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1.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113392, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662263

RESUMO

Lincomycin mycelial residues (LMRs) are one kind of byproduct of the pharmaceutical industry. Hydrothermal treatment has been used to dispose of them and land application is an attractive way to reuse the treated LMRs. However, the safe dose for soil amendment remains unclear. In this study, a lab-scale incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of the amendment dosage on lincomycin resistance genes and soil bacterial communities via quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that introduced lincomycin degraded quickly in soil and became undetectable after 50 days. Degradation rate of the high amendment amount (100 mg kg-1) was almost 4 times faster than that of low amendment amount (10 mg kg-1). Moreover, the introduced LMRs induced the increase of lincomycin resistance genes after incubation for 8 days, and two genes (lmrA and lnuB) showed a dosage-related increase. For example, the abundance of gene lmrA was 17.78, 74.13 and 128.82 copies g-1 soil for lincomycin concentration of 10, 50 and 100 mg kg-1, respectively. However, the abundance of lincomycin resistance genes recovered to the control level as the incubation period extended to 50 days, indicating a low persistence in soil. In addition, LMRs application markedly shifted the bacterial composition and significant difference was found between control soil, 10 mg kg-1 and 50 mg kg-1 lincomycin amended soil. Actually, several genera bacteria were significantly related to the elevation of lincomycin resistance genes. These results provided a comprehensive understanding of the effects of lincomycin dosage on the fate of resistance genes and microbial communities in LMRs applied soil.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Lincomicina/análise , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Lincomicina/toxicidade , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
2.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 342, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor (Tv, Turkey Tail) is often prepared for consumption as a powder from the fungal mycelium and the fermented substrate on which it grew. The goal for this study was to evaluate the immune-modulating properties of the mycelium versus the fermented substrate, to document whether an important part of the immune-activating effects resides in the metabolically fermented substrate. METHODS: Tv mycelium was cultured on rice flour. The mycelium and the fermented substrate were mechanically separated, dried, and milled. The initial substrate served as a control. Aqueous fractions were extracted and passed through 0.22-µm filters. The remaining solids were passed through homogenization spin columns without filtration. The aqueous and solid fractions of the initial substrate (IS), the fermented substrate (FS), and the Trametes versicolor mycelium (TvM) were tested for immune-activating and modulating activities on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures, to examine expression of the CD69 activation marker on lymphocytes versus monocytes, and on the T, NKT, and NK lymphocyte subsets. Culture supernatants were tested for cytokines using Luminex arrays. RESULTS: Both aqueous and solid fractions of TvM triggered robust induction of CD69 on lymphocytes and monocytes, whereas FS only triggered minor induction of CD69, and IS had no activating effect. The aqueous extract of TvM had stronger activating effects than the solid fraction. In contrast, the solid fraction of IS triggered a reduction in CD69, below levels on untreated cells. Both aqueous and solid fractions of FS triggered large and dose-dependent increases in immune-activating pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10), anti-viral cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-alpha (MIP-1α), as well as Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8). TvM triggered more modest cytokine increases. The aqueous extract of IS showed no effects, whereas the solid fraction showed modest effects on induction of cytokines and growth factors. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that the immune-activating bioactivity of a mycelial-based medicinal mushroom preparation is a combination of the mycelium itself (including insoluble beta-glucans, and also water-soluble components), and the highly bioactive, metabolically fermented substrate, not present in the initial substrate.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/química , Trametes/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/química , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Oryza
3.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(7): 657-669, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679300

