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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 9(22): 491-497, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab is an interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor antagonist used treat moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) routes are approved for the treatment of adults with RA. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate SC tocilizumab in a real-life clinical setting. METHODS: Our study was a multi-center, open-label, single-arm study. Participants were adults with a diagnosis of active RA, previously treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), with or without biologic agents. Participants received a weekly SC injection of tocilizumab 162 mg as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate or DMARDs for 24 weeks. Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity were assessed. RESULTS: Treatment of 100 patients over 24 weeks resulted in improvement in all efficacy parameters assessed: Clinical Disease Activity Index, Disease Activity Score using 28 joint counts and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, American College of Rheumatology response scores, Simplified Disease Activity Index, tender and swollen joint counts, and patient-reported outcomes including fatigue, global assessment of disease activity, pain, and Health Assessment Quality of Life Disease Index. Improvement was achieved as early as the second week of treatment. There were 473 adverse events (AEs)/100 patient-years (PY) and 16.66 serious AEs/100 PY. The most common AEs were neutropenia (12%), leukopenia (11%), and increased hepatic enzymes (11%). Of a total of 42 PY, the rates of serious infections and AEs leading to discontinuation were 4.8, and 11.9 events/100 PY, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The safety, tolerability, and efficacy profile of tocilizumab SC were comparable to those reported in other studies evaluating the IV and SC routes of administration.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22335, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991445

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon and aggressive large B-cell lymphoma commonly diagnosed in human immunodeficiency viruses -positive patients. Oral cavity is the most commonly PBL affected site. Most oral PBLs presented as asymptomatic swellings, frequently associated with ulcerations and bleeding. Most cases lacked B-symptoms, suggesting a more local involvement of the disease. No standard treatment is yet for oral PBL. Five-year survival rate recorded no more than 33.5%. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 39-year-old male presented to Dental Clinic with 1 month swelling of the oral cavity, in absence of any other symptoms or signs. He followed antibiotic therapy just on suspicion of an oral abscess and later oral surgical treatment on suspicion of bone neoplasm. DIAGNOSIS: Surgical specimen analysis highlighted a diffuse infiltrate of large-sized atypical cells with plasmablastic appearance and plasma cell phenotype. Oral cavity PBL was diagnosed. Blood tests recorded mild lymphopenia and positive human immunodeficiency viruses serology. INTERVENTIONS: Patient underwent chemotherapy including intrathecal methotrexate prophylaxis, in addition to a highly active antiretroviral therapy. OUTCOMES: At 12 months from diagnosis, patient recorded complete hematological remission. CONCLUSIONS: Oral PBL diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and awareness both by physicians and pathologists. They should be aware of the extent of such disease which is often mistaken as oral abscess or infected tooth, thus leading to delay the most appropriate diagnostic evaluation. As PBL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a delayed diagnosis might negatively impact on both treatment and survival.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Boca/patologia , Linfoma Plasmablástico/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Edema/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Soropositividade para HIV/sangue , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Plasmócitos/patologia , Linfoma Plasmablástico/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(8): 692-696, 2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867464

