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1.
JAMA ; 325(4): 353-362, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427870

RESUMO

Importance: Antibiotics are an effective and safe alternative to appendectomy for managing uncomplicated acute appendicitis, but the optimal antibiotic regimen is not known. Objective: To compare oral antibiotics with combined intravenous followed by oral antibiotics in the management of computed tomography-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Appendicitis Acuta (APPAC) II multicenter, open-label, noninferiority randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 2017 until November 2018 in 9 Finnish hospitals. A total of 599 patients aged 18 to 60 years with computed tomography-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis were enrolled in the trial. The last date of follow-up was November 29, 2019. Interventions: Patients randomized to receive oral monotherapy (n = 295) received oral moxifloxacin (400 mg/d) for 7 days. Patients randomized to receive intravenous antibiotics followed by oral antibiotics (n = 288) received intravenous ertapenem (1 g/d) for 2 days followed by oral levofloxacin (500 mg/d) and metronidazole (500 mg 3 times/d) for 5 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was treatment success (≥65%) for both groups, defined as discharge from hospital without surgery and no recurrent appendicitis during 1-year follow-up, and to determine whether oral antibiotics alone were noninferior to intravenous and oral antibiotics, with a margin of 6% for difference. Results: Among 599 patients who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 36 [12] years; 263 [44%] women), 581 (99.7%) were available for the 1-year follow-up. The treatment success rate at 1 year was 70.2% (1-sided 95% CI, 65.8% to ∞) for patients treated with oral antibiotics and 73.8% (1-sided 95% CI, 69.5% to ∞) for patients treated with intravenous followed by oral antibiotics. The difference was -3.6% ([1-sided 95% CI, -9.7% to ∞]; P = .26 for noninferiority), with the confidence limit exceeding the noninferiority margin. Conclusion and Relevance: Among adults with uncomplicated acute appendicitis, treatment with 7 days of oral moxifloxacin compared with 2 days of intravenous ertapenem followed by 5 days of levofloxacin and metronidazole resulted in treatment success rates greater than 65% in both groups, but failed to demonstrate noninferiority for treatment success of oral antibiotics compared with intravenous followed by oral antibiotics. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03236961; EudraCT Identifier: 2015-003633-10.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Apendicite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Apendicectomia , Apendicite/diagnóstico por imagem , Apendicite/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ertapenem/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moxifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370946

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis with persistent vomiting, high degree fever and blood streaking stools often suggests bacterial aetiology in children. Authors report a 13-year-old boy presenting with acute watery diarrhoea with persistent vomiting, fever of 103°F, abdominal cramps and blood streaking stools who failed to show any response to parenteral third-generation cephalosporin for 72 hours. The stool examination revealed numerous cystic and amoeboid forms of Blastocystis hominis Metronidazole was started and the boy promptly responded within 24 hours. There was no recurrence of symptoms then onwards. The case highlights the crucial stool examination in case of acute diarrhoeal disease for rare aetiology.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Blastocystis/diagnóstico , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda/terapia , Adolescente , Infecções por Blastocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 834, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is estimated to affect 1 in 3 women globally and is associated with obstetric and gynaecological sequelae. Current recommended therapies have good short-term efficacy but 1 in 2 women experience BV recurrence within 6 months of treatment. Evidence of male carriage of BV-organisms suggests that male partners may be reinfecting women with BV-associated bacteria (henceforth referred to as BV-organisms) and impacting on the efficacy of treatment approaches solely directed to women. This trial aims to determine the effect of concurrent male partner treatment for preventing BV recurrence compared to current standard of care. METHODS: StepUp is an open-label, multicentre, parallel group randomised controlled trial for women diagnosed with BV and their male partner. Women with clinical-BV defined using current gold standard diagnosis methods (≥3 Amsel criteria and Nugent score (NS) = 4-10) and with a regular male partner will be assessed for eligibility, and couples will then be consented. All women will be prescribed oral metronidazole 400 mg twice daily (BID) for 7 days, or if contraindicated, a 7-day regimen of topical vaginal 2% clindamycin. Couples will be randomised 1:1 to either current standard of care (female treatment only), or female treatment and concurrent male partner treatment (7 days of combined antibiotics - oral metronidazole tablets 400 mg BID and 2% clindamycin cream applied topically to the glans penis and upper shaft [under the foreskin if uncircumcised] BID). Couples will be followed for up to 12 weeks to assess BV status in women, and assess the adherence, tolerability and acceptability of male partner treatment. The primary outcome is BV recurrence defined as ≥3 Amsel criteria and NS = 4-10 within 12 weeks of enrolment. The estimated sample size is 342 couples, to detect a 40% reduction in BV recurrence rates from 40% in the control group to 24% in the intervention group within 12 weeks. DISCUSSION: Current treatments directed solely to women result in unacceptably high rates of BV recurrence. If proven to be effective the findings from this trial will directly inform the development of new treatment strategies to impact on BV recurrence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was prospectively registered on 12 February 2019 on the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12619000196145, Universal Trial Number: U1111-1228-0106, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=376883&isReview=true ).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Parceiros Sexuais , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravaginal , Administração Oral , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Austrália , Clindamicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Nova Zelândia , Pênis/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia
7.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(8): 778-784, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785914

