, and qacJ genes. RESULTS: One or more qac genes were identified in 52 of 70 (74%) isolates. Overall, there was no association between chlorhexidine MIC and the presence of one or more qac genes (P = .85) or the presence of qacA/B (P = .31), smr (P = .72) or qacJ (P = .93) individually. There was an association between qacG and MIC (P = .012), with a median MIC of 1.5 µg/mL for isolates possessing this gene and 1 µg/mL for those not possessing it. CONCLUSION: Quaternary ammonium compound resistance genes were present in MRSP and MSSP isolates. With the exception of qacG, the presence of these genes was not associated with increased MIC. All isolates exhibited MIC 5000 to 80 000 times lower than the concentration recommended for use. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the presence of QAC genes, chlorhexidine digluconate should be effective against MRSP and MSSP if used correctly.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cães , Meticilina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 234: 115928, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070544

RESUMO

We developed a co-delivery system of nitric oxide (NO) and antibiotic for the antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection therapy. The NO could disperse the bacterial biofilms and convert the bacteria into an antibiotic-susceptible planktonic form. Using the chitosan-graft-poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (CS-PAMAM) as the co-delivery system, methicillin (MET) and NO were conjugated successively to form CS-PAMAM-MET/NONOate. The positive CS-PAMAM could efficiently capture the negatively charged bacteria and PAMAM provide abundant reaction points for high payloads of NO and MET. The CS-PAMAM-MET/NONOate displayed effective and combined antibacterial activity to the E. coli and S. aureus. Particularly, for the MET-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the CS-PAMAM-MET/NONOate displayed the synergistic antibacterial activity. In vivo wound healing assays also confirmed that CS-PAMAM-MET/NONOate could heal the infection formed by MRSA and then accelerate the wound healing effectively. Moreover, CS-PAMAM-MET/NONOate showed no toxicity towards 3T3 cells in vitro and rats in vivo, providing a readily but high-efficient strategy to drug-resistant bacterial infection therapy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Dendrímeros/química , Dendrímeros/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Meticilina/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Poliaminas/química , Poliaminas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 96(4): 114967, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057521

RESUMO

The local use of analgesics and antibiotics is common during the treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The effect of nonantimicrobial drugs on antibacterial activity is underappreciated in clinical practice. This study focuses on the novel assessment of the combined antibacterial effects of commonly used analgesics and antibiotics against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)-pathogen associated with most PJIs. We identified that bupivacaine/lidocaine and ketorolac/gentamicin combinations yielded fractional inhibitory concentration indices below 0.4, indicative of synergistic antibacterial effect. Time-kill curves were used for in-depth characterization of the synergy, and the obtained results demonstrated pronounced synergistic effects of bupivacaine/lidocaine and ketorolac/gentamicin combinations against MSSA.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963695

RESUMO

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), the most prevalent causes of hospital-associated and community-associated infections, could exist on frequently touched surfaces. This study aims to determine the contamination prevalence and the characteristics of MRSA and MRSE isolated from secondary school environments. Methods: We collected environmental samples from ten secondary schools in Guangzhou city between October 2016 and January 2017. The samples were confirmed for MRSA and MRSE isolates by using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, toxin gene screening, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to further characterize the isolates. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests. Results: A total of 1830 environmental samples were collected. The prevalence of MRSA and MRSE contamination were 1.86% (34/1830) and 5.14% (94/1830), respectively. The proportions of multidrug resistance in both MRSA (58.82%) and MRSE (63.83%) isolates were high. Seven clonal complexes (CC) and 12 sequence types (ST) were identified, with the CC5 (35.29%) and ST45 (25.53%) being the most prevalent. We found that 44.12% of the MRSA isolates were community-acquired and the main type was ST45-SCCmec IV. We found that 5.88% and 32.35% of MRSA isolates were positive to Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (tst) gene, respectively. No MRSE isolate was positive to the toxin genes. Conclusion: Our findings raise potential public health concerns for environmental contamination of MRSA and MRSE in school environments. Surfaces of school environments may potentially provide a source for cross-contamination with these bacteria into the wider community.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Toxinas Bacterianas , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Enterotoxinas , Exotoxinas , Humanos , Leucocidinas , Meticilina/farmacologia , Resistência a Meticilina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Superantígenos
14.
Ann Pharmacother ; 54(7): 662-668, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888347

