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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 65, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397897

RESUMO

Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has emerged as a potential treatment for severe colitis associated with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) following hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Bacterial engraftment from FMT donor to recipient has been reported, however the fate of fungi and viruses after FMT remains unclear. Here we report longitudinal dynamics of the gut bacteriome, mycobiome and virome in a teenager with GvHD after receiving four doses of FMT at weekly interval. After serial FMTs, the gut bacteriome, mycobiome and virome of the patient differ from compositions before FMT with variable temporal dynamics. Diversity of the gut bacterial community increases after each FMT. Gut fungal community initially shows expansion of several species followed by a decrease in diversity after multiple FMTs. In contrast, gut virome community varies substantially over time with a stable rise in diversity. The bacterium, Corynebacterium jeikeium, and Torque teno viruses, decrease after FMTs in parallel with an increase in the relative abundance of Caudovirales bacteriophages. Collectively, FMT may simultaneously impact on the various components of the gut microbiome with distinct effects.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/microbiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/virologia , Micobioma , Adolescente , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota
2.
Ecol Lett ; 24(3): 426-437, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319429

RESUMO

Plants involved in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis trade photosynthetically derived carbon for fungal-provided soil nutrients. However, little is known about how plant light demand and ambient light conditions influence root-associating AM fungal communities. We conducted a manipulative field experiment to test whether plants' shade-tolerance influences their root AM fungal communities in open and shaded grassland sites. We found similar light-dependent shifts in AM fungal community structure for experimental bait plant roots and the surrounding soil. Yet, deviation from the surrounding soil towards lower AM fungal beta-diversity in the roots of shade-intolerant plants in shade suggested preferential carbon allocation to specific AM fungi in conditions where plant-assimilated carbon available to fungi was limited. We conclude that favourable environmental conditions widen the plant biotic niche, as demonstrated here with optimal light availability reducing plants' selectivity for specific AM fungi, and promote compatibility with a larger number of AM fungal taxa.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Micorrizas , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142016, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254950

RESUMO

Drinking water distribution systems host extensive microbiomes with diverse biofilm communities regardless of treatment, disinfection, or operational practices. In Mediterranean countries higher temperatures can accelerate reactions and microbial growth that may increase aesthetic water quality issues, particularly where material deposits can develop as a result of net zero flows within looped urban networks. This study investigated the use of flow and turbidity monitoring to hydraulically manage mobilisation of pipe wall biofilms and associated material from the Mediterranean city of Valencia (Spain). Pipe sections of different properties were subjected to controlled incremental flushing with monitoring and sample collection for physico-chemical and DNA analysis with Illumina sequencing of bacterial and fungal communities. A core microbial community was detected throughout the network with microorganisms like Pseudomonas, Aspergillus or Alternaria increasing during flushing, indicating greater abundance in underlying and more consolidated material layers. Bacterial and fungal communities were found to be highly correlated, with bacteria more diverse and dynamic during flushing whilst fungi were more dominant and less variable between sampling sites. Results highlight that water quality management can be achieved through hydraulic strategies yet understanding community dynamics, including the fungal component, will be key to maintaining safe and ultimately beneficial microbiomes in drinking water distribution systems.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes , Água Potável , Micobioma , Animais , Biofilmes , Espanha , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 142273, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182000

RESUMO

A change in precipitation caused by climate change is an important factor that affects the biodiversity and ecological function of arid and semi-arid regions, but its influence on the composition and function of the soil fungi community in the grasslands of the Loess Plateau remains unclear. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted an in-situ simulation experiment using five precipitation gradients (natural precipitation, increased and decreased by 40%, and 80%) in a natural restoration grassland for three years. The composition of soil fungal communities and their functions were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing techniques. Although the change of precipitation did not change the diversity index of soil fungi, it changed the composition and function of dominant fungal community groups. Specifically, decreased precipitation resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of Dothideomycetes and Boeremia by up to 12.17% and 9.93%, respectively, while these decreased with increased precipitation. The abundance of Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Agaricomycetes abundance decreased by up to 11.27%, 6.96%, and 11.46% with decreased precipitation, but also decreased by up to 10.9%, 1.73%, and 10.51% with increased precipitation, respectively. However, the abundance of Ascomycota, Pezizomycetes, and norank_Pezizales increased by up to 22.58%, 7.45%, and 6.95% with decreased precipitation, and increased by up to 12.05%, 8.43%, and 5.81% with increased precipitation, respectively. The number of dominant fungal groups with interactive relationships weakened by 34.93% and 8.7% under decreased precipitation by 80% and increased 80%, respectively. Precipitation change had no significant effect on the proportion of saprotrophs, while a decrease of precipitation increased the endophyte-plant pathogens by up to 58.0% and decreased arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by up to 92.6%. In brief, the dominant soil fungal communities could adapt and respond to climate change by altering the proportion of different dominant fungal groups by responding to moisture patterns with changes in the interrelationships between microbial communities and the proportional distribution of functional groups.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Pradaria , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142194, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207455