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) are typical antibiotic therapy associated complications. Notwithstanding the fact that the clinical picture of CDI may extend to the development of a toxic megacolon with potentially life-threatening sequelae, mild infectious forms associated with uncomplicated diarrhoea are by far the most prevalent and should also be treated according to clear clinical practice guidelines. However, there are currently conflicting international guidelines governing metronidazole-based treatment of mild infections. In light of this shortcoming, we performed a selective literature search of guidelines and clinical studies relating to the use of metronidazole for mild CDIs. The evaluation of randomised controlled trials demonstrates that, in statistical terms, vancomycin is significantly superior to metronidazole (NNT 16). When large cohort studies are included, this difference in effectiveness is reduced to 2,5 % (NNT 40). Inconsistent criteria for defining a mild CDI, different doses, applications and time intervals (e. g. additional IV administration of metronidazole) and the retrospective nature of some studies make it difficult to identify the influence of possible interference variables in this evaluation. Nevertheless, a mild CDI can be successfully treated with metronidazole; other recommendations, particularly those of American associations, should be evaluated critically. It is important to note that this therapy recommendation does not apply to patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases or other patients with pertinent comorbidities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , /isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
8.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 69(2): 96-99, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819109

RESUMO

Neonatal pneumonia is mostly bacterial and other etiology is considered less frequently. We report a case of newborn whose neonatal pneumonia has not improved, despite the aggressive ventilation regime and empiric antibiotic therapy. A special sample from the respiratory tract was collected for PCR examination. The test confirmed the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis. Antibiotic therapy was extended to include metronidazole. Targeted antibiotic therapy, which lasted for 28 days, improved the condition and the patient was discharged in a stabilized condition to home care on the 44th day of life. We demonstrate the need to consider atypical pathogens in the case of infections that do not respond to conventional therapy. The multiplex real-time PCR technique was used to detect the DNA of the pathogen. Targeted antibiotic therapy is the result of pathogen identification.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Tricomoníase , Trichomonas vaginalis , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Tricomoníase/diagnóstico , Tricomoníase/tratamento farmacológico , Trichomonas vaginalis/genética
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012328, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About half of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) require surgery within 10 years of diagnosis. Resection of the affected segment is highly effective, however the majority of patients experience clinical recurrence after surgery. Most of these patients have asymptomatic endoscopic recurrence weeks or months before starting with symptoms. This inflammation can be detected by colonoscopy and is a good predictor of poor prognosis.Therapy guided by colonoscopy could tailor the management and improve the prognosis of postoperative CD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prophylactic therapy guided by colonoscopy in reducing the postoperative recurrence of CD in adults. SEARCH METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched up to 17 December 2019: MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, Clinical Trials.gov, WHO Trial Registry and Cochrane IBD specialized register. Reference lists of included articles, as well as conference proceedings were handsearched. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and cohort studies comparing colonoscopy-guided management versus management non-guided by colonoscopy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently considered studies for eligibility, extracted the data and assessed study quality. Methodological quality was assessed using both the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool for RCTs and Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) for cohort studies. The primary outcome was clinical recurrence. Secondary outcomes included: endoscopic, surgical recurrence and adverse events. