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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371824

RESUMO

Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is associated with increases in acute inflammatory and biochemical markers, muscle swelling, pain, and reduced functional performance. This study aimed to investigate the preventative effects of crocodile blood supplementation on DOMS induced by eccentric exercise. Sixteen healthy males were randomly allocated to either a crocodile blood (CB, n = 8) or a placebo (PL, n = 8) treatment. Participants receiving the CB treatment consumed four capsules of freeze-dried CB powder (1 g day-1) over 18 days. Participants receiving the other treatment were administered a placebo over the same period. An eccentric exercise protocol was performed, and functional performance, visual analogue scale (VAS)-measured pain, knee range of movement (ROM), thigh circumference (swelling), and cytokines, enzymes, and biochemical parameters were assessed immediately after exercise as well as after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. CB supplementation could significantly maintain maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) at 24 h (p = 0.001) and 48 h after exercise (p = 0.001) when comparing values at different times for the CB group. In the CB group, thigh circumference decreased only immediately after eccentric exercise (p = 0.031) in comparison with pre-eccentric exercise values. An 18-day supplementation (1 g day-1) of crocodile blood does aid in the maintenance of functional performance and muscle swelling after eccentric exercise. Our data indicate that 1 g day-1 of crocodile blood supplementation should be safe for human consumption.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Doenças Musculares/prevenção & controle , Mialgia/prevenção & controle , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Método Duplo-Cego , Edema/etiologia , Edema/fisiopatologia , Edema/prevenção & controle , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blackcurrant is rich in anthocyanins that may protect against exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and facilitate a faster recovery of muscle function. We examined the effects of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on indices of muscle damage and recovery following a bout of strenuous isokinetic resistance exercise. METHODS: Using a double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled, parallel design, twenty-seven healthy participants received either a 3 g·day-1 NZBC extract (n = 14) or the placebo (PLA) (n = 13) for 8 days prior to and 4 days following 60 strenuous concentric and eccentric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle on an isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle soreness (using a visual analogue scale), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), range of motion (ROM) and blood creatine kinase (CK) were assessed before (0 h) and after (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) exercise. RESULTS: Consumption of NZBC extract resulted in faster recovery of baseline MVC (p = 0.04), attenuated muscle soreness at 24 h (NZBC: 21 ± 10 mm vs. PLA: 40 ± 23 mm, p = 0.02) and 48 h (NZBC: 22 ± 17 vs. PLA: 44 ± 26 mm, p = 0.03) and serum CK concentration at 96 h (NZBC: 635 ± 921 UL vs. PLA: 4021 ± 4319 UL, p = 0.04) following EIMD. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of NZBC extract prior to and following a bout of eccentric exercise attenuates muscle damage and improves functional recovery. These findings are of practical importance in recreationally active and potentially athletic populations, who may benefit from accelerated recovery following EIMD.


Assuntos
Frutas , Contração Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Mialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Treinamento de Força/efeitos adversos , Ribes , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatina Quinase Forma MM/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Inglaterra , Feminino , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Mialgia/diagnóstico , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Ribes/química , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(7): 351-358, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234090

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Passive recovery techniques are popular and offer a diverse spectrum of options for athletes and the clinicians providing care for them. These techniques are intended to minimize the negative effects of training or competition, thus enabling the athlete a quicker return to peak performance. Current evidence demonstrates improved athlete recovery with compression garments, cold water immersion, partial body cryotherapy, hyperbaric oxygen, and vibratory therapies. Other popular modalities, such as compression devices, whole body cryotherapy, percussive gun-assisted therapy, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and pulsed electromagnetic therapy lack convincing evidence concerning athlete recovery. This article seeks to review the current literature and offer the reader an updated understanding of the mechanisms for each modality and the evidence regarding each modality's potential benefit in an athlete's recovery strategy.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Vestuário , Crioterapia/métodos , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Humanos , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Imersão , Terapia de Campo Magnético , Massagem/métodos , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Mialgia/terapia , Vibração/uso terapêutico
4.
Life Sci ; 282: 119810, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256041

