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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22092, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925750

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) is one of the most fatal cancers in the world. Although great efforts have made to explore the mechanisms of PaCa oncogenesis, the prognosis of PaCa patients is still unsatisfactory. Thus, it is imperative to further understand the potential carcinogenesis of PaCa and reliable prognostic models.The gene expression profile and clinical information of GSE21501 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was applied to explore the potent genes associated with the overall survival (OS) events of PaCa patients. Cox regression model was applied to selecting prognostic genes and establish prognostic model. The prognostic values of six-gene signature were validated in TCGA-PAAD cohort.According to the WGCNA analysis, a total of 19 modules were identified and 115 hub genes in the mostly associated module were reserved for next analysis. According to the univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, we established a six-gene signature (FTSJ3, STAT1, STX2, CDX2, RASSF4, MACF1) which could effectively evaluate the overall survival (OS) of PaCa patients. In validated patients' cohorts, the six-gene signature exhibited excellent prognostic value in TCGA-PAAD cohort as well.We developed a six-gene signature to exactly predict OS of PaCa patients and provide a novel personalized strategy for evaluating prognosis. The findings may be contributed to medical customization and therapeutic decision in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Fator de Transcrição CDX2/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Sintaxina 1/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236882, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790688

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent type of RNA modification. METTL3 in the methyltransferase complex is the core enzyme responsible for methylation. METTL3 selectively catalyzes the adenosines centered in the RRAC motif. Functional studies established that m6A could enhance the translation efficiency (TE) of modified genes by recruiting reader protein YTHDF1 and other initiation factors. We downloaded the m6A peaks in HeLa cells from a previous study and defined the m6A modified genes and sites. Ancestral mutations in the genic region fixed in the HeLa cell samples were defined using their mRNA-Seq data and the alignment between human and mouse genomes. Furthermore, in the small interfering (si)-METTL3 sample, the calculated TE foldchange of all genes was compared to that in the negative control. The TE of m6A genes was globally down-regulated in si-METTL3 versus control compared to the non-m6A genes. In m6A modified genes, RRAC motif mutations were suppressed compared to mutations in non-motif regions or non-m6A genes. Among the m6A genes, a fraction RRAC motif mutations negatively correlated with the TE foldchange (si-METTL3 versus control). The TE of m6A modified genes was enhanced in HeLa cells. RRAC motif mutations could potentially prevent methylation of adenosines and consequently abolish the enhanced translation. Such mutations in the RRAC motif might be deleterious. Accordingly, we observed lower fractions of mutations in RRAC motifs than in other regions. This prevention of mutations in the RRAC motif could be a strategy adopted by cancer cells to maintain the elevated translation of particular genes.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Metiltransferases/genética , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Células HeLa , Humanos , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
3.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(10): 1767-1778, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833542

RESUMO

N1-methyladenosine (m1A) is an important post-transcriptional modification in RNA, and plays critical roles in cellular functions. However, the relationship between m1A regulators and clinical significance of gynecological cancers remains unknown. In this study, we systematically analyzed RNA-seq and clinical data from several public database. Cell proliferation and migration assays were performed to verify the function of the m1A writer TRMT10C in cancer cells. We observed genetic alterations and dysregulated expressions of m1A regulators in gynecological cancer samples. We demonstrated that several m1A regulators could serve as prognostic biomarkers for gynecological cancer patients. The high correlations among the expression of m1A, N6-methyladenosine (m6A), and 5mC regulators were also revealed. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the mechanism of TRMT10C in regulating tumorigenesis was related to a variety of cancer-related pathways. Moreover, silencing TRMT10C suppressed the proliferation, colony formation, and migration of ovarian cancer and cervical cancer cells. In summary, our results highlight the importance of m1A regulators in regulating oncogenesis, and indicate that targeting specific m1A regulators might be a potential therapeutic strategy for gynecological cancers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20159-20170, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747553

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has revolutionized cancer treatment, many patients do not respond or develop resistance to ICB. N6 -methylation of adenosine (m6A) in RNA regulates many pathophysiological processes. Here, we show that deletion of the m6A demethylase Alkbh5 sensitized tumors to cancer immunotherapy. Alkbh5 has effects on m6A density and splicing events in tumors during ICB. Alkbh5 modulates Mct4/Slc16a3 expression and lactate content of the tumor microenvironment and the composition of tumor-infiltrating Treg and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Importantly, a small-molecule Alkbh5 inhibitor enhanced the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Notably, the ALKBH5 gene mutation and expression status of melanoma patients correlate with their response to immunotherapy. Our results suggest that m6A demethylases in tumor cells contribute to the efficacy of immunotherapy and identify ALKBH5 as a potential therapeutic target to enhance immunotherapy outcome in melanoma, colorectal, and potentially other cancers.