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) for each dichotomous outcome and extracted the hazard ratio (HR) for time-to-event outcomes. All estimates were reported with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis. The overall quality of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE criteria. MAIN RESULTS: Two RCTs (237 participants) and five cohort studies (794 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was not conducted as the studies were highly heterogeneous. We included two comparisons. Intensification of prophylactic-therapy guided by colonoscopy versus intensification guided by clinical recurrence One unblinded RCT and four retrospective cohort studies addressed this comparison. All participants received the same prophylactic therapy immediately after surgery. In the colonoscopy-based management group the therapy was intensified in case of endoscopic recurrence; in the control group the therapy was intensified only in case of symptoms. In the RCT, clinical recurrence (defined as Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) > 150 points) in the colonoscopy-based management group was 37.7% (46/122) compared to 46.1% (21/52) in the control group at 18 months' follow up (RR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.18, 174 participants, low-certainty evidence). There may be a reduction in endoscopic recurrence at 18 months with colonoscopy-based management (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.95, 1 RCT, 174 participants, low-certainty evidence). The certainty of the evidence for surgical recurrence was very low, due to only four cohort studies with inconsistent results reporting this outcome. Adverse events at 18 months were similar in both groups, with 82% in the intervention group (100/122) and 86.5% in the control group (45/52) (RR 0.95, 95% CI:0.83 to 1.08, 1 RCT, 174 participants, low-certainty of evidence).The most common adverse events reported were alopecia, wound infection, sensory symptoms, systemic lupus, vasculitis and severe injection site reaction. Perforations or haemorrhages secondary to colonoscopy were not reported. Initiation of prophylactic-therapy guided by colonoscopy versus initiation immediately after surgery An unblinded RCT and two retrospective cohort studies addressed this comparison. The control group received prophylactic therapy immediately after surgery, and in the colonoscopy-based management group the therapy was delayed up to detection of endoscopic recurrence. The effects on clinical and endoscopic recurrence are uncertain (clinical recurrence until week 102: RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.84; endoscopic recurrence at week 102: RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.84; 1 RCT, 63 participants, very low-certainty evidence). Results from one cohort study were similarly uncertain (median follow-up 32 months, 199 participants). The effects on surgical recurrence at a median follow-up of 50 to 55 months were also uncertain in one cohort study (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.62, 133 participants, very low-certainty evidence). There were fewer adverse events with colonoscopy-based management (54.8% (17/31)) compared with the control group (93.8% (30/32)) but the evidence is very uncertain (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.82; 1 RCT, 63 participants). Common adverse events were infections, gastrointestinal intolerance, leukopenia, pancreatitis and skin lesions. Perforations or haemorrhages secondary to colonoscopy were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Intensification of prophylactic-therapy guided by colonoscopy may reduce clinical and endoscopic postoperative recurrence of CD compared to intensification guided by symptoms, and there may be little or no difference in adverse effects. We are uncertain whether initiation of therapy guided by colonoscopy impacts postoperative recurrence and adverse events when compared to initiation immediately after surgery, as the certainty of the evidence is very low. Further studies are necessary to improve the certainty of the evidence of this review.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Doença de Crohn/prevenção & controle , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Assintomáticas , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Viés , Estudos de Coortes , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Mesalamina/efeitos adversos , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/efeitos adversos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
J Int Acad Periodontol ; 22(3): 129-136, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655038

