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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127978, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920268

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination causes huge economic losses. To explore the correlation between catalase (CAT) and AFB1 production during fungal development, we fabricated an electrochemical CAT-activity sensor by measuring residual H2O2 after enzymatic degradation. The sensor made by palladium nanoparticles/carbonized bacterial cellulose nanocomposites exhibits a linear range over 0.5-3.5 U/mL and a detection limit of 0.434 U/mL. Both dry weight and CAT activity of mycelia continuously increase. But, the latter shows a greater increase than the former after three days. Specific CAT activity in crude enzyme extract of A. flavus was quantified. It maintains at ~25.00 U/mg for 3 days and enhances to 28.91 and 45.30 U/mg, respectively, on days 4 and 5. AFB1 production follows the same trend. On days 4 and 5, AFB1 concentration reaches 201.35 and 767.9 ng/mL, respectively. The positive correlation between specific CAT activity and AFB1 production suggests that CAT is involved in AFB1 biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/biossíntese , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Catalase/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/análise , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Micélio/química , Micélio/metabolismo , Paládio/química , Difração de Raios X
2.
Food Chem ; 336: 127672, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771899

RESUMO

Endophytic bacteria are always related to the host different traits, including the secondary metabolites production. However, the effect and mechanism of endophytic bacteria in the mushrooms fruit body on mycelia are still not clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of endophytic bacterial metabolites on the quality of Lyophyllum decastes mycelia. Soluble sugars, starch, protein, free amino acids, 5'-Nucleotides, EUC, and organic acids contents of mycelia were analyzed. We found that endophytic bacterial metabolites significantly increased the contents of soluble sugars, starch, protein, free amino acids, organic acids, and EUC. The present study thus suggests that endophytic bacteria could promote the quality of Lyophyllum decastes by improving non-volatile taste components of mycelia.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Endófitos/fisiologia , Micélio/química , Paladar , Agaricales/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/análise , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Proteínas Fúngicas/análise , Micélio/fisiologia , Nucleotídeos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
3.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 185, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isaria tenuipes is one of the potent species in the members of the genus Isaria, which is well reported to possess multiple bioactive substances of therapeutic importance. Therefore, an in vitro experimental study was carried to evaluate the bioactivities of the crude methanolic extract from the mycelium of this fungus. METHODS: The fungus was authenticated through morphological characters and the species discrepancy was resolved using the nuclear rDNA ITS sequence. The methanolic extract was fingerprinted by FTIR. The antioxidant components in terms of total phenols and flavonoids were determined as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents respectively. Antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract was assessed using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2/-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS0+), Fe2+chelating activity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Cytotoxicity of the extract was determined by [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay on three cancer cell lines: HeLa, HepG2, and PC3. Apoptosis was further studied by propidium iodide (PI) and Annexin-V/PI staining flow cytometric analysis. Anti-proliferation capacity was studied by colony-forming assay. RESULTS: In the present study total phenol content of the dried methanol extract was 148.09 ± 3.51µg gallic acid equivalent/mg and flavonoid was 9.02±0.95 µg quercetin/mg. The antioxidant activities of methanol-water extract (8:2 v/v) from cultured mycelia of I. tenuipes investigated and evaluated with 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay revealed IC50 value of 5.04mg/ml with an inhibition rate of 74.77% at 10mg/ml and with an iron-chelating assay the chelating ability was recorded to be 86.76% where the IC50 value was 4.43 mg/ml. In comparison among the antioxidant assays, 2,2/-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS0+) and hydroxyl assay exhibited radical scavenging rate of 44.42% and 49.82% respectively at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The IC50 value of the extract in MTT assay was 43.45µg/ml with HeLa cells, 119.33µg/ml with PC3 cells, and 125.55µg/ml with HepG2 cells. CONCLUSION: In this study, it can be concluded that the crude methanolic extract exhibited potent antioxidant and antiproliferative activities suggesting natural antioxidative and antiproliferative agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hypocreales/química , Micélio/química , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Índia , Células PC-3
4.
Food Chem ; 327: 127084, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446029

RESUMO

Edible mushrooms are classified as a functional food. The study aimed to initiate in vitro cultures of selected species of Pleurotus: P. citrinopileatus, P. djamor, P. eryngii, P. florida, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius and to optimize the method of cultivation of these species to obtain raw materials characterized by pro-health properties. Another objective was to analyze the biologically active substances in the obtained mushroom materials. By determining the organic compounds and bioelements present in the species selected for the study, it was found that the fruiting bodies obtained by cultivation were characterized by a high content of phenolic and indole compounds. Similarly, the mycelia obtained from in vitro culture were found to contain significant amounts of organic compounds exhibiting biological effects such as lovastatin. The study revealed that the composition of biologically active substances varied between the mycelia obtained from in vitro cultures and the fruiting bodies obtained by cultivation.