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol liposome doxorubicin (PLD) in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Methods: This study was a single-center retrospective clinical study. Two hundreds and seventy-six classical osteosarcoma treated in Beijing Jishuitan Hospital from 2015 to 2016 were enrolled. There were 213 patients who received combined chemotherapy of high dose methotrexate, ifosfamide, cisplatin and doxorubicin (ADM) were classified in ADM group. Other 63 patients received the same types, doses and cycles of chemotherapy drugs except ADM replaced by PLD were identified as PLD group. Clinical and imaging evaluation and surgical treatment were performed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Tumor necrosis rate was examined according to Huvos method. The efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was evaluated based on 90% necrosis rate. The recurrence, metastasis and survival were followed up regularly after operation. The adverse reactions of hematology, hepatorenal toxicity, gastrointestinal reaction and cardiotoxicity were evaluated. Results: There were no significant differences between PLD group and ADM group in age, sex, location, stage and surgical margin (all P>0.05). There were no significant differences in clinical symptoms and imaging evaluation between PLD group and ADM group after preoperative chemotherapy (all P>0.05). The tumor necrosis rate was detected in 134 cases. Among 27 cases of PLD group, tumor necrosis rates more than 90% were 11 cases, while among 107 cases of ADM group, tumor necrosis rates more than 90% were 45 cases. No significant difference of tumor necrosis rate between this two group was observed (P=0.901). The recurrence rates of PLD group and ADM group were 7.8% (4/51) and 7.3% (12/164), the metastasis rates were 19.6% (10/51) and 16.5% (27/164), the median progression free survival (PFS) were 42 and 37 months, respectively, without significant differences (all P>0.05). The incidence of granulocytopenia and decrease degree of granulocytes in PLD group were significantly lower than those in ADM group (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the incidences of thrombocytopenia, anemia, gastrointestinal reaction, liver function damage and stomatitis between two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: PLD and ADM have similar chemotherapeutic effects in osteosarcoma. The incidences of adverse reactions of PLD are lower, especially the hematological toxicity represented by granulocytopenia is significantly reduced. PLD has a better application prospect.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Lipossomos/uso terapêutico , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Extremidades , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Polietilenoglicóis , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21432, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756152

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP), when combined with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), is a rare, but potentially life-threatening condition that may be associated with uncontrolled hemorrhage. Hysterectomy is indicated when conservative treatment fails. Preservation of fertility is challenging. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a 33-year-old woman with a CSP combined with an AVM who failed methotrexate administration as conservative treatment. DIAGNOSES: A CSP combined with an AVM was diagnosed via three-dimensional color Doppler angiogram and magnetic resonance imaging. INTERVENTIONS: Transvaginal removal of the ectopic gestation and repair of the uterine defect was performed without incident. OUTCOMES: The fertility of the patient was preserved and hysterectomy was avoided. CONCLUSION: Transvaginal fertility-sparing surgery may be successfully performed to prevent hysterectomy when conservative treatment fails in patients with a CSP combined with an AVM.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/complicações , Malformações Arteriovenosas/cirurgia , Cicatriz/patologia , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Adulto , Angiografia/métodos , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Malformações Arteriovenosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Arteriovenosas/tratamento farmacológico , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cicatriz/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/métodos
5.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2367-2375, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816079