RESUMO

Background: Nafcillin or cefazolin are drugs of choice for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections. Prior studies indicate a higher incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) with nafcillin, although AKI classification and time to occurrence is not well described. Objective: To characterize the incidence and time to adverse drug events for nafcillin versus cefazolin in the inpatient setting. Methods: A retrospective cohort study evaluated hospitalized, adult patients receiving intravenous nafcillin or cefazolin for treatment of MSSA infection. Incidence and time to AKI based on RIFLE criteria were measured. Secondary end points included antibiotic discontinuation and incidence of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated transaminases, and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Results: Of 324 patients who received nafcillin (n = 119) or cefazolin (n = 205), higher rates of AKI were found for nafcillin versus cefazolin (19% vs 2%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Median time to AKI with nafcillin was 6.5 days (range, 3-14 days). The majority of patients were classified as RIFLE "Risk" stratum. Nafcillin treatment discontinuations were more frequent than for cefazolin (17.6% vs 0.9%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Nafcillin was an independent predictor of AKI (odds ratio = 12.4; 95% CI = 4.14-47.60, P < 0.0001). No differences in neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated transaminases, or CDI were observed. Conclusion and Relevance: Nafcillin displayed higher rates of AKI at a median of 1 week of therapy, which provides a framework for clinician monitoring and consideration of antibiotic modification. Most patients developed "Risk" class AKI (RIFLE classification), which may be reversible with prompt intervention.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Cefazolina/efeitos adversos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Nafcilina/efeitos adversos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefazolina/administração & dosagem , Cefazolina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nafcilina/administração & dosagem , Nafcilina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
15.
J Vet Sci ; 21(1): e2, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940681

RESUMO

The emergence of livestock-associated (LA)-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in livestock animal has become a significant zoonotic concern. In the present study, we investigated nationwide prevalence of LA-MRSA across pork production chain including pig farms, slaughterhouses, and retail markets. A total of 40 MRSA strains were isolated during the investigation and the overall prevalence of MRSA was 3.4% (n = 37), 0.6% (n = 2), and 0.4% (n = 1) in pig farms, slaughterhouses, and retail markets, respectively. Multilocus sequence typing analyses revealed that the 2 most significant clonal lineages in pork production chain in Korea were ST398 (n = 25) and ST541 (n = 6). All of the 40 MRSA isolates were further characterized to investigate key genotypic and phenotypic correlates associated with the emergence and spread of clonal complex 398 (CC398; ST398, and ST541) LA-MRSA. Although the prevalence of swine-associated MRSA was still relatively low and mostly restricted to pig farms, multidrug-resistant CC398 LA-MRSA isolates with new spa types (t18102 and t18103) were identified as a major clonal lineage. The CC398 LA-MRSA strains tended to exhibit increased levels of multiple drug resistance (MDR) phenotype compared with non-CC398 MRSA strains. Of note, in comparison with non-CC398 MRSA isolates, CC398 LA-MRSA isolates exhibited significantly enhanced tetracycline (TET) and zinc resistance. These findings suggested that co-selection pressure associated with MDR phenotype, especially TET resistance, and zinc resistance may have played a significant role in the emergence and persistence of CC398 LA-MRSA in pig farms in Korea.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Meticilina/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Cloretos/farmacologia , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia
16.
J Vet Sci ; 21(1): e11, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940690

RESUMO

The increase in canine skin and soft tissue infections, such as pyoderma and otitis, caused by Staphylococcus schleiferi strains, is of significant zoonotic concern. In this study, we report the first complete genome sequence for a methicillin-resistant clinical isolate of S. schleiferi (MRSS) designated as SS4, obtained from a dog with otitis externa, in Korea. The genome of SS4 strain was of 2,539,409 bp and presented high G+C content ratio (35.90%) with no plasmid. Comparative analysis of SS4 genome revealed that it is closely related to 2142-05 and 5909-02 strains isolated from the canine skin infections in the USA.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Meticilina/farmacologia , Otite Externa/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Animais , Cães , Otite Externa/microbiologia , República da Coreia
17.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(1): 75-79, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402312

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Emergence of multidrug-resistant and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in HIV patients limit the treatment options and challenge the clinical management of infections. The periodic monitoring of S. aureus infections and its drug resistance profile in HIV patients are of paramount importance in clinical management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 7204 clinical specimens from HIV patients from 2012 to 2017 were processed for the isolation of S. aureus strains using conventional culture techniques and cultures were identified using standard biochemical test. Antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus strains was tested by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. RESULTS: A total of 380 (5.3%) S. aureus strains were isolated from HIV patients in the study period. High percentage of S. aureus strains were isolates from urine (69.5%) specimen and 58.4% of S. aureus infections were noted among hospitalized patients. Antibiotic susceptibility profile reveals S. aureus was highly resistant to penicillin (95.2%) followed by cephalexin (84.6%). Methicillin resistance was highly observed in the year 2017 (86%) and the rate of MRSA steadily increasing from 51.8% in 2012 to 86% in 2017. Significant increase of S. aureus infections (35%; p<0.001) and MRSA (76%; p=0.0007) were observed in the year 2016. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports the increasing trends of S. aureus infections and MRSA among HIV patients from Southern India. Multidrug-resistance profile of S. aureus could complicate the selection of proper antibiotic regimens and time cure of HIV patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Meticilina/farmacologia , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/urina , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(1): 105810, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546003