RESUMO

The yield and efficacy of bioactive compounds from Cordyceps militaris fruiting bodies and its fermented grains usually vary with the strain used. In this study, we compared the antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antioxidative properties of ethanolic extracts of fruiting bodies and solid-stated fermented rice (FRE) from two wild-type strains of C. militaris applied to human breast cancer cell lines. We observed that FRE of the Zhangzhou strain (FRE-Z) produced a high level of cordycepin and exhibited comprehensive in vitro antioxidant activity against the oxidation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and low-density lipoprotein. Only FRE-Z exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in MCF-7 (0.7 mg/mL) and MDA-MB-231 cells (1 mg/mL) after culturing for 24 h. The antiproliferative effects of FRE-Z were associated with an early stage of apoptosis induction at 4 h of treatment with 0.5 mg/mL FRE-Z in MCF-7 cells. The antiproliferative effect was determined to occur through p53 activation but not through the release of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor or caspase-9 activation for an initial culture period of 16 h. In addition to a transient increase in cellular antioxidant enzyme, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase was identified in MCF-7 cells after 2 h of treatment with FRE-Z. Therefore, FRE-Z, which exhibits various dose- and exposure time-dependent activities, has potential application in breast cancer chemoprevention.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Cordyceps/química , Carpóforos/química , Micélio/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Misturas Complexas/química , Etanol , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Oryza , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
4.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(7): 671-681, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679301

RESUMO

Recently, the entomopathogenic fungus Polycephalomyces nipponicus has been determined to be a prolific producer of bioactive compounds that have both antibacterial and antimarial activities, but the anticancer effects of the mycelial extracts have not been well studied. The present study investigates the effects and mechanisms of action of P. nipponicus extracts that are responsible for cell death in the human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line. The results showed that the 50% ethanol extract had greater anticancer activity than the aqueous extract. The 50% ethanolic extract inhibited cell growth at concentrations of just 109.75 ± 3.54 µg mL-1 for 72 h. The aqueous extract's activity was > 400 µg mL-1 against MCF-7 cells. Similar results were obtained from the colony formation assay. Moreover, the 50% ethanolic extract caused a significant increase in the distribution of cells at the G1 phase in a dose-dependent manner. The aqueous extract induced MCF-7 cells to arrest at the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner. These were supported by the reduction in the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)2, cdk4, and cdk6 genes' expression levels along with an induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in MCF-7 cells after treatment with the extracts. In conclusion, P. nipponicus may be useful for breast cancer prevention and treatment in the future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Micélio/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/química , Etanol , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7
5.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113208, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654855

RESUMO

Cortinarius caperatus grows in the northern regions of Europe, North America and Asia and is widely collected by mushroom foragers across Europe. This study shows that in the last three decades since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, C. caperatus collected across much of Northern Poland exhibited high activity concentrations of radiocaesium (137Cs) - a long-lived radionuclide. The mushroom appears to efficiently bioconcentrate 137Cs from contaminated soil substrata followed by sequestration into its morphological parts such as the cap and stipe which are used as food. The gradual leaching of 137Cs into the lower strata of surface soils in exposed areas are likely to facilitate higher bioavailability to the mycelia of this species which penetrate to relatively greater depths and may account for the continuing high activity levels noticed in Polish samples (e.g. activity within caps in some locations was still at 11,000 Bq kg-1 dw in 2008 relative to a peak of 18,000 in 2002). The associated dietary intake levels of 137Cs have often exceeded the tolerance limits set by the European Union (370 and 600 Bq kg-1 ww for children and adults respectively) during the years 1996-2010. Human dietary exposure to 137Cs is influenced by the method of food preparation and may be mitigated by blanching followed by disposal of the water, rather than direct consumption after stir-frying or stewing. It may be prudent to provide precautionary advice and monitor activity levels, as this mushroom continues to be foraged by casual as well as experienced mushroom hunters.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Cortinarius/química , Contaminação Radioativa de Alimentos/análise , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Ásia , Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Micélio/química , América do Norte , Polônia , Solo/química
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575049