RESUMO

This study aimed to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of temozolomide (TMZ) concurrent with radiotherapy (RT) after high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) for newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Adult patients with PCNSL were treated according to a response-adapted strategy. HD-MTX (3.5 g/m2) was followed by concomitant RT and escalating TMZ (50-60-75 mg/m2/day, 5 days/week). The total radiation dose was modulated according to the patient's response to HD-MTX. All patients received 30 Gy to the whole brain plus leptomeninges to C2, including the third posterior of the orbital cavity (clinical target volume 2; CTV2), plus 6, 10, or 16 Gy to the primary site, including the residual mass (CTV1), if a complete response (CR), partial response (PR)/stable disease (SD), or progressive disease (PD) was observed, respectively. Acute toxicities were graded according to the RTOG-EORTC criteria. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as grade 4 hematological toxicity or grade 3-4 hepatic toxicity, although 75 mg/m2/day was the maximum dose regardless of DLT. Neurocognitive function was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Three patients were enrolled at each TMZ dose level (total = 9 patients). Twelve lesions were treated. Six patients received 2 cycles of HD-MTX, while 3 received only 1 cycle because of hepatic or renal toxicity. All patients completed chemoradiotherapy without interruptions. No DLT events were recorded. TMZ appears to be tolerable at a dose of 75 mg/m2/day when administered concomitantly with radiotherapy and after HD-MTX.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Irradiação Craniana , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Temozolomida/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Abatacept acts as a competitive inhibitor of the CD28/(CD80/86) costimulation signal required for T cell activation. Mechanisms of action of abatacept have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to provide detailed insight into the mode of action of Abatacept based on gene expression data. METHODS: In this ancillary study from the APPRAISE trial, we investigated the global molecular effects of Abatacept in whole blood samples collected prospectively in biologic naive rheumatoid arthritis patients (n = 19) at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of Abatacept therapy concomitant with methotrexate. Whole human genome microarrays (4x44K) were performed on both baseline and 6-month samples from responders and non-responders patients categorized according to EULAR criteria. T-test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction was performed to identify significant gene expression changes. Gene Ontology and Single Experiment Analysis tools allowed us to highlight specific biological mechanisms involved in methotrexate/Abatacept. RESULTS: In methotrexate/Abatacept responders, 672 genes were significantly (q<0.05) dysregulated at 6 months compared to baseline. Correlation analysis highlighted 19 genes whose dysregulations were significantly associated with disease activity variation (p<0.05) and whose functions were associated with proliferation, apoptosis of cells and mitochondrial metabolism, suggesting a restoration of oxidative signaling. The other 653 gene expression changes were relative to direct or indirect effects of methotrexate/Abatacept treatment and were significantly (p<0.005) involved in pathways relative to mRNA processing, proteasome, angiogenesis, apoptosis and TCR signaling. This study highlights new mechanisms of action of methotrexate/Abatacept and may provide new therapeutic targets to prevent autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Abatacepte/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Abatacepte/administração & dosagem , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3883-3888, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is overexpressed in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) cells, and 765IGF-Methotrexate (IGF-MTX) is a conjugate of methotrexate and a variant of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) designed to selectively target cancer cells through binding to IGF-1R. The aim of this study was to determine whether IGF-MTX would be effective to treat MDS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this phase I clinical trial, two patients with high grade MDS or oligoblastic acute myeloid leukemia (O-AML) that had failed standard therapy were treated with IGF-MTX. RESULTS: No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Both patients had stable or improved cell counts and CD34+ myelodysplastic cell counts and exceeded their life expectancy (both alive at 1.9 years despite a life expectancy of less than 6 months). Bone marrow blast counts decreased from 22% to 5% in one patient, and from 17% to 16% in the other. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, IGF-MTX at 0.20 µM equivalents per kg was well tolerated, caused no cytopenia, and produced stable disease and extension of life.


Assuntos
Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/efeitos adversos , Imunoconjugados/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/imunologia , Masculino , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/sangue , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/imunologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Gradação de Tumores , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/biossíntese , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/imunologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20824, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629668