Assuntos
Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/metabolismo , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Lactatos/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/fisiologia , Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/genética , Anticorpos , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Melanoma/terapia , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Células Supressoras Mieloides/fisiologia , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Processamento de RNA , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 544, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify ten different 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes (rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, armA, rmtF, npmA, rmtH, rmtE and rmtG) and their coexisting ESBL and carbapenemase with the emergence of three E.coli clones within a single study centre. METHODS: A total of 329 non-duplicate E.coli isolates were studied to detect the presence of 16S rRNA methyltransferases along with ß-lactamases (TEM, SHV, OXA, VEB, GES, PER,CTX-M types, NDM, OXA-48,VIM, IMP and KPC) using PCR assay. Horizontal transferability were validated by transformation and conjugation analysis. Plasmid incompatibility typing and MLST analysis was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 117 isolates were found to be resistant to at least one of the aminoglycoside antibiotics. It was observed that 77 (65.8%) were positive for 16S rRNA methyltransferases. Among them thirty nine isolates were found to harbour only blaCTX-M-15, whereas combination of genes were observed in three isolates (blaVEB+ blaCTX-M-15 in 2 isolates and blaPER + blaCTX-M-15 in 1 isolate). blaNDM and blaOXA-48 like genes were found in 23 and 9 isolates, respectively. All the resistance genes were conjugatively transferable, and incompatibility typing showed multiple 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes were originated from a single Inc. I1 group. MLST analysis detected 3 clones of E.coliST4410, ST1341 and ST3906. CONCLUSION: The present study identified emergence of three clones of E.coli, resistant to aminoglycoside -cephalosporin- carbapenem. This warrants immediate measures to trace their transmission dynamics in order to slow down their spread in clinical setting.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Humanos , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
6.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2389-2392, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699979

RESUMO

A novel tobamovirus, brugmansia latent virus (BrLV), was discovered during a study of brugmansia (Brugmansia spp.) in the living collections held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of BrLV, which is 6,397 nucleotides long and contains the four open reading frames (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, methyltransferase/helicase, movement, and coat proteins) typical of tobamoviruses. The complete genome sequence of BrLV shares 69.7% nucleotide sequence identity with brugmansia mild mottle virus (BrMMV) and 66.7 to 68.7% identity with other tobamoviruses naturally infecting members of the Solanaceae plant family. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequences of the four tobamovirus proteins place BrLV in a subcluster with BrMMV within the Solanaceae-infecting tobamovirus subgroup as a new species.


Assuntos
Brugmansia/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Genoma Viral , RNA Viral/genética , Tobamovirus/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sequência Conservada , Metiltransferases/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , RNA Replicase/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Tobamovirus/classificação , Tobamovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reino Unido , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 425-442.e7, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615088

RESUMO

Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious DNA lesions, which, if left unrepaired, may lead to genome instability or cell death. Here, we report that, in response to DSBs, the RNA methyltransferase METTL3 is activated by ATM-mediated phosphorylation at S43. Phosphorylated METTL3 is then localized to DNA damage sites, where it methylates the N6 position of adenosine (m6A) in DNA damage-associated RNAs, which recruits the m6A reader protein YTHDC1 for protection. In this way, the METTL3-m6A-YTHDC1 axis modulates accumulation of DNA-RNA hybrids at DSBs sites, which then recruit RAD51 and BRCA1 for homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair. METTL3-deficient cells display defective HR, accumulation of unrepaired DSBs, and genome instability. Accordingly, depletion of METTL3 significantly enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells and murine xenografts to DNA damage-based therapy. These findings uncover the function of METTL3 and YTHDC1 in HR-mediated DSB repair, which may have implications for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Bleomicina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/patologia , Fosforilação , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Ribonuclease H/genética , Ribonuclease H/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1418-1428, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529952