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CMP) is a primary condition of Veterans suffering from Gulf War illness. This study evaluated the influence of resistance exercise training (RET) on symptoms, mood, perception of improvement, fitness, and total physical activity in Gulf War Veterans (GWV) with CMP. MAIN METHODS: Fifty-four GWV with CMP were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of RET (n = 28) or wait-list control (n = 26). Supervised exercise was performed twice weekly starting at a low intensity. Outcomes, assessed at baseline, 6, 11 and 17 weeks and 6- and 12-months post-intervention, were: pain, fatigue, mood, sleep quality, perception of improvement, and physical activity via self-report and accelerometry. Muscular strength was assessed at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks. Accelerometer data yielded estimates of time spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities. Analyses used separate linear mixed models with group and time point as fixed effects. All models, except for perceived improvement, included baseline values as a covariate. KEY FINDINGS: Participants assigned to RET completed 87% of training sessions and exhibited strength increases between 16 and 34% for eight lifts tested (Hedges' g range: 0.47-0.78). The treatment by time interaction for perceived improvement (F1,163 = 16.94, p < 0.001) was characterized by greater perceived improvement since baseline for RET at each time point, until the 12-month follow-up. Effects were not significant for other outcomes (p > 0.05). RET caused no adverse events. SIGNIFICANCE: After 16 weeks of RET, GWV with CMP reported improvements in their condition and exhibited increases in muscular strength, without symptom exacerbation or reductions in total physical activity.


Assuntos
Mialgia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico , Treinamento de Força , Veteranos , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Seguimentos , Guerra do Golfo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Mialgia/terapia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/terapia
5.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 431-437, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267582

RESUMO

It is important to use short breaks to accelerate post-exercise recovery in sports. Previous studies have revealed that vibration can reduce post-exercise muscle soreness. However, there is still high heterogeneity in the effects of vibration on cardiovascular autonomic activities, and most studies to date have focused on high-frequency vibration. This study aimed to investigate the effect of low-frequency lower-body vibration (LBV) on post-exercise changes in heart rate variability and peripheral arterial tone. Ten men and 9 women aged 20 to 25 were recruited for this study. Each subject visited the testing room three times with at least 2 days in between. Each time, the subject received one of the three different vibration frequencies (0, 5, and 15 Hz) in a random order in the sitting position for 10 minutes. LBV was performed immediately after a static standing (control) test and 3-min-step test. Heart rate variability and digital volume pulse wave were recorded during the vibration phase (V1: vibration 0-5 minutes; V2: 6-10 minutes) and the recovery phase (Rc1: recovery phase 11-15 minutes; Rc2: 16-20 minutes). The result of digital pulse wave analysis showed that the reflection index (RI) under 15 Hz decreased during V1. Heart rate of the 15-Hz group also decreased during Rc1 and Rc2. According to the analysis of heart rate variability, low-frequency power/high-frequency power (LF/HF) decreased and normalized high-frequency power (nHF) increased during V2, Rc1 and Rc2 under 15 Hz and, during Rc2 under 5 Hz vibration. This study confirmed that the application of low-frequency LBV after exercise can reduce peripheral vascular tone, accelerate heart rate recovery, decrease cardiac sympathetic nerve activity, and promote parasympathetic nerve activity. The effect was more pronounced at 15 Hz than at 5 Hz. The findings provide a method to accelerate cardiovascular autonomic recovery after exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Mialgia/prevenção & controle , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Vibração , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Resistência Vascular , Adulto Jovem
7.
Life Sci ; 280: 119701, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119538

RESUMO

AIMS: Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is poorly understood in Gulf War Illness (GWI). Exercise challenges have emerged as stimuli to study PEM; however, little attention has been paid to unique cardiorespiratory and perceptual responses during exercise. This study tested whether select exercise parameters explained variability in PEM responses. MAIN METHODS: Visual analog scale (0-100) versions of the Kansas questionnaire were used for daily symptom measurements one week before and one week after 30-min of cycling at 70% heart rate reserve in 43 Veterans with GWI and 31 Veteran controls (CON). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) methods were used to measure oxygen (VO2), carbon dioxide (VCO2), ventilation (VE), heart rate, work rate, and leg muscle pain. Symptom changes and CPET parameters were compared between groups with independent samples t-tests. Linear regression (GLM) with VE/VCO2, cumulative work, leg muscle pain, and self-reported physical function treated as independent variables and peak symptom response as the dependent variable tested whether exercise responses predicted PEM. KEY FINDINGS: Compared to CON, Veterans with GWI had greater ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VE/VO2), peak leg muscle pain, fatigue, and lower VCO2, VO2, power, and cumulative work during exercise (p < 0.05), and greater peak symptom responses (GWI = 38.90 ± 29.06, CON = 17.84 ± 28.26, g = 0.70, p < 0.01). The final GLM did not explain significant variance in PEM (Pooled R2 = 0.15, Adjusted R2 = 0.03, p = 0.34). SIGNIFICANCE: The PEM response was not related to the selected combination of cardiorespiratory and perceptual responses to exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Teste de Esforço , Fadiga/complicações , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/complicações , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/complicações
8.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(2): R238-R249, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189949