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoids (GCs), especially low-dose GCs, are commonly prescribed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although the risk/benefit ratio is controversial. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose oral GCs combined with methotrexate (MTX) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in early RA (ERA). METHODS: Eighty untreated ERA patients were randomized into the trial (GCs + MTX + HCQ) and control (placebo + MTX + HCQ) groups, for 1-year treatment. Therapeutic evaluation indices were American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 of ACR, disease activity score (DAS) 28- erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), visual analog scale scores, joint function, health assessment questionnaire-disability index score, morning stiffness duration, C-reaction protein and ESR. The clinical indicators were evaluated pre-treatment and at 1st, 3th, 6th and 12th month of treatment. The MRI data of single joint (ie, the most swollen joint) for each patient were acquired with a revised OMERACT RAMRIS Scoring System before and after treatment. The correlation analysis was adopted to confirm whether the efficacy of GC treatment is related to the time of RA onset. The side effects (eg, gastrointestinal reactions, liver dysfunction, upper respiratory tract infection, leukocyte reduction) were also monitored. RESULTS: At 1st month, 55% and 20% cases in the experimental and control groups achieved ACR20 response, respectively, indicating a significant difference (χ = 16.157, P < .001). This trend continued until 6th month. At 12th month, the number of patients achieved ACR20 response was similar in both groups. At 1st to 6th month, DAS28- ESR scores in the experimental group were significantly lower than control values (all p < .05). The experimental group showed improved inflammation, quality of life and radiological symptoms. Bone erosion remained unchanged in the experimental group, while worsening in control group. Correlation coefficients between RA duration and DAS28-ESR score were 0.496, 0.464, 0.509, and 0.550 at 1st, 3th, 6th, and 12th month, respectively. No differences were found in adverse events between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose GCs combined with MTX and HCQ significantly achieves disease remission indexed by ACR20 and DAS28-ESR, and improves clinical and radiological outcomes in ERA patients at the early stage, with superiority over placebo + MTX + HCQ, without enhancing adverse reactions.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD011174, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-tubal ectopic pregnancy is the implantation of an embryo at a site lying outside the uterine cavity or fallopian tubes. Sites include a caesarean scar, the cornua uteri, the ovary, the cervix, and the abdomen. There has been an increasing trend in the occurrence of these rare conditions, especially caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of surgery, medical treatment, and expectant management of non-tubal ectopic pregnancy in terms of fertility outcomes and complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility (CGF) Group Specialised Register of Controlled Trials, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) search portal and nine other databases to 12 December 2019. We handsearched reference lists of articles retrieved and contacted experts in the field to obtain additional data. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in all languages that examined the effects and safety of surgery, medical treatment, and expectant management of non-tubal ectopic pregnancy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used Cochrane standard methodological procedures. Primary outcomes were treatment success and complications. MAIN RESULTS: We included five RCTs with 303 women, all reporting Caesarean scar pregnancy. Two compared uterine arterial embolization (UAE) or uterine arterial chemoembolization (UACE) plus methotrexate (MTX) versus systemic MTX and subsequent dilation and suction curettage; one compared UACE plus MTX versus ultrasonography-guided local MTX injection; and two compared suction curettage under hysteroscopy versus suction curettage under ultrasonography after UAE/UACE. The quality of evidence ranged from moderate to very low. The main limitations were imprecision (small sample sizes and very wide confidence intervals (CI) for most analyses), multiple comparisons with a small number of trials, and insufficient data available to assess heterogeneity. UAE/UACE versus systemic MTX prior to suction curettage Two studies reported this comparison. One compared UAE with systemic MTX and one compared UACE plus MTX versus systemic MTX, in both cases followed by a suction curettage. We are uncertain whether UAE/UACE improved success rates after initial treatment (UAE: risk ratio (RR) 1.00, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.12; 1 RCT, 72 women; low-quality evidence; UACE: RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.38; 1 RCT, 28 women; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether UAE/UACE reduced rates of complications (UAE: RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.75; 1 RCT, 72 women; low-quality evidence; UACE: RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.48; 1 RCT, 28 women; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether UAE/UACE reduced adverse effects (UAE: RR 1.58, 95% CI 0.41 to 6.11; 1 RCT, 72 women; low-quality evidence; UACE: RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.32 to 4.24; 1 RCT, 28 women; low-quality evidence), and it was not obvious that the types of events had similar values to participants (e.g. fever versus vomiting). Blood loss was lower in UAE/UACE groups than systemic MTX groups (UAE: mean difference (MD) -378.70 mL, 95% CI -401.43 to -355.97; 1 RCT, 72 women; moderate-quality evidence; UACE: MD -879.00 mL, 95% CI -1135.23 to -622.77; 1 RCT, 28 women; moderate-quality evidence). Data were not available on time to normalize ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG). UACE plus MTX versus ultrasonography-guided local MTX injection We are uncertain whether UACE improved success rates after initial treatment (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.60; 1 RCT, 45 women; very low-quality evidence). Adverse effects: the study reported the same number of failed treatments in each arm (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.92; 1 RCT, 45 women). We are uncertain whether UACE shortened the time to normalize ß-hCG (MD 1.50 days, 95% CI -3.16 to 6.16; 1 RCT, 45 women; very low-quality evidence). Data were not available for complications. Suction curettage under hysteroscopy versus under ultrasonography after UAE/UACE. Two studies reported this comparison. One compared suction curettage under hysteroscopy versus under ultrasonography after UAE, and one compared these interventions after UACE. We are uncertain whether suction curettage under hysteroscopy improved success rates after initial treatment (UAE: RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.03; 1 RCT, 66 women; very low-quality evidence; UACE: RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.09; 1 RCT, 92 women; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether suction curettage under hysteroscopy reduced rates of complications (UAE: RR 4.00, 95% CI 0.47 to 33.91; 1 RCT, 66 women; very low-quality evidence; UACE: RR 0.18, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.72; 1 RCT, 92 women; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether suction curettage under hysteroscopy reduced adverse effects (UAE: RR 3.09, 95% CI 0.12 to 78.70; 1 RCT, 66 women; very low-quality evidence; UACE: not estimable; 1 RCT, 92 women; very low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether suction curettage under hysteroscopy shortened the time to normalize ß-hCG (UAE: MD 4.03 days, 95% CI -1.79 to 9.85; 1 RCT, 66 women; very low-quality evidence; UACE: MD 0.84 days, 95% CI -1.90 to 3.58; 1 RCT, 92 women; low-quality evidence). Non-tubal ectopic pregnancy other than CSP No studies reported on non-tubal ectopic pregnancies in locations other than on a caesarean scar. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: For Caesarean scar pregnancies (CSP) it is uncertain whether there is a difference in success rates, complications, or adverse events between UAE/UACE and administration of systemic MTX before suction curettage (low-quality evidence). Blood loss was lower if suction curettage is conducted after UAE/UACE than after administration of systemic MTX (moderate-quality evidence). It is uncertain whether there is a difference in treatment success rates, complications, adverse effects or time to normalize ß-hCG between suction curettage under hysteroscopy and under ultrasonography (very low-quality evidence). There are no studies of non-tubal ectopic pregnancy other than CSP and RCTs for these types of pregnancy are unlikely.