RESUMO

AIMS: This case series study aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of a novel protocol for the treatment of patients with severe periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty (20) patients with severe periodontitis underwent a single session of One-Stage Full-Mouth Instrumentation (OSFMI) involving supra- and sub-gingival air-polishing with erythritol and chlorhexidine powder and ultrasonic root surface debridement and calculus removal, in association with systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole. Pocket Probing Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Recession (REC), Bleeding on Probing (BOP) and Plaque Index (PI) were collected at baseline (T0), 6 weeks (T1), 3 months (T2) and 6 months (T3). RESULTS: At 6 months, 30% of subjects reached the primary clinical endpoint (less than or equal to4 sites with PD greater than or equal to 5 mm). The percentage of BOP decreased from 49.08 (CI95% 36.06; 62.1) at T0 to 12.97 (CI95% 7.57; 18.37) at T3. The mean number pockets with PPD≥ 5 mm and PPD greater than or equal to 7 mm decreased significantly, from 46.0 and 20.6 at T0 to 11.5 and 2.8 at T3 respectively (p less than 0.001). CONCLUSION: The OSFMI protocol led to clinical results comparable to those obtained with traditional SRP. Researchers are encouraged to test this protocol in randomized clinical trials with longer periods of observation.


Assuntos
Raspagem Dentária , Periodontite , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Bolsa Periodontal/terapia , Periodontite/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 491, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases HIV risk and adverse reproductive outcomes. Standard-of-care (SOC) for BV are antibiotics; however, cure rates are low. Probiotics for vaginal health may be useful in improving cure and recurrence although the regulatory framework governing probiotics and the conduct of randomized clinical trials to evaluate these has not been established in South Africa. We performed an exploratory single-blind trial evaluating a commercial oral-vaginal-combination probiotic as adjunct to SOC for BV treatment. METHODS: Women with symptomatic vaginal discharge were screened for BV and common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). BV+ (Nugent 7-10) but STI- women were randomized to vaginal metronidazole alone (n = 12) or to metronidazole followed by a commercial oral/vaginal probiotic (n = 18). The primary qualitative outcome was to test the regulatory landscape for conducting randomized probiotic trials in South Africa; and acceptability of vaginal application by women. BV cure at 1 month (Nugent≤3) was the primary quantitative endpoint. Secondary quantitative endpoints were BV recurrence, symptoms, vaginal microbiota and genital cytokine changes over 5 months post-treatment. RESULTS: The  South African Health Products Regulatory Authority (SAHPRA) reviewed and approved this trial. As probiotics continue to be regulated as health supplements in South Africa, SAHPRA required a notification application for this trial. Acceptability and adherence to the oral and vaginal application of the probiotic were high, although women reported a preference for oral capsules. 44.8% of women cleared BV one-month post-treatment, and no significant differences in BV cure (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.24-1.16), recurrence, vaginal pH, symptoms, microbiota or vaginal IL-1α concentrations were found between SOC and intervention groups in this pilot study with an over-the-counter product. CONCLUSION: Navigation of the SAHPRA registration process for evaluating a commercial probiotic in a randomised trial laid the foundation for planned larger trials of improved probiotic products for vaginal health in South Africa. Although adherence to the vaginally delivered probiotic was high, women preferred oral application and we recommend that improvements in the content and method of application for future probiotics for vaginal health should be considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered on 17 October 2017 with the South African National Clinical Trial Register ( http://www.sanctr.gov.za/ ; BV-trial1; DOH-27-1117-5579 ).