RESUMO

Neuromuscular (NM), cardiorespiratory, and perceptual responses to maximal-graded exercise using different amounts of active muscle mass remain unclear. We hypothesized that during dynamic exercise, peripheral NM fatigue (declined twitch force) and muscle pain would be greater using smaller muscle mass, whereas central fatigue (declined voluntary activation) and ventilatory variables would be greater using larger muscle mass. Twelve males (29.8 ± 4.7 years) performed two ramp-incremental cycling tests until task failure: 1) single-leg (SL) with 10 W·min-1 ramp and 2) double-leg (DL) with 20 W·min-1 ramp. NM fatigue was assessed at baseline, task failure (post), and after 1, 4, and 8 min of recovery. Cardiorespiratory and perceptual variables [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), pain, and dyspnea] were measured throughout cycling. Exercise duration was similar between sessions (SL: 857.7 ± 263.6 s; DL: 855.0 ± 218.8 s; P = 0.923), and higher absolute peak power output was attained in DL (SL: 163.2 ± 43.8 W; DL: 307.0 ± 72.0 W; P < 0.001). Although central fatigue did not differ between conditions (SL: -6.6 ± 6.5%; DL: -3.5 ± 4.8%; P = 0.091), maximal voluntary contraction (SL: -41.6 ± 10.9%; DL: -33.7 ± 8.5%; P = 0.032) and single twitch forces (SL: -59.4 ± 18.8%; DL: -46.2 ± 16.2%; P = 0.003) declined more following SL. DL elicited higher peak oxygen uptake (SL: 42.1 ± 10.0 mL·kg-1·min-1; DL: 50.3 ± 9.3 mL·kg-1·min-1; P < 0.001), ventilation (SL: 137.1 ± 38.1 L·min-1; DL: 171.5 ± 33.2 L·min-1; P < 0.001), and heart rate (SL: 167 ± 21 bpm; DL: 187 ± 8 bpm; P = 0.005). Dyspnea (P = 0.025) was higher in DL; however, RPE (P = 0.005) and pain (P < 0.001) were higher in SL. These results suggest that interplay between NM, cardiorespiratory, and perceptual determinants of exercise performance during ramp-incremental cycling to task failure is muscle mass dependent.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Contração Muscular , Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Resistência Física , Potenciais de Ação , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Volição
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e92, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814027

RESUMO

Case identification is an ongoing issue for the COVID-19 epidemic, in particular for outpatient care where physicians must decide which patients to prioritise for further testing. This paper reports tools to classify patients based on symptom profiles based on 236 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positive cases and 564 controls, accounting for the time course of illness using generalised multivariate logistic regression. Significant symptoms included abdominal pain, cough, diarrhoea, fever, headache, muscle ache, runny nose, sore throat, temperature between 37.5 and 37.9 °C and temperature above 38 °C, but their importance varied by day of illness at assessment. With a high percentile threshold for specificity at 0.95, the baseline model had reasonable sensitivity at 0.67. To further evaluate accuracy of model predictions, leave-one-out cross-validation confirmed high classification accuracy with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.92. For the baseline model, sensitivity decreased to 0.56. External validation datasets reported similar result. Our study provides a tool to discern COVID-19 patients from controls using symptoms and day from illness onset with good predictive performance. It could be considered as a framework to complement laboratory testing in order to differentiate COVID-19 from other patients presenting with acute symptoms in outpatient care.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Febre/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Razão de Chances , Seleção de Pacientes , Faringite/fisiopatologia , Rinorreia/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930447, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The present study was designed to reveal the trajectory of self-reported somatic symptom burden and sleep quality over time in patients with COVID-19 and to identify prognostic factors for greater somatic symptom burden and sleep disturbance. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy-four patients with COVID-19 were prospectively followed for longitudinal assessment of somatic symptom burden and sleep quality. We used the 8-item Somatic Symptom Scale (SSS-8) and the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale for somatic symptom burden and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for sleep quality investigation. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent factors associated with somatic symptom burden and sleep quality. RESULTS Although the degree of physical discomfort and sleep quality issues tended to decline during self-quarantine, patients still experienced these problems to a certain degree. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that SSS-8 scores at admission (relative risk [RR] 1.234, 95% CI 1.075-1.417, P=0.003) and mMRC scores at discharge (RR 2.420, 95% CI 1.251-4.682, P=0.009) were 2 independent prognostic indicators of somatic symptom burden. In addition, muscle pain as a chief complaint (RR 4.682, 95% CI 1.247-17.580, P<0.022) and history of use of hypnotic drugs (RR 0.148, 95% CI 0.029-0.749, P<0.019) were 2 independent indicators of patient sleep quality during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first dynamic assessment of the somatic symptom burden and sleep quality in patients with COVID-19 during hospitalization and quarantine after discharge. Patients with high somatic symptom burden at admission, especially muscle pain as the chief complaint, are prone to having a higher physical burden and more sleep disturbance at discharge.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Mialgia/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/diagnóstico , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(7): 2057-2076, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710344