Assuntos
Gravidez Ectópica/terapia , Abortivos não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Abortivos não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Viés , Cesárea , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Cicatriz/complicações , Intervalos de Confiança , Dilatação e Curetagem/efeitos adversos , Dilatação e Curetagem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Histeroscopia , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tamanho da Amostra , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Artéria Uterina , Embolização da Artéria Uterina/efeitos adversos , Curetagem a Vácuo
10.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 180, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601758

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic disorder, limits the use of chemical penetration enhancers for a prolonged period of time. Moreover, systemic routes of administration of the first-line drug, methotrexate, have shown undesirable systemic as well as local side effects. The objective of this research was to overcome the limitations associated with treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by utilizing three physical transdermal penetration enhancement techniques namely cold-laser, electroporation, and sonophoresis to deliver methotrexate. Methotrexate patch was prepared using solvent casting method and the ex-vivo release of methotrexate in combination with three physical penetration enhancers (sonophoresis, electroporation, and cold laser) were studied. The best technique was employed in pre-clinical testing in arthritic and control groups of male Wistar rats excluding remaining two techniques. The comparative ex-vivo studies showed that the penetration enhancement of methotrexate is maximum by sonophoresis followed by electroporation and cold laser (sonophoresis > electroporation > cold laser). In pharmacodynamic studies, the reduction in diameter of injected and non-injected paw on day 5 and day 21 for group 4 (ultrasound pre-treated group) was higher as compared to group 3 (group receiving only methotrexate patch). The motility score and the reduction in pain were significantly improved for group 4 than group 3 on both day 5 and day 21 (P Ë‚ 0.05) which confirmed the faster recovery of animals of group 4 due to penetration enhancement of methotrexate patch by ultrasound treatment. From the results, it can be concluded that sonophoresis along with methotrexate patch has shown a significant effect in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Adesivo Transdérmico , Terapia por Ultrassom , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Pele/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea
11.
Ann Hematol ; 99(8): 1823-1831, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577843

RESUMO

Although overall survival in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) has improved, central nervous system (CNS) relapse is still a fatal complication of DLBCL. For this reason, CNS prophylaxis is recommended for patients at high risk of CNS disease. However, no consensus exists on definition of high-risk patient and optimal CNS prophylaxis. Systemic high-dose methotrexate in combination with R-CHOP has been suggested as a potential prophylactic method, since methotrexate penetrates the blood-brain barrier and achieves high concentration in the CNS. In this retrospective analysis, we report treatment outcome of 95 high-risk DLBCL/FL grade 3B patients treated with R-CHOP or its derivatives with (N = 57) or without (N = 38) CNS prophylaxis. At a median follow-up time (51 months), CNS relapses were detected in twelve patients (12.6%). Ten out of twelve (83%) of CNS events were confined to CNS system only. Median overall survival after CNS relapse was 9 months. Five-year isolated CNS relapse rates were 5% in the prophylaxis group and 26% in the group without prophylaxis. These findings suggest that high-dose methotrexate-containing prophylaxis decreases the risk of CNS failure.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/prevenção & controle , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/prevenção & controle , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Recidiva , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/administração & dosagem
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3539-3550, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547012