Assuntos
Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/terapia , Administração Intravaginal , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Aprovação de Drogas , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1alfa/metabolismo , Adesão à Medicação , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Microbiota , Projetos Piloto , Recidiva , Método Simples-Cego , África do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD006634, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, in which the pathogenesis is believed to be partly influenced by the gut microbiome. Probiotics can be used to manipulate the microbiome and have therefore been considered as a potential therapy for CD. There is some evidence that probiotics benefit other gastrointestinal conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome and ulcerative colitis, but their efficacy in CD is unclear. This is the first update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics for the induction of remission in CD. SEARCH METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE (from inception to 6 July 2020), Embase (from inception to 6 July 2020), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), The Cochrane IBD Review Group Specialised Trials Register, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared probiotics with placebo or any other non-probiotic intervention for the induction of remission in CD were eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. The primary outcome was clinical remission. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: There were two studies that met criteria for inclusion. One study from Germany had 11 adult participants with mild-to-moderate CD, who were treated with a one-week course of corticosteroids and antibiotics (ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily and metronidazole 250 mg three times a day), followed by randomised assignment to Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (two billion colony-forming units per day) or corn starch placebo. The other study from the United Kingdom (UK) had 35 adult participants with active CD (CDAI score of 150 to 450) randomised to receive a synbiotic treatment (comprised of freeze-dried Bifidobacterium longum and a commercial product) or placebo. The overall risk of bias was low in one study, whereas the other study had unclear risk of bias in relation to random sequence generation, allocation concealment, and blinding. There was no evidence of a difference between the use of probiotics and placebo for the induction of remission in CD (RR 1.06; 95% CI 0.65 to 1.71; 2 studies, 46 participants) after six months. There was no difference in adverse events between probiotics and placebo (RR 2.55; 95% CI 0.11 to 58.60; 2 studies, 46 participants). The evidence for both outcomes was of very low certainty due to risk of bias and imprecision. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence is very uncertain about the efficacy or safety of probiotics, when compared with placebo, for induction of remission in Crohn's disease. There is a lack of well-designed RCTs in this area and further research is needed.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bifidobacterium longum , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Placebos/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão
14.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(7): 475-481, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634886

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of systemic use of amoxicillin and metronidazole during mechanical therapy on the clinical parameters of the first molars and periodontal microorganisms in subgingival plaque and saliva in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP). Methods: A total of 23 GAgP patients were recruited from Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from January 2006 to December 2009 and then randomly divided into two groups according to random number table: 12 patients received scaling and root planning (SRP) only and 11 patients received SRP combined with systemic administration of antibiotics (amoxicillin and metronidazole for a week after supragingival scaling). Clinical examination of periodontal parameters and collection of saliva and pooled subgingival plaque samples from mesial-buccal sites of 4 first molars were performed before initial therapy and 2, 4 and 6 months respectively after mechanical therapy, and saliva samples were also collected 2 weeks after therapy. Eight different periodontal microorganisms were detected in these samples by PCR. In addition, semiquantitative analysis of red complex microorganisms [Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), Treponema denticola (Td)] was performed. Results: Both therapies led to significant decrease of the plaque index (PLI), probing depth (PD) and bleeding index (BI) from mesial-buccal sites of first molars. Meanwhile the PD of antibiotics group [(4.21±1.50), (4.00±1.54), (3.84±1.89) mm of 2, 4 and 6 months respectively after therapy] was significantly lower than the SRP group [(5.29±1.27), (5.30±1.34), (4.98±1.36) mm of 2, 4 and 6 months respectively after therapy] at 3 different time points after mechanical therapy (P<0.05). In the antibiotics group, the quantities of Pg, Tf and Td in subgingival plaque samples (the median quantity decreased to 0.0 ng at 2, 4 and 6 months after therapy) and saliva samples (the median quantity of Tf and Td decreased to 0.0 ng at 2, 4 and 6 months after therapy (P<0.05), and the median quantity of Pg decreased to 16.3, 59.6 and 22.4 ng at 2, 4 and 6 months respectively after therapy) significantly decreased at 3 different time points after mechanical therapy compared with before therapy (P<0.05). While in the SRP group, there were no significant changes in the quantities of Tf and Td in saliva at 2, 4 and 6 months after mechanical therapy (P>0.05) , and the quantities of Tf and Td in subgingival plaque significantly decreased only at 2 months after therapy (P<0.05). Conclusions: SRP combined with systemic administration of amoxicillin and metronidazole could achieve greater improvement in PD of first molars and better control of the amounts of red complex microorganisms in the saliva and subgingival plaque of GAgP patients over a 6-month period.