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The early events regulating the remodeling program following skeletal muscle damage are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the association between myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling by nutritionally accelerating the recovery of muscle function following damage. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Healthy males and females consumed daily postexercise and prebed protein-polyphenol (PP; n = 9; 4 females) or isocaloric maltodextrin placebo (PLA; n = 9; 3 females) drinks (parallel design) 6 days before and 3 days after 300 unilateral eccentric contractions of the quadriceps during complete dietary control. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Muscle function was assessed daily, and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken after 24, 27, and 36 hours for measurements of myoPS rates using deuterated water, and gene ontology and NF-κB signaling analysis using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) gene array. RESULTS: Eccentric contractions impaired muscle function for 48 hours in PLA intervention, but just for 24 hours in PP intervention (P = 0.047). Eccentric quadricep contractions increased myoPS compared with the control leg during postexercise (24-27 hours; 0.14 ± 0.01 vs 0.11 ± 0.01%·h-1, respectively; P = 0.075) and overnight periods (27-36 hours; 0.10 ± 0.01 vs 0.07 ± 0.01%·h-1, respectively; P = 0.020), but was not further increased by PP drinks (P > 0.05). Protein-polyphenol drinks decreased postexercise and overnight muscle IL1R1 (PLA = 2.8 ± 0.4, PP = 1.1 ± 0.4 and PLA = 1.9 ± 0.4, PP = 0.3 ± 0.4 log2 fold-change, respectively) and IL1RL1 (PLA = 4.9 ± 0.7, PP = 1.6 ± 0.8 and PLA = 3.7 ± 0.6, PP = 0.7 ± 0.7 log2 fold-change, respectively) messenger RNA expression (P < 0.05) and downstream NF-κB signaling compared with PLA. CONCLUSION: Protein-polyphenol drink ingestion likely accelerates recovery of muscle function by attenuating inflammatory NF-κB transcriptional signaling, possibly to reduce aberrant tissue degradation rather than increase myoPS rates.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Mialgia/dietoterapia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiopatologia , Treinamento de Força/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(7): 1420-1439, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735465