RESUMO

Although previous studies have suggested an association between livestock exposure and the risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in humans, it remains unclear whether there is a dose-response relationship. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between livestock exposure and MRSA carriage. Pooled risk estimates were calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects models based on homogeneity analysis. A dose-response meta-analysis based on linear and non-linear regression was performed to explore the frequency-risk relationship between livestock exposure and MRSA carriage. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore sources of heterogeneity among eligible studies. A total of 25 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Livestock exposure was significantly associated with an increased risk of MRSA carriage [odds ratio (OR) = 7.03, 95% confidence interval 4.29-11.52], and similar positive associations were observed for pig (OR = 11.41), poultry (OR = 6.20) and cattle (OR = 5.66) exposure. Regarding studies on ordinal and continuous frequency of livestock exposure, a monotonically increasing frequency-risk relationship between livestock (or pig) exposure and MRSA carriage was consistently observed. This study found a monotonically increasing frequency-risk relationship between livestock exposure and MRSA carriage, which provides evidence for potential livestock-to-human transmission of MRSA.


Assuntos
Gado/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Animais , Humanos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas , Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Suínos
19.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(1): 105826, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634550

RESUMO

In Europe, a novel mecA homologue - mecC (formerly mecALGA251) - has emerged recently in staphylococci from animals, humans and the environment. This paper reports the first occurrence of the mecC gene in Staphylococcus sciuri from cows and manure in Tunisia and Africa. Forty-nine coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were isolated from the milk of cows with mastitis (n=20), manure (n=20) and human nares (n=9), including 16 Staphylococcus equoruim (32.6%), 12 S. xylosus (24.5%), 12 S. sciuri (24.5%), two S. saprophyticus (4.1%), two S. haemolyticus (4.1%), two S. lentus (4.1%), two S. vitulinus (4.1%) and one S. cohnii (2%). CNS from the three origins carried various resistance genes [mecA, blaZ, tet(K), erm(A), erm(B), msr(A)], suggesting an ongoing genetic exchange among CNS from the three niches. The mecA gene was detected in CNS (n=11) recovered from cows, manure and humans, whereas the mecC gene (n=3) was only detected in CNS from cows and manure. Various staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) - SCCmec type I (n=1), II (n=3), IV (n=2), V/VII (n=2) and untypeable (n=3) - and diverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were observed in mecA-positive CNS. Otherwise, similar SCCmec types and PFGE patterns were found in meticillin-resistant CNS within different farms and origins, showing the potential of SCCmec interspecies exchange and circulation of the same clones of meticillin-resistant CNS in the human-animal-environment interface. This study provides baseline data to support clonal dissemination of CNS between cows, humans and manure, and indicates the possible transmission of the mecC gene to humans in contact with cows and manure.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/genética , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Esterco/microbiologia , Meticilina/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tunísia/epidemiologia
20.
Microb Ecol ; 79(1): 164-174, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049616

RESUMO

Staphylococci are important opportunistic pathogens in human and veterinary medicine in addition to being part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. The rise of antimicrobial resistance amongst staphylococci warrants closer investigation of the diversity of skin commensal organisms-including coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)-due to their potential as a source of resistance genes. This study is aimed at characterising the commensal staphylococci-including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus species (spp.)-from mucocutaneous sites of dogs and cats from remote New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Pet dogs and cats were recruited from participants in a community companion animal health programme in six communities in western NSW. Three swabs were collected from each animal (anterior nares, oropharynx, and perineum) and from skin lesions or wounds if present and cultured on selective media for Staphylococcus spp. In total, 383 pets (303 dogs, 80 cats) were enrolled. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 67.3% of dogs and 73.8% of cats (494 isolates). The diversity of CoNS was high (20 species) whilst only three coagulase-positive spp. were isolated (S. pseudintermedius, S. aureus, S. intermedius). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in dogs was high (2.6%) relative to other studies but was only a small proportion of overall commensal staphylococci. No cats carried MRSA and no MRSP was isolated from either species. Dogs were significantly more likely to carry coagulase-positive staphylococci than cats (P < 0.001). Amongst dogs, males and those with skin lesions were more likely to carry S. pseudintermedius. This study highlights important differences in the diversity and patterns of carriage of commensal staphylococci between dogs and cats in remote NSW, Australia.


Assuntos
Gatos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , New South Wales
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