Assuntos
Pleurotus/química , Civilização , Lovastatina/química , Micélio/química , Fenóis/química
5.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1677-1685, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285166

RESUMO

Triterpenoid compounds are important bioactivity materials. Morchella is an abundant medicinal fungi found worldwide. In this study, we optimised the isolation and purification of triterpenoid compounds from Morchella mycelium fermentation. The results showed that the triterpenoid compounds yield was 35.22 mg/g, and we also identified two triterpenoid compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, we evaluated the anti-tumour and antioxidant activity of the products, and the results showed that triterpenoid compounds from Morchella mycelium fermentation showed good bioactivity. The IC50 values of four cancer cell lines treated with the triterpenoid compounds for 48 h were 7.20, 14.96, 4.41, and 13.43 mg/mL, respectively. Morphological changes associated with the apoptosis of PC-3 cells were observed using confocal scanning laser microscopy after treatment with triterpenoid compounds for 48 and 72 h. The triterpenoid compounds also exhibited DPPH radical, hydroxyl, and ABTS-free radical scavenging activities in vitro. These results suggest that triterpenoid compounds from Morchella mycelium fermentation, which are found in functional foods and used in the field of pharmacology, might be excellent products for the treatment of cancer and age-related illnesses.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Micélio/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Humanos , Radical Hidroxila/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células PC-3
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229427

RESUMO

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic phytopathogen that has been the subject of several scientific research efforts. Despite the numerous research efforts its proteome remains understudied. This study aimed to identify proteins produced by S. sclerotiorum, thereby increasing the current proteomic knowledge base. Total proteins were extracted from mycelia scraped from five-day old cultures of S. sclerotiorum. The extracted proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and were annotated using the AB Sciex TripleToF 6600 mass spectrometer. Exactly 1471 proteins were reproducibly present in all three replicates. All proteins detected were classified based on their molecular and biological functions. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the most comprehensive proteomic study on S. sclerotiorum (judging by the high number of proteins identified).


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/análise , Proteoma/análise , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/química , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Espectrometria de Massas , Micélio/química , Oxirredução , Proteômica
7.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079328

RESUMO

Pleurotus eryngii (DC:Fr.) Quel. is a cultivated mushroom of high culinary value and medicinal properties. Mycelium of P. eryngii is characterized by the ability of effective bio-elements absorption from growth media so it could be biofortified with trace elements with a functional activity in the human body. In this study, the ability of P. eryngii mycelia from in vitro cultures as well as fruiting bodies were investigated in terms of their effectiveness in zinc and selenium accumulation. The effect of Se and Zn biofortification on productivity, chemical compounds, and bio-elements content of P. eryngii was determined as well. To enhance Se and Zn content in P. eryngii fruiting bodies and mycelia, substrates were supplemented with sodium selenite, at a concentration of 50 mg L-1, zinc sulfate, and zinc hydro-aspartate at a concentration of 87.2 and 100.0 mg L-1, respectively. Mentioned Zn concentrations contained the same amount of zinc(II) ions, namely 20 mg L-1. The content of organic compounds include phenolic compounds and lovastatin, which were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection. The ability of P. eryngii to accumulate zinc and selenium from the culture medium was demonstrated. The degree of accumulation of zinc turned out to be different depending on the type of salt used. The present study also showed that conducting mycelium of P. eryngii in in vitro culture, with a higher content of zinc ions, can result in obtaining the materials with better antioxidant ability. The results of this study can be used to develop the composition of growing media, which ensures the production of biomass with the desired composition of elements.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Carpóforos/química , Micélio/química , Pleurotus/química , Selênio/análise , Zinco/análise , Biomassa , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Fenóis/análise , Picratos/química , Análise de Componente Principal
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019072