RESUMO

Background: Methotrexate (MTX) is an antiproliferative drug widely used to treat inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases. The application of percutaneous administration is hindered due to its poor transdermal penetration. To reduce side effects and enhanced percutaneous delivery of MTX, novel methotrexate (MTX)-loaded micelles prepared with a amphiphilic cationic material, N,N-dimethyl-(N',N'-di-stearoyl-1-ethyl)1,3-diaminopropane (DMSAP), was designed. Materials and Methods: DMSAP was synthesized via three steps using simple chemical agents. H nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy were used to confirm the successful synthesis of DMSAP. A safe and non-toxic phosphatidylcholine, soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC), was added to DMSAP at different ratios to form P/D-micelles. Then, MTX-entrapped micelles (M/P/D-micelles) were prepared by electrostatic adsorption. The physicochemical properties and blood stability of micelles were examined thoroughly. In addition, the transdermal potential of the micelles was evaluated by permeation experiments. Results: In aqueous environments, DMSAP conjugates could self-assemble spontaneously into micelles with a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.056 mg/mL. Stable, spherical MTX-entrapped micelles (M/P/D-micelles) with a size of 100-120 nm and high zeta potential of +36.26 mV were prepared. In vitro permeation studies showed that M/P/D-micelles exhibited superior skin permeability and deposition of MTX in the epidermis and dermis compared with that of free MTX. Conclusion: These special novel cationic M/P/D-micelles can enhance the permeability of MTX and are expected to be a promising percutaneous delivery system for therapy skin diseases.


Assuntos
Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Micelas , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Cátions , Bovinos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Metotrexato/química , Camundongos , Concentração Osmolar , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletricidade Estática
13.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(6): 795-803, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475245

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the correlation between the histological response to preoperative chemotherapy and event-free survival (EFS) or overall survival (OS) in patients with high-grade localized osteosarcoma. METHODS: Out of 625 patients aged ≤ 40 years treated for primary high-grade osteosarcoma between 1997 and 2016, 232 patients without clinically detectable metastases at the time of diagnosis and treated with preoperative high-dose methotrexate, adriamycin and cisplatin (MAP) chemotherapy and surgery were included. Associations of chemotherapy-induced necrosis in the resected specimen and EFS or OS were assessed using Cox model and the Pearson's correlation coefficients (r). Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis was applied to determine the optimal cut-off value of chemotherapy-induced necrosis for EFS and OS. RESULTS: OS was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI) 67 to 79) at five years. Median chemotherapy-induced necrosis was 85% (interquartile range (IQR) 50% to 97%). In multivariate Cox model, chemotherapy-induced necrosis was significantly associated with EFS and OS (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.99 (95% CI 0.98 to 0.99); p < 0.001 and HR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99); p < 0.001, respectively). Positive correlation was observed between chemotherapy-induced necrosis and five-year EFS and five-year OS (r = 0.91; p < 0.001, and r = 0.85; p < 0.001, respectively). The optimal cut-off value of chemotherapy-induced necrosis for five-year EFS and five-year OS was 85% and 72%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy-induced necrosis in the resected specimen showed positive correlation with EFS and OS in patients with high-grade localized osteosarcoma after MAP chemotherapy. In our analysis, optimal cut-off values of MAP chemotherapy-induced necrosis in EFS and OS were lower than the commonly used 90%, suggesting the need for re-evaluation of the optimal cut-off value through larger, international collaborative research. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(6):795-803.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Adolescente , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Criança , Correlação de Dados , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(9): 1174-1181, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the 2-year clinical effectiveness of two gradual tapering strategies. The first strategy consisted of tapering the conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) first (i.e., methotrexate in ~90%), followed by the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNF-inhibitor), the second strategy consisted of tapering the TNF-inhibitor first, followed by the csDMARD. METHODS: This multicentre single-blinded randomised controlled trial included patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with well-controlled disease for ≥3 consecutive months, defined as a Disease Activity Score (DAS) measured in 44 joints ≤2.4 and a swollen joint count ≤1, which was achieved with a csDMARD and a TNF-inhibitor. Eligible patients were randomised into gradual tapering the csDMARD followed by the TNF-inhibitor, or vice versa. The primary outcome was the number of disease flares. Secondary outcomes were DMARD-free remission (DFR), DAS, functional ability (Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI)) and radiographic progression. RESULTS: 189 patients were randomly assigned to tapering their csDMARD (n=94) or TNF-inhibitor (n=95) first. The cumulative flare rate after 24 months was, respectively, 61% (95% CI 50% to 71%) and 62% (95% CI 52% to 72%). The patients who tapered their csDMARD first were more often able to go through the entire tapering protocol and reached DFR more often than the group that tapered the TNF-inhibitor first (32% vs 20% (p=0.12) and 21% vs 10% (p=0.07), respectively). Mean DAS and HAQ-DI over time, and radiographic progression did not differ between groups (p=0.45, p=0.17, p=0.8, respectively). CONCLUSION: The order of tapering did not affect flare rates, DAS or HAQ-DI. DFR was achievable in 15% of patients with established RA, slightly more frequent in patients that first tapered csDMARDs. Because of similar effects from a clinical viewpoint, financial arguments may influence the decision to taper TNF-inhibitors first.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Suspensão de Tratamento
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421698