RESUMO

A major fraction (MPT-W), eluted by deionized water, was extracted from mycelium polysaccharides of Termitomyces albuminosus (MPT), and its antioxidant, anti-fibrosis, and anti-inflammatory activities in CCl4-induced chronic liver injury mice, as well as preliminary characterizations, were evaluated. The results showed that MPT-W was a polysaccharide of α- and ß-configurations containing xylose (Xyl), fucose (Fuc), mannose (Man), galactose (Gal), and glucose (Glc) with a molar ratio of 0.29:8.67:37.89:35.98:16.60 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Its molecular weight (Mw), obtained by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), was 1.30 × 105 Da. The antioxidant assays in vitro showed that MPT-W displayed scavenging free-radical abilities. Based on the data of in vivo experiments, MPT-W could inhibit TGFß1/Smad3 and NF-κB pathways; decrease the level and activity of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), malonaldehyde (MDA) and serum enzyme; activate the HO-1/Nrf2 pathway; and increase antioxidant enzymes to protect the liver in CCl4-induced chronic liver injury mice. Therefore, MPT-W could be a potentially natural and functional resource contributing to antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects with potential health benefits.


Assuntos
Extratos Celulares/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Micélio/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Termitomyces/química , Animais , Extratos Celulares/química , Extratos Celulares/isolamento & purificação , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Proteína Smad3 , Análise Espectral , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569709

RESUMO

Hericium erinaceus is a medicinal mushroom that contains many molecules promising a plethora of therapeutic properties. In this study, the strain H.e.2 (MicUNIPV, University of Pavia, Italy) was isolated from a sporophore collected in Tuscany (Italy). Mycelium, primordium, and wild type and cultivated sporophores were analyzed by HPLC-UV-ESI/MS. Erinacine A in the mycelium and hericenones C and D in the sporophores were quantified by comparison with their standard molecules. For the first time, H. erinaceus primordium was also investigated for the presence of these molecules. Comparing with the literature data, hericenes, molecules structurally similar to hericenones, were present in all our samples. The highest contents of hericenones C and D were detected in cultivated sporophores, compared to the wild type. The comparison of these data with those of another Italian H. erinaceus strain (H.e.1 MicUNIPV) was discussed. The results led us to select H. erinaceus strains more suitable for mycelium production or sporophore cultivation to obtain extracts with a higher content of bioactive compounds. This work provides a further step towards standardizing the procedures in the development of dietary supplements made from mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Micélio/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Agaricales/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Micélio/química , Esporos Fúngicos/química
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(21-22): 8923-8935, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520132

RESUMO

UV and gamma irradiation mutagenesis was applied on Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria tenuissima in order to improve their producing ability of paclitaxel. Among the screened mutants, two stable strains (designated TXD105-GM6 and TER995-GM3) showed the maximum paclitaxel production. Paclitaxel titers of the two respective mutants were dramatically intensified to 1.22- and 1.24-fold, as compared by their respective parents. Immobilization using five different entrapment carriers of calcium alginate, agar-agar, Na-CMC, gelatin, and Arabic gum was successfully applied for production enhancement of paclitaxel by the two mutants. The immobilized cultures were superior to free-cell cultures and paclitaxel production by the immobilized mycelia was much higher than that of the immobilized spores using all the tried carriers. Moreover, calcium alginate gel beads were found the most conductive and proper entrapment carrier for maximum production of paclitaxel. The feasibility of the paclitaxel production by the immobilized mycelia as affected by incubation period, medium volume, and number of beads per flask was adopted. Under the favorable immobilization conditions, the paclitaxel titers were significantly intensified to 1.31- and 1.88-fold by the respective mutants, as compared by their free cultures. The obtained paclitaxel titers by the immobilized mycelia of the respective mutants (694.67 and 388.65 µg L-1) were found promising in terms of fungal production of paclitaxel. Hence, these findings indicate the future possibility to reduce the cost of producing paclitaxel and suggest application of the immobilization technique for the biotechnological production of paclitaxel at an industrial scale.