Assuntos
Periodontite Agressiva/terapia , Placa Dentária , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Raspagem Dentária , Humanos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Saliva
15.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 43(6): 301-309, jun.-jul. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Maastricht V Consensus recommends quadruple therapies as first-line Helicobacter pylori treatment in high clarithromycin (CLA) resistance areas. AIMS: To compare efficacy, side effects and compliance between quadruple concomitant non-bismuth vs bismuth quadruple therapy. METHOD: Prospective study enrolling H. pylori-positive patients. Omeprazol and a three-in-one formulation of bismuth-metronidazol-tetracycline (OBMT-3/1) for 10 days, or combination of omeprazol-clarithromycin-amoxicillin-metronidazol (OCAM) for 14 days, were prescribed. Eradication outcome was assessed by urea breath test or histology. Side effects and compliance were recorded during the treatment period with specific questionnaires. RESULTS: 404 patients were recruited (median age 53 years; 62.87% women). In 382 (183 with OCAM, 199 with OBMT-3/1) the post-treatment test result was available. The eradication rates were 85.94% (CI95%: 80.20-90.52) with OCAM and 88.21% (CI95%: 83.09-92.22) with OBMT-3/1 (p = 0.595) in intention-to-treat analysis, whilst in per protocol analysis they were 91.12% (CI95%: 85.78-94.95) and 96.17% (CI95%: 92.28-98.45) respectively (p = 0.083). Compliance over 90% was 91.35% with OCAM and 92.04% with OBMT-3/1 (p = 0.951). Some side effect was present in 94.02% with OCAM and in 88.89% with OBMT-3/1 (p = 0.109), being longer (12 vs 7 days, p < 0.0001) and more severe (p < 0.0001) with OCAM. CONCLUSIONS: In a high CLA-resistance area, there are no differences between OBMT-3/1 and OCAM in H. pylori eradication and compliance rates, but OBMT-3/1 achieves a higher safety profile


ANTECEDENTES: El Consenso de Maastricht V recomienda tetraterapias como tratamiento de primera línea de Helicobacter pylori en áreas con elevada resistencia a claritromicina (CLA). OBJETIVOS: Comparar la eficacia, los efectos secundarios y el cumplimiento terapéutico entre la tetraterapia sin bismuto y la tetraterapia con bismuto. MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo que incluyó a pacientes con H. pylori. Se prescribió omeprazol y una formulación 3 en uno de bismuto-metronidazol-tetraciclina (OBMT-3/1) durante 10 días, o una combinación de omeprazol-claritromicina-amoxicilina-metronidazol (OCAM) durante 14 días. El resultado de la erradicación se evaluó mediante una prueba de aliento con urea o histología. Los efectos secundarios y el cumplimiento terapéutico se registraron durante el período de tratamiento empleando cuestionarios específicos. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 404 pacientes (mediana de edad de 53 años; un 62,87% de mujeres). El resultado de la prueba posterior al tratamiento estuvo disponible en 382 pacientes (183 con OCAM, 199 con OBMT-3/1). Las tasas de erradicación fueron del 85,94% (IC 95%: 80,20-90,52) con OCAM y del 88,21% (IC 95%: 83,09-92,22) con OBMT-3/1 (p = 0,595) en el análisis por intención de tratar, mientras que en el análisis por protocolo fueron del 91,12% (IC 95%: 85,78-94,95) y del 96,17% (IC 95%: 92,28-98,45), respectivamente (p = 0,083). El cumplimiento terapéutico superior al 90% fue del 91,35% con OCAM y del 92,04% con OBMT-3/1 (p = 0,951). Se observaron efectos secundarios en el 94,02% de los pacientes tratados con OCAM y en el 88,89% de los tratados con OBMT-3/1 (p = 0,109), y fueron más prolongados (12 frente a 7 días, p < 0,0001) y más graves (p < 0,0001) con OCAM. CONCLUSIONES: En un área con elevada resistencia a la CLA no se observan diferencias entre OBMT-3/1 y OCAM en la erradicación de H. pylori ni en las tasas de cumplimiento, pero OBMT-3/1 presenta un perfil de seguridad superior


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Bismuto/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Helicobacter/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(6): 883-886, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525127