RESUMO

We have recently established a protocol to grow wildtype human oral mucosa organoids. These three-dimensional structures can be maintained in culture long-term, do not require immortalization, and recapitulate the multilayered composition of the epithelial lining of the oral mucosa. Here, we validate the use of this model to study the effect of Leucovorin (LV) on Methotrexate (MTX)-induced toxicity. MTX is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although effective, the use of MTX often results in severe side-effects, including oral mucositis, which is characterized by epithelial cell death. Here, we show that organoids are sensitive to MTX, and that the addition of LV reduces MTX toxicity, in both a concentration- and timing-dependent manner. Additionally, we show that a 24 hour 'pretreatment' with LV reduces MTX-induced cell death, suggesting that such a pretreatment could decrease mucositis in patients. Taken together, we provide the first in vitro model to study the effect of MTX on wildtype oral mucosa cells. Our findings underscore the relevance of the clinically applied LV regimen and highlight the potential of this model to further optimize modifications in dosing and timing of Leucovorin on oral mucosa cells.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/patologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Estomatite/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente
16.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(6): 429-433, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435045

RESUMO

We report a case of rheumatoid meningitis complicated with cryptococcal meningitis in a 59-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis. Migraine symptoms were followed by abnormal behavior, and the patient was admitted with fever and headache. On admission, her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained 115 cells/µl, a protein content of 95 mg/dl, and a sugar level of 47 mg/dl; Her serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody value was high (174 U/ml), and a brain MRI showed enhanced gadolinium lesions in the cerebral/cerebellar pia mater and subarachnoid space, etc. Probable rheumatoid meningitis was clinically diagnosed, and a prednisolone (PSL) pulse was started. Several days later, a CSF culture test was positive for Cryptococcus neoformans, and the antigen titer was 128-fold. Liposomal-amphotericin B (L-AMB) was started for cryptococcal meningitis, combined with three PSL pulses for rheumatoid meningitis. After about 4 weeks, the number of CSF cells and anti-CCP antibodies decreased rapidly. At 2 months after the onset, the meningitis recurred. The MRI contrast lesions reappeared, and the CSF cells increased to 24/µl. Serum and CSF anti-CCP antibodies increased at the time of recurrence, but the cryptococcal antigen titer decreased. Thus, we concluded that the rheumatoid meningitis mainly involved the pathogenesis of both types of meningitis. The number of PSL pulses was limited to four. Post-perioral therapy was avoided. Methotrexate was continued for the rheumatoid meningitis, fluconazole was continued for the cryptococcal meningitis, and neither type of meningitis has recurred.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Meningite Criptocócica/etiologia , Meningite/diagnóstico , Meningite/etiologia , Anticorpos/sangue , Anticorpos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Meningite/tratamento farmacológico , Meningite Criptocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(7): e28259, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400949
18.
Oncology ; 98(8): 520-527, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369814