RESUMO

Shiraia mycelial culture is a promising biotechnological alternative for the production of hypocrellin A (HA), a new photosensitizer for anticancer photodynamic therapy (PDT). The extractive fermentation of intracellular HA in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX100) aqueous solution was studied in the present work. The addition of 25 g/L TX100 at 36 h of the fermentation not only enhanced HA exudation to the broth by 15.6-fold, but stimulated HA content in mycelia by 5.1-fold, leading to the higher production 206.2 mg/L, a 5.4-fold of the control on day 9. After the induced cell membrane permeabilization by TX100 addition, a rapid generation of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was observed. The increase of NO level was suppressed by the scavenger vitamin C (VC) of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas the induced H2O2 production could not be prevented by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO), suggesting that NO production may occur downstream of ROS in the extractive fermentation. Both NO and H2O2 were proved to be involved in the expressions of HA biosynthetic genes (Mono, PKS and Omef) and HA production. NO was found to be able to up-regulate the expression of transporter genes (MFS and ABC) for HA exudation. Our results indicated the integrated role of NO and ROS in the extractive fermentation and provided a practical biotechnological process for HA production.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Octoxinol/farmacologia , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Quinonas/metabolismo , Biotecnologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Fermentação , Micélio/química , Perileno/metabolismo , Fenol , Fotoquimioterapia
9.
J Basic Microbiol ; 60(4): 331-340, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003038

RESUMO

The ability of Coriolus versicolor medicinal mushroom to grow and accumulate selenium during submerged cultivation in a selenium-fortified medium is examined in this paper. For selenium supplementation, commercial selenium yeast was used. Control, nonenriched sample and reference cultures cultivated in the medium enriched with commercial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were also prepared. The mushroom demonstrated a high ability to accumulate selenium from the added source (around 970 and 1,300 µg/g of dry mycelium weight for samples enriched with selenium in a concentration of 10 and 20 mg Se/L, respectively). The addition of selenium significantly (p ≤ .05) increased the biomass yield, whereas the addition of nonenriched yeast had no significant (p ≤ .05) impact. Furthermore, regression analysis showed statistically significant (p ≤ .05) and positive correlations between the content of Se and Fe (r = .92), Se and Cu (r = .92), Se and Mn (r = .98), and Se and Sr (r = .96), suggesting that selenium incorporation was followed by incorporation of these elements, and led to mineral enrichment of the obtained mycelium. Methanol extracts prepared from mycelium biomass demonstrated a better inhibitory effect on Gram-positive bacterial strains with minimal inhibitory concentrations between <0.3125 and 40 mg/ml. The obtained results showed that selenium yeast could be used for obtaining a potential novel food supplement: mushroom biomass with high selenium content and enhanced mineral composition.


Assuntos
Agaricales/efeitos dos fármacos , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Selênio/farmacologia , Agaricales/química , Meios de Cultura , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Metanol/química , Micélio/química , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Selênio/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093422

RESUMO

Edible mushrooms are an important source of nutraceuticals and for the discovery of bioactive metabolites as pharmaceuticals. In this work, the OSMAC (One Strain, Many Active Compounds) approach was used to isolate two new compounds (1 and 2) along with seven known compounds (3-9) from a mycelial culture of a unique North American edible mushroom Hericium sp. The fruiting body was collected in Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota (USA), and mycelial cultures were grown on four different solid and liquid media. Extracts from the mycelial cultures were screened for antimicrobial activity and only the extract from the Cheerios substrate culture exhibited antifungal activity. Bioassay guided fractionation and HPLC analysis were used to isolate nine pure compounds and the structures of the known compounds were established by analysis of the NMR and mass spectrometry data and comparison to published reports. Compound 1 is a new erinacerin alkaloid and 2 is an aldehyde derivative of 4-hydroxy chroman. Four chlorinated orcinol derivatives (3-6), a pyran (7), erinaceolactone (8), and erinacine (9) were identified. Compound 4 showed antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. neoformans (MIC = 31.3-62.5 µg/mL, respectively). Compound 4 also inhibited biofilm formation of C. albicans and C. neoformans at 7.8 µg/mL. These results suggest that mycelial cultures of edible fungi may provide useful, bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antifúngicos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/química , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 148: 722-736, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972201