RESUMO

Phyllospheric microbes play a crucial role in the biological decomposition of plant litter in wetland ecosystems. Previous studies have mainly focused on single stages of decomposition process, and to date there have been no reports on dynamic changes in the composition of phyllospheric microbes during the multiple stages of decomposition from living plant to death. Here we investigated fungal and bacterial community succession in the leaf litter of Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, a wetland plant species using sequencing of the both fungal ITS and bacterial 16S genes. Our results revealed that, over the whole period of decomposition, the fungal communities underwent more distinct succession than did the bacterial communities. Proteobacteria dominated throughout the entire period, while, across different decomposition stages, the Ascomycete fungi were gradually replaced by the Ciliophora and Rozellomycota as the dominant fungi. Network analysis revealed higher degrees of species segregation and shorter average path lengths between species of fungi compared with species of bacteria. This suggests that fungal communities may harbor more niches and functional diversity and are potentially more susceptible to external interference than are bacterial communities. During decomposition, the contents of leaf cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in the litter were significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with the fungal communities, and abiotic factors accounted for 89.8% of the total variation in the fungal communities. In contract, abiotic factors only explained 6.10% of the total variation in bacterial communities, suggesting external environments as drivers of fungal community succession. Overall, we provide evidence that the complex litter decay in wetlands is the result of a dynamic cross-kingdom succession, and this process is accompanied by distinct phyllospheric fungal community dynamics.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Bactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Fungos , Folhas de Planta , Microbiologia do Solo , Áreas Alagadas
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108958, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176225

RESUMO

The occurrence of black aspergilli in onions has been reported as frequent, and this group of fungi harbors potentially toxigenic species. In addition, Aspergillus niger has been reported as the causative agent of black mold rot, an important postharvest disease that causes damage throughout the world. Brazil stands out as one of the world's largest onion producers. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the mycobiota in Brazilian onions. For this reason, we investigated the mycobiota of 48 market (n = 25) and field (n = 23) onion bulb samples. Nineteen soil samples were collected from the same fields and evaluated. In field onions and soil samples, Penicillium spp. was the prevalent fungal group, whereas in market samples A. section Nigri was the most frequent group. Due to the taxonomic complexity of this group, species identification was supported by phylogenetic data (CaM gene). A. welwitschiae was the most prevalent species in market samples. Black aspergillus strains were evaluated for fumonisin B2 (FB2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) production. Overall, 53% and 2.2% of the strains produced FB2 and OTA, respectively. The occurrence of FB2 and OTA was also investigated in onion bulb samples but none showed contamination with these mycotoxins.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cebolas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Aspergillus/classificação , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Brasil , Humanos , Micobioma/genética , Micotoxinas/análise , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Cebolas/química , Penicillium/classificação , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 759: 143804, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340856