RESUMO

In this review, human methotrexate dosing regimens, as well as their relationship to data from in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal and human studies, are discussed. Low-dose, intermediate-dose, and high-dose therapies are covered. Since in vitro and in vivo screenings of potential cancer drugs are commonplace in the development of cancer chemotherapy, comparisons of the three criteria for effectiveness are important.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/química , Neoplasias/patologia
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20201, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384515

RESUMO

Most studies of methotrexate (MTX) in combination with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors have focused on treatment-naive patients with early disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether previous biologic therapy influenced the impact of concomitant MTX in patients initiating treatment with adalimumab.We retrospectively analyzed data from 2 large noninterventional studies of German patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who initiated adalimumab therapy during routine clinical practice. Patients were seen between April 2004 and February 2013 for study 1 and between April 2003 and March 2013 for study 2. Key outcomes were Disease Activity Score-28 joints (DAS28), patient global assessment of health (PGA), and pain. Subgroup analyses by prior biologic treatment were performed on patients treated with continuous adalimumab monotherapy or adalimumab plus MTX for 12 months and 2-sample t tests were used to evaluate differences. We also assessed outcomes in subgroups in which MTX had been added or removed at 6 months and compared outcomes with 1-sample t tests.Of 2654 patients, 1911 (72%) were biologic naive and 743 (28%) had received prior biologic therapy, usually with a TNF inhibitor. All subgroups showed improvements following initiation of adalimumab therapy. In patients with no previous biologic treatment, continuous adalimumab plus MTX was associated with greater improvements in DAS28, PGA, and pain at month 12 compared with continuous adalimumab monotherapy (P = .0006, .0031, and .0032, respectively). In patients with previous biologic treatment, concomitant MTX was associated with statistically significant benefits in pain only. Adding MTX at month 6 resulted in additional benefits in patients with no prior biologic therapy, but not those with previous biologics.We conclude that concomitant MTX resulted in additional improvements in DAS28 and PGA vs adalimumab monotherapy in patients with no previous biologic therapy, but changes were not statistically significant in patients treated with prior biologics. These findings may help inform the patient/provider treatment decision during routine clinical care.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Adalimumab/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Produtos Biológicos , Progressão da Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Dor/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Life Sci ; 253: 117733, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360127

RESUMO

AIMS: Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH-1) is considered a signature of breast cancer stem cells and is linked to poor outcomes in breast cancer patients. This study aimed at investigating the effect of vitamin D3 on enhancing the tumor responsiveness to different conventional chemotherapeutic agents, viz., cisplatin, methotrexate, and doxorubicin. MAIN METHODS: In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed using combinations of vitamin D3 and chemotherapeutic agents. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis assays were performed. Moreover, ALDH-1 expression levels were estimated in cancer cell lines and solid tumors. For solid tumors, tumor volume and histopathological necrotic indices were estimated. Leukocyte presence was also evaluated in tumors using leukocyte common antigen (LCA). KEY FINDINGS: Results showed a synergistic interaction between vitamin D3 and each of the chemotherapeutic agents on breast cancer cell lines as well as cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. A decrease in ALDH-1 levels was reported in both breast cancer cells and in tumor tissues. Reductions in tumor volume were also observed in the groups which received the combination therapy. An influence on necrosis rather than apoptosis was also reported, as evidenced by necrotic indices and Bcl-2 expression in tumor sections, respectively. Increased local leukocytes in tumors was also evident, as indicated by increased expression of leukocyte common antigen (LCA). SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the present study shows that vitamin D3 has an impact on resistance to different chemotherapeutic agents which could be due to the inhibition of ALDH-1, suggesting its use as an adjuvant therapy in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/tratamento farmacológico , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Aldeído Desidrogenase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/enzimologia
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