RESUMO

The natural form of wild edible fungus is the fruiting body. The cultivation of fruiting bodies from sexual reproduction requires strict conditions and long periods. Some literatures have paid attentions on the mycelia prepared with liquid fermentation to alter fruiting bodies. Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) is a kind of precious edible fungus. The polysaccharide is an important active ingredient in C. militaris. The manuscript aimed to evaluate the feasibility of alternative of mycelia to fruit bodies with studies of polysaccharides from C. militaris of different developmental stages. The two polysaccharides were separated. The chemical structure and inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase of polysaccharides were explored. The results indicated that the structure and inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase of polysaccharides with different developmental stages had significant differences. The polysaccharides from fruiting bodies had better inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase. It demonstrated that the mycelia of C. militaris from asexual reproduction with liquid fermentation can't be an effective substitute for fruiting bodies from sexual reproduction, from the perspective of polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Polissacarídeos/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Carpóforos/química , Micélio/química , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Viscosidade
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 232: 115766, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952583

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus plagues many people in China and the world, and its nephritis complication is the leading cause of death for patients. Paecilomyces hepiali contained various functional components, especially polysaccharides, which possesses well pharmacological activities. In this study, polysaccharide purified from Paecilomyces hepiali fermented mycelium entitled PHEA was obtained, and its structure was systemically characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In C57BL/KsJ (BKS).Cg-Dock7m +/+ Leprdb/JNju mice (db/db mice), via detecting the alternations on biochemical criterions, pathological indicators and protein expressions related to nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in serum and/or tissues including muscle, liver and kidney after 8-week PHEA administration, the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-diabetic nephropathic activities of PHEA were confirmed. The purified P. Hepiali polysaccharide with the anti-diabetic and -nephritic properties was first reported in this study via regulating Nrf2-meadited NF-κB signaling in db/db mice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Micélio/química , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fermentação , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Micélio/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 96(2)2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868883

RESUMO

Understanding the post-senescent fate of fungal mycelium is critical to accurately quantifying forest carbon and nutrient cycling, but how this organic matter source decomposes in wood remains poorly studied. In this study, we compared the decomposition of dead fungal biomass (a.k.a. necromass) of two species, Mortierella elongata and Meliniomyces bicolor, in paired wood and soil plots in a boreal forest in northern Minnesota, USA. Mass loss was quantified at four time points over an 8-week incubation and the richness and composition of the fungal communities colonizing fungal necromass were characterized using high-throughput sequencing. We found that the structure of fungal decomposer communities in wood and soil differed, but, in both habitats, there was relatively rapid decay (∼30% remaining after 56 days). Mass loss was significantly faster in soil and for high-quality (i.e. high nitrogen and low melanin) fungal necromass. In both habitats, there was a clear trajectory of early colonization by opportunistic fungal taxa followed by colonization of fungi with greater enzymatic capacities to degrade more recalcitrant compounds, including white-rot and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Collectively, our results indicate that patterns emerging regarding substrate quality effects on fungal necromass decomposition in soil and leaf litter can be largely extended to fungal necromass decomposition in wood.


Assuntos
Micélio/metabolismo , Micobioma/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Madeira/microbiologia , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Carbono/metabolismo , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/metabolismo , Micélio/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo/química , Taiga , Madeira/química
14.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113392, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662263