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of short-term high-frequency failure vs non-failure blood flow-restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) on changes in satellite cells (SCs), myonuclei, muscle size, and strength. Seventeen untrained men performed four sets of BFRRE to failure (Failure) with one leg and not to failure (Non-failure; 30-15-15-15 repetitions) with the other leg using knee-extensions at 20% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Fourteen sessions were distributed over two 5-day blocks, separated by a 10-day rest period. Muscle samples obtained before, at mid-training, and 10-day post-intervention (Post10) were analyzed for muscle fiber area (MFA), myonuclei, and SC. Muscle size and echo intensity of m.rectus femoris (RF) and m.vastus lateralis (VL) were measured by ultrasonography, and knee extension strength with 1RM and maximal isometric contraction (MVC) up until Post24. Both protocols increased myonuclear numbers in type-1 (12%-17%) and type-2 fibers (20%-23%), and SC in type-1 (92%-134%) and type-2 fibers (23%-48%) at Post10 (p < 0.05). RF and VL size increased by 5%-10% in both legs at Post10 to Post24, whereas the MFA of type-1 fibers in Failure was decreased at Post10 (-10 ± 16%; p = 0.02). Echo intensity increased by ~20% in both legs during Block1 (p < 0.001) and was ~8 to 11% below baseline at Post24 (p = 0.001-0.002). MVC and 1RM decreased by 5%-10% after Block1, but increased in both legs by 6%-11% at Post24 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both short-term high-frequency failure and non-failure BFRRE induced increases in SCs, in myonuclei content, muscle size, and strength, concomitant with decreased echo intensity. Intriguingly, the responses were delayed and peaked 10-24 days after the training intervention. Our findings may shed light on the mechanisms involved in resistance exercise-induced overreaching and supercompensation.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Adulto , Tamanho do Núcleo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Fibras Musculares de Contração Rápida/fisiologia , Fibras Musculares de Contração Lenta/fisiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Mioglobina/sangue , Tamanho do Órgão , Palpação/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Quadríceps/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Descanso , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sensação , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia
14.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 171, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of this century has overwhelmed the healthcare systems of affected countries, and all resources have been diverted to coronavirus disease 2019. At the onset, coronavirus disease 2019 can present as any other acute febrile undifferentiated illness. In tropical regions, clinicians are increasingly challenged to differentiate these febrile illnesses without the use of diagnostics. With this pandemic, many of these tropical diseases are neglected and go underreported. Dengue is holoendemic in the Maldives, and dengue viruses circulate throughout the year. Reports about coinfections with dengue virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 are scarce, and the outcome and the dynamics of the disease may be altered in the presence of coinfection. We have described the clinical manifestation and serial laboratory profile, and highlighted the atypical findings uncommon in dengue infection. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 39-year old Asian male, presented on day 6 of dengue infection with warning signs. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that was done as per hospital protocol was found to be positive. Case 2 was a 38-year old Asian male, was admitted on day 5 of illness with symptoms of acute respiratory infection with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Evaluation of progressive leukopenia and thrombocytopenia showed positive dengue serology. CONCLUSION: Clinicians must be conscientious when working on the differential diagnosis of possible tropical diseases in cases of coronavirus disease 2019, specifically, when patients develop hemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, and transaminitis with elevated expression of aspartate higher than alanine transaminase, which is frequently observed in dengue infection. Caution must be taken during the administration of intravenous fluids when treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and dengue coinfection, as coronavirus disease 2019 patients are more prone to develop pulmonary edema. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management are essential to avoid the devastating complications of severe forms of dengue infection. It is important to repeat and reconfirm the dengue serology in coronavirus disease 2019 patients to avoid false positivity. Diligence and care must be taken not to neglect other endemic tropical diseases in the region during the present pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Dengue/complicações , Leucopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Dor Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/fisiopatologia , Dengue/terapia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Disgeusia/fisiopatologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Hidratação , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Faringite/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Vômito/fisiopatologia
15.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(7): 1473-1481, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560777

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The magnitude of muscle damage induced by maximal eccentric exercise is attenuated when the same exercise is repeated by homologous muscle of the ipsilateral or contralateral limb. It is not known if the muscle damage-protective effect is also transferred to nonhomologous muscles. The present study investigated the effects of unilateral knee extensor (KE) or flexor (KF) eccentric exercise on muscle damage induced by elbow flexor (EF) eccentric exercise of the ipsilateral or contralateral side. METHODS: Young healthy sedentary men were assigned to four experimental groups (n = 13 per group) that performed five sets of six maximal eccentric contractions (MaxEC) of the KE or KF of the same or opposite side of the arm that performed MaxEC of the EF 1 wk later, and a control group that performed two bouts of MaxEC of the EF using a different arm for each bout separated by 1 wk. Changes in several indirect muscle damage markers were compared among the groups by mixed-design, two-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Changes in maximal voluntary concentric contraction torque, range of motion, muscle soreness, and plasma creatine kinase activity after KE or KF MaxEC were not different (P > 0.05) between legs, but greater (P < 0.05) after KF than KE MaxEC. The changes in the variables after EF MaxEC in the experimental groups were not different (P > 0.05) from the first bout of the control group but larger (P < 0.05) than the second bout of the control group, and no differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides were evident. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that no protective effect on EF MaxEC was conferred by the leg exercises, suggesting that muscle damage protection was not transferred from KE or KF to EF.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Chest ; 159(2): e107-e113, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563452