RESUMO

Fungi living inside plants affect many aspects of plant health, but little is known about how plant genotype influences the fungal endophytic microbiome. However, a deeper understanding of interactions between plant genotype and biotic and abiotic environment in shaping the plant microbiome is of significance for modern agriculture, with implications for disease management, breeding and the development of biocontrol agents. For this purpose, we analysed the fungal wheat microbiome from seed to plant to seeds and studied how different potential sources of inoculum contributed to shaping of the microbiome. We conducted a large-scale pot experiment with related wheat cultivars over one growth-season in two environments (indoors and outdoors) to disentangle the effects of host genotype, abiotic environment (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and fungi present in the seed stock, air and soil on the succession of the endophytic fungal communities in roots, flag leaves and seeds at harvest. The communities were studied with ITS1 metabarcoding and environmental climate factors were monitored during the experimental period. Host genotype, tissue type and abiotic factors influenced fungal communities significantly. The effect of host genotype was mostly limited to leaves and roots, and was location-independent. While there was a clear effect of plant genotype, the relatedness between cultivars was not reflected in the microbiome. For the phyllosphere microbiome, location-dependent weather conditions factors largely explained differences in abundance, diversity, and presence of genera containing pathogens, whereas the root communities were less affected by abiotic factors. Our findings suggest that airborne fungi are the primary inoculum source for fungal communities in aerial plant parts whereas vertical transmission is likely to be insignificant. In summary, our study demonstrates that host genotype, environment and presence of fungi in the environment shape the endophytic fungal community in wheat over a growing season.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Endófitos , Fungos , Genótipo , Raízes de Plantas , Triticum/genética
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141721, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861948

RESUMO

Globally, soils are subject to radical changes in their biogeochemistry as rampant deforestation and other forms of land use and climate change continue to transform planet Earth. To better understand soil ecosystem functioning, it is necessary to understand the responses of soil microbial diversity and community structure to changing climate, land cover, and associated environmental variables. With next-generation sequencing, we investigated changes in topsoil fungi community structure among different land cover types (from Forest to Cropland) and climate zones (from Hot to Cold zones) in the Western Pacific Region. We demonstrated that climate zones substantially (P = 0.001) altered the soil fungal beta-diversity (change in community composition), but not alpha-diversity (taxonomical diversity). In particular, precipitation, temperature, and also latitude were the best predictors of beta-diversity. Individual fungal classes displayed divergent but strong responses to climate variables and latitude, suggesting niche differentiation at lower taxonomic levels. We also demonstrated that fungal taxonomic diversity differentially responded to latitude across land covers: fungal diversity increased towards lower latitudes in the Forest and Cropland (R2 = 0.19) but increased towards both lower and higher latitudes in Fallow land (R2 = 0.45). Further, alpha-diversity was significantly influenced by soil pH in Forest (P = 0.02), and by diurnal temperature range in Fallow land and mean annual precipitation in Cropland. Collectively, various land cover types had differential influence on the latitude diversity gradient, while climate, and to some extent, edaphic variables, were crucial in shaping soil fungal community structure. Our results can also serve as a baseline for estimating global change impacts on fungal community structure in the Western Pacific Region.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Florestas , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141871, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891997

RESUMO

Arsenic is a global pollutant that can accumulate in rice and has been confirmed to disturb the gut microbiome. By contrast, the influence on the gut mycobiome is seldom concerned because fungi comprise a numerically small proportion of the whole gut microcommunity. To expand the detection of the mycobiome in different gut sections of mammals and investigate the influence of food arsenic on the gut mycobiome in the digestive tract, we treated mice with feeds containing different compositions of arsenic species (7.3% sodium arsenate, 72.7% sodium arsenite, 1.0% sodium monomethylarsonate, and 19.0% sodium dimethylarsinate) in rice at a total arsenic dose of 30 mg/kg. After 60 days of exposure, the feces of four different sites, the ileum, cecum, colon, and excreted feces, were collected and analyzed by internal transcribed spacer gene sequencing. Among the samples, the major fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota; the top 10 fungal genera were Aspergillus, Verticillium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Ophiocordyceps, Trametes, Mucor, and Nigrospora. In control mice, along the murine digestive tract, the mycobial richness and composition were significantly changed; Aspergillus and Penicillium possessed the higher ability to be stabilized in the murine gut, and larger proportions of positive correlations were observed among the major fungi. After arsenic exposure, the fungal composition was more disturbed in the intestinal tract than in feces. Along the digestive tract, arsenic can trigger larger mycobial variations, and the sensitivities of major fungi to arsenic were changed. Thus, the murine intestinal spatial mycobiota are more perturbed than excreted fecal mycobiota after food arsenic exposure. Feces are insufficient to be selected as a representative of the gut mycobiota in arsenic exposure studies.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Micobioma , Animais , Fezes , Fungos , Intestinos , Camundongos , Trametes
10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(1): 234-241, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372475