RESUMO

A complicated case of female genital mutilation (FGM) type 2b done in late-pregnancy is presented and the interplay of Yoruba and Kwale culture, in this case, is discussed. A Yoruba who grew up among Kwales/Urhobos had FGM at 38 weeks and 4 days gestation (to assure vaginal delivery) and presented with vulvar hematoma, septicemia, obstructed labor, and a distressed fetus. 5 days after FGM procedure, she had an emergency cesarean section (EmCS), repair of FGM site and baby was admitted in special care. There was the obvious synergy of the Yoruba culture of FGM in infancy and Kwale/Urhobo culture of FGM in pregnancy. The patient and her fetus/baby almost became mortalities but for prompt intervention. The role of sociocultural factors in the practice of FGM is recommended to be further investigated as FGM even in educated women and at the dangerous stage of term pregnancy is still prevalent.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Circuncisão Feminina/efeitos adversos , Hematoma/cirurgia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Drenagem , Tratamento de Emergência , Feminino , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Hematoma/reabilitação , Humanos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/microbiologia , Toxoide Tetânico , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças da Vulva/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Vulva/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 172, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prescribing in dental practice has a relatively small but important contribution to the quantity of antibiotics prescribed in primary care. This study aimed to analyse antibiotic prescribing in dentistry over time (2010-2016) in 4 different Northern European countries and their relative contribution to national outpatients consumption. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the frequency and number of national antibiotic prescriptions written by dentists in England, Scotland, Norway and Sweden. The consumption of such antibiotics was measured using WHO defined daily doses (DDDs), DDDs per 100,000 inhabitants per day (DIDs100,000). RESULTS: A total of more than 27 million prescriptions (27,026,599) archived between 2010 and 2016 from the four countries were analysed. The national contribution of Norwegian dentists to the total primary care prescription during this period was 8%. The corresponding figures for Sweden, Scotland and England were 7, 6, and 8%. Dental contribution to National antibiotic use in all four countries has decreased over the study time period for commonly prescribed antibiotics in dentistry, i.e., the beta-lactams (Phenoxymethyl penicillin/Amoxicillin) and metronidazole. There were less numbers of prescriptions by dentists in Norway and Sweden compared to England and Scotland. Marked differences in some classes of antibiotics were noted with Phenoxymethyl penicillin dominating in Sweden/Norway compared to Amoxicillin and Metronidazole in England/Scotland. In England and Scotland, dentists were the largest prescribers of metronidazole in primary care. Clindamycin prescriptions was higher in Norway and Sweden. CONCLUSION: Noticeable differences exist in prescribing patterns for the management of oral infections. High levels of metronidazole use in England and Scotland also require further analysis. All countries over the study period showed a decrease in total numbers of antibiotics prescribed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Noruega/epidemiologia , Penicilina V/análogos & derivados , Penicilina V/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia/epidemiologia , Espiramicina/uso terapêutico , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574206

RESUMO

Inappropriate use of antibacterials is a major public health challenge as it can promote emergence of resistance, wastage of financial resources, morbidity and mortality. In this study, we determined the prevalence and factors associated with antibacterial use in managing symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) in households in rural communities of Gulu district, northern Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted among households selected using multi-stage sampling. Data were collected through interviews with care-givers of children under five years, using a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Out of the 856 children who had symptoms of ARIs, 515 (60.2%; CI: 54.5%-65.6%) were treated with antibacterials. The most commonly used antibacterials were amoxicillin (55.2%, n = 358), cotrimoxazole (15.4%, n = 100) and metronidazole (11.4%, n = 74). The determinants of antibacterial use included; getting treatment from a health facility (AOR: 1.85, CI: 1.34-2.56, P < 0.001), households located in peri-urban area (AOR: 2.54, CI: 1.34-4.84, P = 0.005), and a child having cough (AOR: 7.02, CI: 4.36-11.31, P < 0.001). The prevalence of antibacterial use among children under five years with symptoms of ARIs is high in communities of Gulu district, northern Uganda. Getting treatment from a health facility, if a household was located in a peri-urban area and having a cough are positive predictors of antibacterial use. There is need for targeted education on appropriate antibacterial use in rural communities and hospital settings where over prescription is most likely especially in treating symptoms of ARIs among children under five years.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/complicações , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Uganda/epidemiologia
19.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(2): 321-328, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564129