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, is now causing a tremendous global health concern. Since its first appearance in December 2019, the outbreak has already caused over 5.8 million infections worldwide (till 29 May 2020), with more than 0.35 million deaths. Early virus-mediated immune suppression is believed to be one of the unique characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and contributes at least partially to the viral pathogenesis. In this study, we identified the key viral interferon antagonists of SARS-CoV-2 and compared them with two well-characterized SARS-CoV interferon antagonists, PLpro and orf6. Here we demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 nsp13, nsp14, nsp15 and orf6, but not the unique orf8, could potently suppress primary interferon production and interferon signalling. Although SARS-CoV PLpro has been well-characterized for its potent interferon-antagonizing, deubiquitinase and protease activities, SARS-CoV-2 PLpro, despite sharing high amino acid sequence similarity with SARS-CoV, loses both interferon-antagonising and deubiquitinase activities. Among the 27 viral proteins, SARS-CoV-2 orf6 demonstrated the strongest suppression on both primary interferon production and interferon signalling. Orf6-deleted SARS-CoV-2 may be considered for the development of intranasal live-but-attenuated vaccine against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Interferons/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferons/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/genética , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Endorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15609-15619, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571953

RESUMO

Ribosome biogenesis is a complex process, and dozens of factors are required to facilitate and regulate the subunit assembly in bacteria. The 2'-O-methylation of U2552 in 23S rRNA by methyltransferase RrmJ is a crucial step in late-stage assembly of the 50S subunit. Its absence results in severe growth defect and marked accumulation of pre50S assembly intermediates. In the present work, we employed cryoelectron microscopy to characterize a set of late-stage pre50S particles isolated from an Escherichia coli ΔrrmJ strain. These assembly intermediates (solved at 3.2 to 3.8 Å resolution) define a collection of late-stage particles on a progressive assembly pathway. Apart from the absence of L16, L35, and L36, major structural differences between these intermediates and the mature 50S subunit are clustered near the peptidyl transferase center, such as H38, H68-71, and H89-93. In addition, the ribosomal A-loop of the mature 50S subunit from ΔrrmJ strain displays large local flexibility on nucleotides next to unmethylated U2552. Fast kinetics-based biochemical assays demonstrate that the ΔrrmJ 50S subunit is only 50% active and two times slower than the WT 50S subunit in rapid subunit association. While the ΔrrmJ 70S ribosomes show no defect in peptide bond formation, peptide release, and ribosome recycling, they translocate with 20% slower rate than the WT ribosomes in each round of elongation. These defects amplify during synthesis of the full-length proteins and cause overall defect in protein synthesis. In conclusion, our data reveal the molecular roles of U2552 methylation in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Elongação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Iniciação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , RNA Ribossômico 23S/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Metilação , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores de Bactérias/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Uridina/metabolismo
10.
Virol Sin ; 35(3): 321-329, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500504

RESUMO

The ongoing outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health emergency. SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative pathogen of COVID-19, is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. For RNA viruses, virus-encoded RNA helicases have long been recognized to play pivotal roles during viral life cycles by facilitating the correct folding and replication of viral RNAs. Here, our studies show that SARS-CoV-2-encoded nonstructural protein 13 (nsp13) possesses the nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase (NTPase) and RNA helicase activities that can hydrolyze all types of NTPs and unwind RNA helices dependently of the presence of NTP, and further characterize the biochemical characteristics of these two enzymatic activities associated with SARS-CoV-2 nsp13. Moreover, we found that some bismuth salts could effectively inhibit both the NTPase and RNA helicase activities of SARS-CoV-2 nsp13 in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our findings demonstrate the NTPase and helicase activities of SARS-CoV-2 nsp13, which may play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 replication and serve as a target for antivirals.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Bismuto/farmacologia , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Helicases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sais/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Metiltransferases/genética , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/genética , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Helicases/genética , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1418-1428, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595042