RESUMO

Lincomycin mycelial residues (LMRs) are one kind of byproduct of the pharmaceutical industry. Hydrothermal treatment has been used to dispose of them and land application is an attractive way to reuse the treated LMRs. However, the safe dose for soil amendment remains unclear. In this study, a lab-scale incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of the amendment dosage on lincomycin resistance genes and soil bacterial communities via quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that introduced lincomycin degraded quickly in soil and became undetectable after 50 days. Degradation rate of the high amendment amount (100 mg kg-1) was almost 4 times faster than that of low amendment amount (10 mg kg-1). Moreover, the introduced LMRs induced the increase of lincomycin resistance genes after incubation for 8 days, and two genes (lmrA and lnuB) showed a dosage-related increase. For example, the abundance of gene lmrA was 17.78, 74.13 and 128.82 copies g-1 soil for lincomycin concentration of 10, 50 and 100 mg kg-1, respectively. However, the abundance of lincomycin resistance genes recovered to the control level as the incubation period extended to 50 days, indicating a low persistence in soil. In addition, LMRs application markedly shifted the bacterial composition and significant difference was found between control soil, 10 mg kg-1 and 50 mg kg-1 lincomycin amended soil. Actually, several genera bacteria were significantly related to the elevation of lincomycin resistance genes. These results provided a comprehensive understanding of the effects of lincomycin dosage on the fate of resistance genes and microbial communities in LMRs applied soil.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Lincomicina/análise , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Lincomicina/toxicidade , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 342, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor (Tv, Turkey Tail) is often prepared for consumption as a powder from the fungal mycelium and the fermented substrate on which it grew. The goal for this study was to evaluate the immune-modulating properties of the mycelium versus the fermented substrate, to document whether an important part of the immune-activating effects resides in the metabolically fermented substrate. METHODS: Tv mycelium was cultured on rice flour. The mycelium and the fermented substrate were mechanically separated, dried, and milled. The initial substrate served as a control. Aqueous fractions were extracted and passed through 0.22-µm filters. The remaining solids were passed through homogenization spin columns without filtration. The aqueous and solid fractions of the initial substrate (IS), the fermented substrate (FS), and the Trametes versicolor mycelium (TvM) were tested for immune-activating and modulating activities on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures, to examine expression of the CD69 activation marker on lymphocytes versus monocytes, and on the T, NKT, and NK lymphocyte subsets. Culture supernatants were tested for cytokines using Luminex arrays. RESULTS: Both aqueous and solid fractions of TvM triggered robust induction of CD69 on lymphocytes and monocytes, whereas FS only triggered minor induction of CD69, and IS had no activating effect. The aqueous extract of TvM had stronger activating effects than the solid fraction. In contrast, the solid fraction of IS triggered a reduction in CD69, below levels on untreated cells. Both aqueous and solid fractions of FS triggered large and dose-dependent increases in immune-activating pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10), anti-viral cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-alpha (MIP-1α), as well as Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8). TvM triggered more modest cytokine increases. The aqueous extract of IS showed no effects, whereas the solid fraction showed modest effects on induction of cytokines and growth factors. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that the immune-activating bioactivity of a mycelial-based medicinal mushroom preparation is a combination of the mycelium itself (including insoluble beta-glucans, and also water-soluble components), and the highly bioactive, metabolically fermented substrate, not present in the initial substrate.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/química , Trametes/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/química , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Oryza
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881712

RESUMO

Depression is a common and severe neuropsychiatric disorder that is one of the leading causes of global disease burden. Although various anti-depressants are currently available, their efficacies are barely adequate and many have side effects. Hericium erinaceus, also known as Lion's mane mushroom, has been shown to have various health benefits, including antioxidative, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antihyperglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects. It has been used to treat cognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Bioactive compounds extracted from the mycelia and fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus have been found to promote the expression of neurotrophic factors that are associated with cell proliferation such as nerve growth factors. Although antidepressant effects of H. erinaceus have not been validated and compared to the conventional antidepressants, based on the neurotrophic and neurogenic pathophysiology of depression, H. erinaceus may be a potential alternative medicine for the treatment of depression. This article critically reviews the current literature on the potential benefits of H. erinaceus as a treatment for depressive disorder as well as its mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like activities.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/química , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Indóis/química , Indóis/isolamento & purificação , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Micélio/química , Micélio/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo
17.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(7): 657-669, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679300

RESUMO

The yield and efficacy of bioactive compounds from Cordyceps militaris fruiting bodies and its fermented grains usually vary with the strain used. In this study, we compared the antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antioxidative properties of ethanolic extracts of fruiting bodies and solid-stated fermented rice (FRE) from two wild-type strains of C. militaris applied to human breast cancer cell lines. We observed that FRE of the Zhangzhou strain (FRE-Z) produced a high level of cordycepin and exhibited comprehensive in vitro antioxidant activity against the oxidation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and low-density lipoprotein. Only FRE-Z exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in MCF-7 (0.7 mg/mL) and MDA-MB-231 cells (1 mg/mL) after culturing for 24 h. The antiproliferative effects of FRE-Z were associated with an early stage of apoptosis induction at 4 h of treatment with 0.5 mg/mL FRE-Z in MCF-7 cells. The antiproliferative effect was determined to occur through p53 activation but not through the release of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor or caspase-9 activation for an initial culture period of 16 h. In addition to a transient increase in cellular antioxidant enzyme, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase was identified in MCF-7 cells after 2 h of treatment with FRE-Z. Therefore, FRE-Z, which exhibits various dose- and exposure time-dependent activities, has potential application in breast cancer chemoprevention.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Cordyceps/química , Carpóforos/química , Micélio/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Misturas Complexas/química , Etanol , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Oryza , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(7): 671-681, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679301