Assuntos
Alternaria/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/biossíntese , Alginatos/química , Alternaria/química , Alternaria/genética , Aspergillus fumigatus/química , Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Células Imobilizadas/química , Células Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial , Micélio/química , Micélio/genética , Micélio/metabolismo
9.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546903

RESUMO

Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a rare and valuable medicinal mushroom indigenous to Taiwan. It has traditionally been used to promote good health. This study aimed to explore the immunomodulatory effects of "Leader Deluxe Taiwanofungus camphoratus capsule" (LDAC). LDAC is a healthy food product composed of fruiting body extract and solid-state-cultivated mycelia of T. camphoratus. Two complementary studies were performed. In the first, LDAC was orally administered to BABL/c female mice for 6 weeks as part of a non-specific immune study. In the second, mice were treated with LDAC for 8 weeks and immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) in a specific immune study. LDAC increased the growth of splenic immune cells and enhanced the activity of macrophages and natural killer cells. It increased the levels of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G, and OVA-IgG, and decreased the levels of IL-4, IL-5, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, serum IgE, and OVA-IgE. Thus, the findings of this study strongly supported the idea that LDAC possesses immunomodulatory activity.


Assuntos
Carpóforos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Micélio/química , Polyporales/química , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Baço/citologia
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8476-8484, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298527

RESUMO

Cicada flowers, which are edible and medicinal mushrooms, are the fruiting bodies of Isaria cicadae, a fungus that is parasitic on the larvae of cicada pupae. We hypothesize that host factors might possess stimulatory activity on metabolite synthesis in Isaria cicadae. Here, we first compared the microbial community structures of different wild cicada flowers across geographical regions, compartments, and growth stages via high-throughput sequencing. Isaria cicadae TZC-3, an isolate of the most abundant operational taxonomic unit (OTU6782) in all the fungal communities, was isolated from wild cicada flowers. Furthermore, the effects of cicada pupae on metabolite synthesis in Isaria cicadae TZC-3 were studied in submerged culture. The contents of intercellular polysaccharides, adenosine, N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine, free amino acids, and hydrolyzed monosaccharides in the mycelia cultured with cicada pupa powder (4%) were significantly increased as compared with the contents in the control group. This indicates that a cicada pupa can act as an elicitor for metabolite synthesis in Isaria cicadae.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/metabolismo , Carpóforos/química , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Pupa/microbiologia , Adenosina/análise , Adenosina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Cordyceps/química , Cordyceps/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Hemípteros/química , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Microbiota , Micélio/química , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/metabolismo , Pupa/química , Pupa/metabolismo
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 1102-1111, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276724

RESUMO

Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) from the medicinal mushroom Coriolus versicolor has been widely used in Asia as an adjunctive immunotherapy for treating cancers and liver diseases. However, the composition and structure of bioactive components in PSP remain elusive. Herein, we purified a hepatoprotective polysaccharide (PSP-1b1) with a molecular weight of 21.7 kDa from C. versicolor mycelia in submerged culture. PSP-1b1 consists of fucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, glucuronic acid and glucose at a relative molar ratio of 0.16:0.60:0.02:0.55:0.04:1.00. Structural features were investigated by methylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The PSP-1b1 backbone consists of →4)-α-Galp-(1 → 4)-α-Galp-(1 → 2)-α-Manp-(1 → 4)-α-Galp-(1 → 2)-α-Manp-(1 → 4)-α-Galp-(1 → 4)-α-Galp-(1 → 2)-α-Manp-(1 → 4)-α-Galp-(1 → 2)-α-Manp-(1 → 4)→, with branches of α-1,6-Manp, ß-1,6-Glcp, ß-1,3,6-Glcp, α-1,3-Manp, α-1,6-Galp, α-1,3-Fucp, T-α-Glcp and T-α-Galp on the O-6 position of α-Manp of the main chain, and secondary branches linked to the O-6 position of ß-Glcp of the major branch. Treatment with PSK-1b1 (80 and 160 mg/kg/day) resulted in hepatoprotective effects against alcohol-induced liver injury in mice by reducing oxidative stress and modulating immunity.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Micélio/química , Trametes/química , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sequência de Carboidratos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/imunologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/uso terapêutico , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monossacarídeos/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344969