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, is now causing a tremendous global health concern. Since its first appearance in December 2019, the outbreak has already caused over 5.8 million infections worldwide (till 29 May 2020), with more than 0.35 million deaths. Early virus-mediated immune suppression is believed to be one of the unique characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and contributes at least partially to the viral pathogenesis. In this study, we identified the key viral interferon antagonists of SARS-CoV-2 and compared them with two well-characterized SARS-CoV interferon antagonists, PLpro and orf6. Here we demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 nsp13, nsp14, nsp15 and orf6, but not the unique orf8, could potently suppress primary interferon production and interferon signalling. Although SARS-CoV PLpro has been well-characterized for its potent interferon-antagonizing, deubiquitinase and protease activities, SARS-CoV-2 PLpro, despite sharing high amino acid sequence similarity with SARS-CoV, loses both interferon-antagonising and deubiquitinase activities. Among the 27 viral proteins, SARS-CoV-2 orf6 demonstrated the strongest suppression on both primary interferon production and interferon signalling. Orf6-deleted SARS-CoV-2 may be considered for the development of intranasal live-but-attenuated vaccine against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Interferons/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferons/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/genética , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Endorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
12.
Virol Sin ; 35(3): 321-329, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526560

RESUMO

The ongoing outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health emergency. SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative pathogen of COVID-19, is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. For RNA viruses, virus-encoded RNA helicases have long been recognized to play pivotal roles during viral life cycles by facilitating the correct folding and replication of viral RNAs. Here, our studies show that SARS-CoV-2-encoded nonstructural protein 13 (nsp13) possesses the nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase (NTPase) and RNA helicase activities that can hydrolyze all types of NTPs and unwind RNA helices dependently of the presence of NTP, and further characterize the biochemical characteristics of these two enzymatic activities associated with SARS-CoV-2 nsp13. Moreover, we found that some bismuth salts could effectively inhibit both the NTPase and RNA helicase activities of SARS-CoV-2 nsp13 in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our findings demonstrate the NTPase and helicase activities of SARS-CoV-2 nsp13, which may play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 replication and serve as a target for antivirals.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Bismuto/farmacologia , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Helicases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sais/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Metiltransferases/genética , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/genética , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Helicases/genética , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232927, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396566

RESUMO

Tetraene macrolides remain one of the most reliable fungicidal agents as resistance of fungal pathogens to these antibiotics is relatively rare. The modes of action and biosynthesis of polyene macrolides had been the focus of research over the past few years. However, few studies have been carried out on the overproduction of polyene macrolides. In the present study, cumulative drug-resistance mutation was used to obtain a quintuple mutant G5-59 with huge tetraene macrolide overproduction from the starting strain Streptomyces diastatochromogenes 1628. Through DNA sequence analysis, the mutation points in the genes of rsmG, rpsL and rpoB were identified. Additionally, the growth characteristic and expression level of tetrRI gene (belonging to the large ATP binding regulator of LuxR family) involved in the biosynthesis of tetraene macrolides were analyzed. As examined with 5L fermentor, the quintuple mutant G5-59 grew very well and the maximum productivity of tetramycin A, tetramycin P and tetrin B was as high as 1735, 2811 and 1500 mg/L, which was 8.7-, 16- and 25-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain 1628, respectively. The quintuple mutant G5-59 could be useful for further improvement of tetraene macrolides production at industrial level.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Macrolídeos/metabolismo , Mutação , Streptomyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fermentação , Engenharia Metabólica , Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437389

RESUMO

The overexploitation of medicinal plants is depleting gene pool at an alarming rate. In this scenario inducing the genetic variability through targeted mutations could be beneficial in generating varieties with increased content of active compounds. The present study aimed to develop a reproducible protocol for in vitro multiplication and mutagenesis of Hyoscyamus niger targeting putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) and 6ß-hydroxy hyoscyamine (H6H) genes of alkaloid biosynthetic pathway. In vitro raised callus were treated with different concentrations (0.01% - 0.1%) of Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS). Emerging multiple shoots and roots were obtained on the MS media supplemented with cytokinins and auxins. Significant effects on morphological characteristics were observed following exposure to different concentrations of EMS. EMS at a concentration of 0.03% was seen to be effective in enhancing the average shoot and root number from 14.5±0.30 to 22.2 ±0.77 and 7.2±0.12 to 8.8±0.72, respectively. The lethal dose (LD50) dose was calculated at 0.08% EMS. The results depicted that EMS has an intense effect on PMT and H6H gene expression and metabolite accumulation. The transcripts of PMT and H6H were significantly upregulated at 0.03-0.05% EMS compared to control. EMS treated explants showed increased accumulation of scopolamine (0.639 µg/g) and hyoscyamine (0.0344µg/g) compared to untreated.