RESUMO

CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old man presented to the ED at a time of low severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), prevalence and reported 2 weeks of progressive shortness of breath, dry cough, headache, myalgias, diarrhea, and recurrent low-grade fevers to 39°C for 1 week with several days of recorded peripheral capillary oxygen saturation of 80% to 90% (room air) on home pulse oximeter. Five days earlier, he had visited an urgent care center where a routine respiratory viral panel was reportedly negative. A COVID-19 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test result was pending at the time of ED visit. He reported a past medical history of gastroesophageal reflux disease that was treated with famotidine. Travel history included an out-of-state trip 3 weeks earlier, but no recent international travel.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Bacteriemia/complicações , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Doenças Cerebelares/complicações , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Febre/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfopenia/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Oximetria , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/complicações , Radiografia Torácica , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Hum Mov Sci ; 76: 102772, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609960

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are both prevalent in sport. It is currently unknown whether DOMS increases ACL injury risk. AIM: This study aimed to provide preliminary insight on whether DOMS affects ACL injury risk by investigating whether DOMS affects the biomechanical variables of the DVJ that have been identified as risk factors for future ACL injury. METHODS: This was a randomised control trial involving 32 active individuals aged 18-35 years, with no history of ACL injury. Participants underwent two sessions of force-plate testing and 3D motion analysis of the drop vertical jump (DVJ). The DVJ was chosen as it has been investigated prospectively for association with future ACL injury. Initial testing was followed by randomisation to DOMS or control group. The DOMS group underwent a DOMS-inducing exercise protocol, the control group did not. Both groups were re-tested 48 h after initial testing. Five variables of the DVJ that have been associated with future ACL injury were chosen for analysis - peak knee flexion angle, peak vertical ground reaction force, ground contact time, peak knee abduction angle & peak knee abduction moment. Between-group differences were compared using a two-way mixed analysis of variance; alpha level set to 0.05. RESULTS: DOMS was successfully induced in all participants of the DOMS group however no statistically significant group x time interactions were found for any of the five variables analysed. CONCLUSIONS: DOMS did not affect the biomechanical variables of the DVJ that have been associated with future ACL injury. By extension, this may suggest that DOMS might not affect ACL injury risk. However, it is also possible that certain attributes of the DVJ meant that any effect of DOMS was simply unable to be quantified, even if an effect existed. All considered, our position is that conclusion cannot be drawn from this study alone on whether DOMS affects ACL injury risk. Further research is required.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Atletas , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Joelho , Masculino , Movimento , Fatores de Risco , Esportes , Adulto Jovem
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210202, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630090

RESUMO

Importance: Owing to concerns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks, many congregant settings are forced to close when cases are detected because there are few data on the risk of different markers of transmission within groups. Objective: To determine whether symptoms and laboratory results on the first day of COVID-19 diagnosis are associated with development of a case cluster in a congregant setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of trainees with COVID-19 from May 11 through August 24, 2020, was conducted at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, the primary site of entry for enlistment in the US Air Force. Symptoms and duration, known contacts, and cycle threshold for trainees diagnosed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were collected. A cycle threshold value represents the number of nucleic acid amplification cycles that occur before a specimen containing the target material generates a signal greater than the predetermined threshold that defines positivity. Cohorts with 5 or more individuals with COVID-19 infection were defined as clusters. Participants included 10 613 trainees divided into 263 parallel cohorts of 30 to 50 people arriving weekly for 7 weeks of training. Exposures: All trainees were quarantined for 14 days on arrival. Testing was performed on arrival, on day 14, and anytime during training when indicated. Protective measures included universal masking, physical distancing, and rapid isolation of trainees with COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between days of symptoms, specific symptoms, number of symptoms, or cycle threshold values of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent transmission within cohorts. Results: In this cohort study of 10 613 US Air Force basic trainees in 263 cohorts, 403 trainees (3%) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 in 129 cohorts (49%). Among trainees with COVID-19 infection, 318 (79%) were men, and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 20 (19-23) years; 204 (51%) were symptomatic, and 199 (49%) were asymptomatic. Median (IQR) cycle threshold values were lower in symptomatic trainees compared with asymptomatic trainees (21.2 [18.4-27.60] vs 34.8 [29.3-37.4]; P < .001). Cohorts with clusters of individuals with COVID-19 infection were predominantly men (204 cohorts [89%] vs 114 cohorts [64%]; P < .001), had more symptomatic trainees (146 cohorts [64%] vs 53 cohorts [30%]; P < .001), and had more median (IQR) symptoms per patient (3 [2-5] vs 1 [1-2]; P < .001) compared with cohorts without clusters. Within cohorts, subsequent development of clusters of 5 or more individuals with COVID-19 infection compared with those that did not develop clusters was associated with cohorts that had more symptomatic trainees (31 of 58 trainees [53%] vs 43 of 151 trainees [28%]; P = .001) and lower median (IQR) cycle threshold values (22.3 [18.4-27.3] vs 35.3 [26.5-37.8]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US Air Force trainees living in a congregant setting during the COVID-19 pandemic, higher numbers of symptoms and lower cycle threshold values were associated with subsequent development of clusters of individuals with COVID-19 infection. These values may be useful if validated in future studies.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/transmissão , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Portador Sadio/diagnóstico , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/transmissão , Estudos de Coortes , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Faringite/fisiopatologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(6): 1290-1300, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577105