RESUMO

The present work mainly describes the preparation of acetylated mycelia polysaccharides (AMPS) from Pleurotus djamor and investigates the antioxidant and anti-aging effects in d-galactose-induced aging mice. The optimized procedure indicates the acetyl substitution degree of AMPS is 0.54 ± 0.04 under the conditions of a reaction time of 56 h, a reaction temperature of 37 °C, and 4 mL of added acetic anhydride. The in vitro analysis and in vivo animal experiments indicate that the AMPS could alleviate the aging properties by scavenging the radicals, elevating the enzyme activities, and reducing the lipid contents. As for serum levels, the AMPS can improve the serum biochemical indices and enhance immunological activity. The histopathological observations indicate that the injuries to the liver, kidney, and brain can be remitted by AMPS intervention. The characterization showed that AMPS was one kind of ß-pyranose with the weight-average molecular weights of 3.61 × 105 Da and the major monosaccharides of mannose and glucose. The results suggest that AMPS can be used as a dietary supplement and functional food for the prevention of aging and age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Micélio/química , Pleurotus/química , Acetilação , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral
13.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0213954, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329589

RESUMO

The current physical goods economy produces materials by extracting finite valuable resources without taking their end of the life and environmental impact into account. Mycelium-based materials offer an alternative fabrication paradigm, based on the growth of materials rather than on extraction. Agricultural residue fibres are inoculated with fungal mycelium, which form an interwoven three-dimensional filamentous network binding the feedstock into a lightweight material. The mycelium-based material is heat-killed after the growing process. In this paper, we investigate the production process, the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of mycelium-based composites made with different types of lignocellulosic reinforcement fibres combined with a white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. This is the first study reporting the dry density, the Young's modulus, the compressive stiffness, the stress-strain curves, the thermal conductivity, the water absorption rate and a FTIR analyse of mycelium-based composites by making use of a fully disclosed protocol with T. versicolor and five different type of fibres (hemp, flax, flax waste, softwood, straw) and fibre processings (loose, chopped, dust, pre-compressed and tow). The thermal conductivity and water absorption coefficient of the mycelium composites with flax, hemp, and straw have an overall good insulation behaviour in all the aspects compared to conventional materials such as rock wool, glass wool and extruded polystyrene. The conducted tests reveal that the mechanical performance of the mycelium-based composites depends more on the fibre processing (loose, chopped, pre-compressed, and tow), and size than on the chemical composition of the fibres. These experimental results show that mycelium-composites can fulfil the requirements of thermal insulation and have the potential to replace fosile-based composites. The methology used to evaluate the suitability and selection of organic waste-streams proved to be effective for the mycelium-material manufacturing applications.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Micélio/química , Trametes/química , Resistência à Tração
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 1112-1120, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271800

RESUMO

Six polysaccharides (SF-FB11, SF-HW21, SF-CA31, SF-HA41, SF-FF51, and SF-FR61) of similar molecular weights (MW) (30-50 kDa) were extracted from the fermentation liquor, mycelia, and basidiomata of Sparassis latifolia by different methods. Structural analyses of these purified polysaccharides indicated that they were all branched, with a degree of branching (DB) ranging from 0.2 to 0.4. The polysaccharides exhibited strong scavenging activities for 2,2­diphenyl­1­picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals. Their antioxidant activities were correlated to some extent with their composition but significantly with the DB. The polysaccharides with a low 1,3­d­glucose content and glucose: galactose ratio, or a low DB (0.2-0.3) had higher antioxidant activities. Additionally, the correlation between the extraction yield and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides was assessed. The low-MW polysaccharides extracted by alkali treatments had both high yield and antioxidant activities. Additionally, both the yield and antioxidant activities were found to be influenced by the size, extraction method, and source (fermentation liquor, mycelia, or basidiomata) of the polysaccharides. These results indicate that polysaccharides isolated from S. latifolia have strong antioxidant activities closely associated with the polysaccharide structure and extraction method, thus providing a scientific basis for further use of these polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Polyporales/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Peso Molecular , Micélio/química , Picratos/química
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8149-8159, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246442