Assuntos
Metanossulfonato de Etila/toxicidade , Hiosciamina/metabolismo , Hyoscyamus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metiltransferases/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Mutagênese , Mutação , Escopolamina/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hyoscyamus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hyoscyamus/genética , Hyoscyamus/metabolismo , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2657, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461636

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark that contributes to various regulations in all domains of life. Giant viruses are widespread dsDNA viruses with gene contents overlapping the cellular world that also encode DNA methyltransferases. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the methylation of their DNA. Here, we use single-molecule real-time sequencing to study the complete methylome of a large spectrum of giant viruses. We show that DNA methylation is widespread, affecting 2/3 of the tested families, although unevenly distributed. We also identify the corresponding viral methyltransferases and show that they are subject to intricate gene transfers between bacteria, viruses and their eukaryotic host. Most methyltransferases are conserved, functional and under purifying selection, suggesting that they increase the viruses' fitness. Some virally encoded methyltransferases are also paired with restriction endonucleases forming Restriction-Modification systems. Our data suggest that giant viruses' methyltransferases are involved in diverse forms of virus-pathogens interactions during coinfections.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigenoma/genética , Vírus Gigantes/genética , Evolução Biológica , Enzimas de Restrição do DNA/genética , Enzimas de Restrição-Modificação do DNA/genética , Genes Virais , Genoma Viral , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Filogenia
16.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(10): 5407-5425, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356874

RESUMO

Adjusting DNA structure via epigenetic modifications, and altering polyadenylation (pA) sites at which precursor mRNA is cleaved and polyadenylated, allows cells to quickly respond to environmental stress. Since polyadenylation occurs co-transcriptionally, and specific patterns of nucleosome positioning and chromatin modifications correlate with pA site usage, epigenetic factors potentially affect alternative polyadenylation (APA). We report that the histone H3K4 methyltransferase Set1, and the histone H3K36 methyltransferase Set2, control choice of pA site in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a powerful model for studying evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic processes. Deletion of SET1 or SET2 causes an increase in serine-2 phosphorylation within the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and in the recruitment of the cleavage/polyadenylation complex, both of which could cause the observed switch in pA site usage. Chemical inhibition of TOR signaling, which causes nutritional stress, results in Set1- and Set2-dependent APA. In addition, Set1 and Set2 decrease efficiency of using single pA sites, and control nucleosome occupancy around pA sites. Overall, our study suggests that the methyltransferases Set1 and Set2 regulate APA induced by nutritional stress, affect the RNAP II C-terminal domain phosphorylation at Ser2, and control recruitment of the 3' end processing machinery to the vicinity of pA sites.


Assuntos
Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/fisiologia , Metiltransferases/fisiologia , Poliadenilação , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histonas , Metiltransferases/genética , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Fatores de Poliadenilação e Clivagem de mRNA/metabolismo
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(11): 6251-6264, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406913

RESUMO

m6A is a prevalent internal modification in mRNAs and has been linked to the diverse effects on mRNA fate. To explore the landscape and evolution of human m6A, we generated 27 m6A methylomes across major adult tissues. These data reveal dynamic m6A methylation across tissue types, uncover both broadly or tissue-specifically methylated sites, and identify an unexpected enrichment of m6A methylation at non-canonical cleavage sites. A comparison of fetal and adult m6A methylomes reveals that m6A preferentially occupies CDS regions in fetal tissues. Moreover, the m6A sub-motifs vary between fetal and adult tissues or across tissue types. From the evolutionary perspective, we uncover that the selection pressure on m6A sites varies and depends on their genic locations. Unexpectedly, we found that ∼40% of the 3'UTR m6A sites are under negative selection, which is higher than the evolutionary constraint on miRNA binding sites, and much higher than that on A-to-I RNA modification. Moreover, the recently gained m6A sites in human populations are clearly under positive selection and associated with traits or diseases. Our work provides a resource of human m6A profile for future studies of m6A functions, and suggests a role of m6A modification in human evolutionary adaptation and disease susceptibility.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Metilação de DNA , Evolução Molecular , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Epigenoma , Feto/metabolismo , Genética Populacional , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Metiltransferases/deficiência , Metiltransferases/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2578, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444598