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Antibiotic treatment during surgical repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) had been a matter of debate. We aimed to review the available literature regarding the efficacy of metronidazole administration in women undergoing perineal repair following obstetric OASIS. STUDY DESIGN: To identify potentially eligible studies, we searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase and the Cochrane Library from inception to January 13th, 2019.Reference lists of identified studies were searched. No language restrictions were applied. We used a combination of keywords and text words represented by "Metronidazole", "obstetrics", "obstetric anal sphincter injury", "OASIS", "third degree tear", "fourth degree tear", "third degree laceration", "fourth degree laceration", "antibiotic therapy", "perineal damage" and "perineal trauma". Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts of records retrieved from the database searches. Both reviewers recommended studies for the full-text review. Thescreen of full-text articles recommended by at least one reviewer was done independently by the same two reviewers and assessedfor inclusion in the systematic review. Disagreements between reviewers were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The electronic database search yielded a total of 54,356 results (Fig. 1). After duplicate exclusion 28,154 references remained. Of them, 26 were relevant to the review based on title and abstract screening. None of these articles dealt with the use of metronidazole for the prevention of infections complicating anal sphincter repair in women with OASIS. A Cochrane review addressing antibiotic prophylaxis for patients following OASIS, compared prophylactic antibiotics against placebo or no antibiotics, included only one randomized controlled trial of 147 participants. This study showed that prophylactic antibiotics (not metronidazole) may be helpful to prevent perineal wound complications following OASIS. Fig. 1 Study seection process CONCLUSION: Anaerobic infections potentially complicate wound repair after OASIS. Although scientific societies recommend the use of antibiotics for the prevention of infectious morbidity after OASIS, no study has specifically assessed the role of metronidazole.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/lesões , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Lacerações/etiologia , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Períneo/lesões , Infecção dos Ferimentos/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Canal Anal/microbiologia , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/cirurgia , Obstetrícia/métodos , Gravidez , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico
20.
N Engl J Med ; 382(20): 1906-1915, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis affects 15 to 50% of women of reproductive age, and recurrence is common after treatment with an antibiotic agent. The high incidence of recurrence suggests the need for new treatments to prevent recurrent bacterial vaginosis. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial to evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 (Lactin-V) to prevent the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis. Women 18 to 45 years of age who had received a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and who had completed a course of vaginal metronidazole gel as part of the eligibility requirements were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive vaginally administered Lactin-V or placebo for 11 weeks; follow-up occurred through week 24. The primary outcome was the percentage of women who had a recurrence of bacterial vaginosis by week 12. RESULTS: A total of 228 women underwent randomization: 152 to the Lactin-V group and 76 to the placebo group; of these participants, 88% in the Lactin-V group and 84% in the placebo group could be evaluated for the primary outcome. In the intention-to-treat population, recurrence of bacterial vaginosis by week 12 occurred in 46 participants (30%) in the Lactin-V group and in 34 participants (45%) in the placebo group (risk ratio after multiple imputation for missing responses, 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44 to 0.87; P = 0.01). The risk ratio for recurrence by week 24 (also calculated with multiple imputation for missing responses) was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.92). At the 12-week visit, L. crispatus CTV-05 was detected in 79% of participants in the Lactin-V group. The percentage of participants who had at least one adverse event related to Lactin-V or placebo by week 24 did not differ significantly between the groups. The percentage of participants with local or systemic adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of Lactin-V after treatment with vaginal metronidazole resulted in a significantly lower incidence of recurrence of bacterial vaginosis than placebo at 12 weeks. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02766023.).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Lactobacillus crispatus/fisiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/prevenção & controle , Administração Intravaginal , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibiose , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Incidência , Lactobacillus crispatus/isolamento & purificação , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Secundária , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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