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been widely used in Asia to treat hypertension, but the active substances responsible for its antihypertensive effects remain unclear. Using the well-established angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) as a target, we identified three ACE inhibitory peptides (ACEIPs), Gln-Leu-Val-Pro (QLVP), Gln-Asp-Val-Leu (QDVL), and Gln-Leu-Asp-Leu (QLDL), which account for the antihypertensive activity of G. lucidum. Notably, QLVP worked in a mixed-type manner against ACE with an IC50 value of 127.9 µmol/L. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that the potent charge energy of QLVP, which interacted with Gln242 and Lys472 of ACE via a hydrogen bond and a salt bridge, potentially contributed to ACE inhibitory activity. Moreover, QLVP markedly activated angiotensin I-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and partly reduced mRNA and protein expression of the vasoconstrictor factor endothelin-1. This is the first report of the antihypertensive activity of small ACEIPs originating from G. lucidum mycelia, paving the way for the possible application of these peptides as potent drug candidates for treating hypertension.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Reishi/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Micélio/química , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 293: 204-212, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151602

RESUMO

Near-infrared microscopy (NIRM) technology can analyze different components within a sample while also obtaining spatial information about the sample. No rapid detection methods are available for effectively identifying antibiotic mycelia residues (AMRs) in protein feeds materials to date. In this study, the feasibility of using NIRM to identify AMRs (oxytetracycline residue, streptomycin sulfate residue and clay colysin sulfate residue) mixed in cottonseed meals was studied. The samples were scanned by NIRM, then the spectra of images were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) to select characteristic bands for further identification with one-class partial least squares analysis (OCPLS). The results showed that: a) AMRs were effectively identified in cottonseed meal; b) screening characteristic bands and increasing the spectral number of the calibration set improved the identification results of the model; and c) the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and class error of the method were 100%, 95.93%, 99.01% and 2.03%, respectively.


Assuntos
Óleo de Sementes de Algodão/química , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Microscopia/métodos , Micélio/química , Oxitetraciclina/química , Estreptomicina/química , Calibragem , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão/metabolismo , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Microscopia/normas , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
17.
J Med Food ; 22(5): 469-478, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084539

RESUMO

Aging and lifestyle factors, including high-sugar and high-fat diets, promote a systemic metabolic imbalance that promotes neurodegeneration. Hericium erinaceus has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Recently, its functional activities, such as antimetabolic dysfunction, antineuroinflammatory activities, and stimulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis, have been revealed. This study demonstrated that Hericium erinaceus mycelium (HEM) and an isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A (EA), may reverse spatial learning disabilities in aging mice (15 months old) fed with a high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HFSD). Aging mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) a chow diet (control), (2) an HFSD, and an HFSD supplemented with either (3) HEM or (4) EA for 18 weeks. The Morris water maze (MWM) and Y-maze were used for behavioral assessments. Both HEM- and EA-treated mice had shorter mean daily escape latencies than HFSD-treated mice in the MWM. In addition, HEM-treated mice had a slightly increased exploratory time and frequency in the novel arm in the Y-maze. Quantitative PCR revealed that both HEM- and EA-treated mice exhibited reduced messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, and HEM-treated mice exhibited increased mRNA expression of NGF and NeuN in the hippocampus. Moreover, HEM and EA also decreased body weight, abdominal fat, plasma glucose, serum and liver total cholesterol, and liver triacylglycerol. Thus, HEM may be a potential health-promoting supplement for minimizing the progression of aging and obesity-induced neurodegeneration by reducing metabolic abnormalities and neuroinflammatory cytokines and increasing neurogenesis factors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Basidiomycota/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Sacarose/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Animais , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/psicologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Micélio/química , Fator de Crescimento Neural/genética , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Aprendizagem Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Food Funct ; 10(6): 3262-3271, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089650