RESUMO

Recently, the entomopathogenic fungus Polycephalomyces nipponicus has been determined to be a prolific producer of bioactive compounds that have both antibacterial and antimarial activities, but the anticancer effects of the mycelial extracts have not been well studied. The present study investigates the effects and mechanisms of action of P. nipponicus extracts that are responsible for cell death in the human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line. The results showed that the 50% ethanol extract had greater anticancer activity than the aqueous extract. The 50% ethanolic extract inhibited cell growth at concentrations of just 109.75 ± 3.54 µg mL-1 for 72 h. The aqueous extract's activity was > 400 µg mL-1 against MCF-7 cells. Similar results were obtained from the colony formation assay. Moreover, the 50% ethanolic extract caused a significant increase in the distribution of cells at the G1 phase in a dose-dependent manner. The aqueous extract induced MCF-7 cells to arrest at the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner. These were supported by the reduction in the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)2, cdk4, and cdk6 genes' expression levels along with an induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in MCF-7 cells after treatment with the extracts. In conclusion, P. nipponicus may be useful for breast cancer prevention and treatment in the future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Micélio/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/química , Etanol , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575049

RESUMO

A major fraction (MPT-W), eluted by deionized water, was extracted from mycelium polysaccharides of Termitomyces albuminosus (MPT), and its antioxidant, anti-fibrosis, and anti-inflammatory activities in CCl4-induced chronic liver injury mice, as well as preliminary characterizations, were evaluated. The results showed that MPT-W was a polysaccharide of α- and ß-configurations containing xylose (Xyl), fucose (Fuc), mannose (Man), galactose (Gal), and glucose (Glc) with a molar ratio of 0.29:8.67:37.89:35.98:16.60 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Its molecular weight (Mw), obtained by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), was 1.30 × 105 Da. The antioxidant assays in vitro showed that MPT-W displayed scavenging free-radical abilities. Based on the data of in vivo experiments, MPT-W could inhibit TGFß1/Smad3 and NF-κB pathways; decrease the level and activity of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), malonaldehyde (MDA) and serum enzyme; activate the HO-1/Nrf2 pathway; and increase antioxidant enzymes to protect the liver in CCl4-induced chronic liver injury mice. Therefore, MPT-W could be a potentially natural and functional resource contributing to antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects with potential health benefits.


Assuntos
Extratos Celulares/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Micélio/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Termitomyces/química , Animais , Extratos Celulares/química , Extratos Celulares/isolamento & purificação , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Proteína Smad3 , Análise Espectral , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
20.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569709

RESUMO

Hericium erinaceus is a medicinal mushroom that contains many molecules promising a plethora of therapeutic properties. In this study, the strain H.e.2 (MicUNIPV, University of Pavia, Italy) was isolated from a sporophore collected in Tuscany (Italy). Mycelium, primordium, and wild type and cultivated sporophores were analyzed by HPLC-UV-ESI/MS. Erinacine A in the mycelium and hericenones C and D in the sporophores were quantified by comparison with their standard molecules. For the first time, H. erinaceus primordium was also investigated for the presence of these molecules. Comparing with the literature data, hericenes, molecules structurally similar to hericenones, were present in all our samples. The highest contents of hericenones C and D were detected in cultivated sporophores, compared to the wild type. The comparison of these data with those of another Italian H. erinaceus strain (H.e.1 MicUNIPV) was discussed. The results led us to select H. erinaceus strains more suitable for mycelium production or sporophore cultivation to obtain extracts with a higher content of bioactive compounds. This work provides a further step towards standardizing the procedures in the development of dietary supplements made from mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Micélio/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Agaricales/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Micélio/química , Esporos Fúngicos/química
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