RESUMO

We tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of changes in indirect muscle damage markers would be greater after maximal elbow flexor eccentric exercise in the supinated (shorter biceps brachii) than neutral wrist (longer) position, and the difference in the magnitude would be associated with greater elongation over contractions for the supinated than neutral position, rather than the initial muscle length. Ten untrained men (21-39 years) performed two bouts of 10 sets of 6 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors in the supinated position for one arm and neutral position for the other arm separated by 2 weeks in a randomized order. Biceps brachii myotendinous junction (MTJ) movements during eccentric contractions were recorded by B-mode ultrasonography, and the displacement from the start to end of each contraction was quantified. Peak torque (supinated: 367.8 ± 112.5 Nm, neutral: 381.5 ± 120.4 Nm) and total work (1816 ± 539 J, 1865 ± 673 J) produced during eccentric contractions were similar between conditions. The average MTJ displacement increased (P < .05) from the 1st set (8.0 ± 2.0 mm) to 10th set (15.8 ± 1.9 mm) for the supinated condition, but no such increase was found in the neutral condition (1st set: 5.1 ± 1.0 mm, 10th set: 5.0 ± 0.8 mm). Changes in indirect muscle damage markers (maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, range of motion, serum creatine kinase activity, and muscle soreness) after exercise were greater (P < .05) for the supinated than neutral condition. These results suggest that the greater muscle damage marker changes for the supinated than neutral wrist position was associated with the greater muscle lengthening (strain).


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Postura/fisiologia , Punho/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Entorses e Distensões/sangue , Entorses e Distensões/etiologia , Entorses e Distensões/fisiopatologia , Decúbito Dorsal/fisiologia , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendões/fisiologia , Torque , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Sport Rehabil ; 30(4): 668-671, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418535

RESUMO

Clinical Scenario: Endurance sports require a great deal of physical training to perform well. Endurance training and racing stress the skeletal muscle, resulting in exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Athletes attempt to aid their recovery in various ways, one of which is through compression. Dynamic compression consists of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices, such as the NormaTec Recovery System and Recovery Pump. Clinical Question: What are the effects of IPC on the reduction of EIMD in endurance athletes following prolonged exercise? Summary of Key Findings: The current literature was searched to identify the effects of IPC, and 3 studies were selected: 2 randomized controlled trials and 1 randomized cross-over study. Two studies investigated the effect of IPC on delayed onset muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase in ultramarathoners. The other looked at the impact of IPC on delayed onset muscle soreness in marathoners, ultramarathoners, triathletes, and cyclists. All studies concluded IPC was not an effective means of improving the reduction of EIMD in endurance-trained athletes. Clinical Bottom Line: While IPC may provide short-term relief of delayed onset muscle soreness, this device does not provide continued relief from EIMD. Strength of Recommendation: In accordance with the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy, the grade of B is recommended based on consistent evidence from 2 high-quality randomized controlled trials and 1 randomized cross-over study.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Compressão Pneumática Intermitente , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Mialgia/terapia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Corrida/fisiologia
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