RESUMO

Polysaccharides are closely associated with immune regulation. In this study, the aim was to investigate the effect of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii mycelia (PPS) in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunodeficient mice. Compared with the CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice, the spleen and thymus indexes in mice with orally administered PPS were significantly increased, body weight loss was alleviated, and the natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity and proliferative activities of the lymphocytes were elevated. The recovery of peripheral white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobins and platelets was accelerated. Furthermore, the results from ELISA showed that PPS could up-regulate the serum levels of IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ and IgG, and reduce the level of TGF-ß. Histopathological analysis of the spleen revealed the protective effect of PPS against CTX-induced immunosuppression. Western blotting results showed that PPS possessed immunomodulatory activity via TLR4/TRAF6/NF-κB signalling pathways. Finally, the intestinal absorption of PPS was poor, as detected in the Caco-2 transwell system. Taken together, these findings suggest that PPS plays a crucial role in protection against immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide-treated mice and could be a potential candidate for use in immune therapy regimens.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/química , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/prevenção & controle , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Imunossupressão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Micélio/química , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(8): 1704-1709, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090338

RESUMO

In order to provide a foundation for the development and application of Ophiocordyceps gracilis and increase the new resources of cordyceps,an asexual Paraisaria dubia was isolated from an O. gracilis fruit body. After 10 days of liquid fermentation,white globular mycelium and clear transparent fermentation were produced. The mycelium was extracted by hot water and precipitated with ethanol to obtain intracellular crude polysaccharide. The protein was deproteinized to obtain deproteinized polysaccharide. The intracellular pure polysaccharide was purified by Sepharose 4 B column chromatography and were analyzed by UV,IR,1 H-NMR,and13 CNMR data,as well as GC and HPLC. The results showed that the intracellular polysaccharide of P. dubia was composed of glucose,galactose and mannose with a molar ratio of 25. 54 ∶2 ∶1. It was a ß-configuration glycosylic bond,containing pyranoside. The initial connection of polysaccharide was ß(1→2)(1→4)(1→6) connection. This experiment provides a theoretical basis for the development and application of P. dubia.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Hypocreales/química , Micélio/química , Galactose , Glucose , Manose
20.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022946

RESUMO

Erinacine S, so far known to have been produced only in Hericium erinaceus mycelia, has just recently been discovered and is able to reduce amyloid plaque growth and improve neurogenesis in aged brain of rats. However, few investigations have been conducted on the absorption, distribution, and excretion study of Erinacine S. This study aimed to investigate the absolute bioavailability, tissue distribution, and excretion of Erinacine S in H. Erinaceus mycelia in eight-week old Sprague-Dawley rats. After oral administration and intravenous administration of 2.395 g/kg body weight of the H. erinaceus mycelia extract (equivalent to 50 mg/kg body weight Erinacine S) and 5 mg/kg of Erinacine S, respectively, the absolute bioavailability was estimated as 15.13%. In addition, Erinacine S was extensively distributed in organs such as brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The maximum concentration of Erinacine S was observed in the stomach, 2 h after the oral administration of H. erinaceus mycelia extract, whereas the maximum amount of Erinacine S found in other tissues were seen after 8 h. Total amount of unconverted Erinacine S eliminated in feces and urine in 24 h was 0.1% of the oral dosage administrated. This study is the first to show that Erinacine S can penetrate the blood-brain barrier of rats and thus support the development of H. erinaceus mycelia, for the treatment of neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Amiloide/tratamento farmacológico , Sesterterpenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Micélio/química , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Amiloide/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Ratos , Sesterterpenos/química , Sesterterpenos/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos
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