RESUMO

Studies on biological functions of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification in mRNA have sprung up in recent years. We find m6A can positively regulate the glycolysis of cancer cells. Specifically, m6A-sequencing and functional studies confirm that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) is involved in m6A regulated glycolysis and ATP generation. The m6A modified 5'UTR of PDK4 positively regulates its translation elongation and mRNA stability via binding with YTHDF1/eEF-2 complex and IGF2BP3, respectively. Targeted specific demethylation of PDK4 m6A by dm6ACRISPR system can significantly decrease the expression of PDK4 and glycolysis of cancer cells. Further, TATA-binding protein (TBP) can transcriptionally increase the expression of Mettl3 in cervical cancer cells via binding to its promoter. In vivo and clinical data confirm the positive roles of m6A/PDK4 in tumor growth and progression of cervical and liver cancer. Our study reveals that m6A regulates glycolysis of cancer cells through PDK4.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Glicólise/fisiologia , Quinase Piruvato Desidrogenase (Transferência de Acetil)/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Feminino , Glicólise/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Quinase Piruvato Desidrogenase (Transferência de Acetil)/genética , Estabilidade de RNA , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
J Biomed Sci ; 27(1): 62, 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a serious life-threatening congenital cerebrovascular disease. Specific anatomical features, such as nidus size, location, and venous drainage, have been validated to affect treatment outcomes. Until recently, molecular biomarkers and corresponding molecular mechanism related to anatomical features and treatment outcomes remain unknown. METHODS: RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) Methyltransferase METTL3 was identified as a differentially expressed gene in groups with different lesion sizes by analyzing the transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data. Tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate the effect of METTL3 on angiogenesis. In addition, Methylated RNA Immunoprecipitation Sequencing technology (MeRIP-seq) was performed to screen downstream targets of METTL3 in endothelial cells and to fully clarify the specific underlying molecular mechanisms affecting the phenotype of cerebral AVM. RESULTS: In the current study, we found that the expression level of METTL3 was reduced in the larger pathological tissues of cerebral AVMs. Moreover, knockdown of METTL3 significantly affected angiogenesis of the human endothelial cells. Mechanistically, down-regulation of METTL3 reduced the level of heterodimeric Notch E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by DTX1 and DTX3L, thereby continuously activating the Notch signaling pathway. Ultimately, the up-regulated downstream genes of Notch signaling pathway dramatically affected the angiogenesis of endothelial cells. In addition, we demonstrated that blocking Notch pathway with DAPT could restore the phenotype of METTL3 deficient endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed the mechanism by which m6A modification regulated the angiogenesis and might provide potential biomarkers to predict the outcome of treatment, as well as provide suitable pharmacological targets for preventing the formation and progression of cerebral AVM.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/patologia , Masculino , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Notch/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Plant Physiol ; 250: 153181, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460036

RESUMO

Tetrandrine is the most effective small molecule that has been found to inhibit the Ebola virus. It is a typical bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid and is the main active ingredient in Stephania tetrandra. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are potential methods for efficient and rapid acquisition of tetrandrine. S-adenosyl-L-methionine: (S)-norcoclaurine-6-O-methyltransferase (6OMT) is a rate-limiting step involved in the biosynthesis of tetrandrine. In this study, we identify S-adenosyl-L-methionine: (S)-norcoclaurine-6-O-methyltransferase from S. tetrandra, which catalyzes the conversion of (S)-norcoclaurine to (S)-coclaurine. Four 6OMT-like genes were cloned from S. tetrandra. An in vitro enzyme assay showed that St6OMT1 could catalyze the conversion of (S)-norcoclaurine to produce (S)-coclaurine. St6OMT2 can catalyze the production of very few (S)-coclaurine molecules, accompanied by more by-products with m/z 300, compared to St6OMT1. The newly discovered 6OMTs will provide an optional genetic component for benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) synthetic biology research. This work will lay the foundation for the analysis of the biosynthetic pathway of tetrandrine in S. tetrandra.


Assuntos
Antivirais/metabolismo , Benzilisoquinolinas/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Stephania tetrandra/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Metiltransferases/química , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Stephania tetrandra/enzimologia , Stephania tetrandra/metabolismo
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