RESUMO

Planktonic fungi are important components of aquatic ecosystems, and analyses of their community composition and function have far-reaching significance for the ecological management and maintenance of the Danjiangkou reservoir. The composition and function of the planktonic fungal community in the surface water layer of the Danjiangkou Reservoir in October 2019 was investigated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing combined with FUNGuild analyses. According to the results, the reservoir community is primarily composed of 6 phyla 213 genera, with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota being the dominant phyla. The water quality monitoring results for the Danjiangkou Reservoir met the Grade Ⅰ or Ⅱ water quality standards for the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 38382-2002). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the planktonic fungal community and environmental factors showed that TN, TP, T, ORP, and TLI are important factors influencing the distribution of planktonic fungi. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Lodderomyces, and Acremonium were significantly correlated with physical and chemical water quality parameters. FUNGuild was used to predict the nutritional and functional groups of planktonic fungi, and the results showed that pathotrophs, saprotrophs, and pathotroph-saprotrophs were the major components. The pathotroph composition analysis showed that the proportions of plant pathogens and animal pathogens in the Heijizui samples were significantly higher than those observed in the other monitoring sites. The community composition, function, and influencing factors of the planktonic fungi community in the Danjiangkou Reservoir were investigated and indicated that it is potentially at ecological risk and more attention needs to be paid to planktonic fungi in the biological monitoring of water quality.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Plâncton , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Fungos/genética , Qualidade da Água
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(21): 5160-5168, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350231

RESUMO

This study is aimed to reveal the rhizosphere soil fungal community structure difference of Coptis chinensis cropping between natural forest and artificial shed modes, and provide theoretical guidance for soil improvement and C. chinensis planting. The rhizosphere soil samples of 1-5-year-old C. chinensis under natural forest and artificial shed modes were collected. Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the community structure and diversity of soil fungi under the tow cropping modes,and the effects of soil nutriment indices on soil fungal community structure. The results suggested that the abundance and diversity of fungal communities in soil of 2-5-year-old C. chinensis were not significant different in both two cropping modes, but it was significantly higher than that in the 1-year-old C. chinensis. Comparing soil samples from the same year-old C. chinensis under the two cropping modes, it was found that there was no significant difference in the abundance and diversity of fungal communities. The fungal community of the rhizosphere soil was different in composition and abundance between tow cropping modes, and between different planting years. The 17 phyla,59 classes and 155 orders,and 17 phyla,59 classes and 157 orders were detected in the rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes of natural forest and the artificial shed, respectively. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota were dominant phyla in rhizosphere soil, and the average abundance of the 3 phyla accounted for 74.36% and 74.30% of the total fungi. The results of analysis of similarities showed that there were significant differences in the fungal community structure of 1-year-old and 2-year-old C. chinensis soil fungi, and there was no significant difference in the community structure of 3-5-year-old samples. Under the natural forest cropping mode, there were significant differences among the samples of different years. Under the artificial shed cropping, there were significant differences in fungal community structure between 1-year-old and 3-5-year-old C. chinensis soil, and between 2-year-old and 3-5-year-old C. chinensis soil. The results of canonical correlation analysis showed that soil pH and soil organic matter content were the main factors affecting the soil fungal community structure. Soil organic matter content was positively correlated with Basidiomycota and Cryptomycota, pH was negatively correlated with Basidiomycota and C. ryptomycota. The planting of C. chinensis has promoted the diversity and abundance of rhizosphere fungal community significantly. For the same year-old C. chinensis soil, abundance of fungal community was no significant difference between two cropping modes. There are significant differences in the rhizosphere soil fungal community structure between tow cropping modes in the first two years of planting. Through the interaction between the rhizosphere and the soil and the continuous selection of the rhizosphere to the fungal community, the fungal community structure tended to be the same between the two cropping modes in rhizosphere soil of 3-5-year old C. chinensis. The soil pH and orga-nic matter content were the main factors affecting the change of fungal community structure.


Assuntos
Coptis , Micobioma , Florestas , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
12.
Oecologia ; 194(4): 649-657, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159541

RESUMO

Myrmecochory is a widespread mutualism in which plants benefit from seed dispersal services by ants. Ants might also be providing seeds with an additional byproduct benefit via reduced plant pathogen loads in the ant nest environment through their antimicrobial glandular secretions. We investigate this byproduct benefit by identifying fungal communities in ant nests and surrounding environments and quantifying fungal community change (1) through time, (2) between different nest substrates, and (3) as a function of average ant activity levels within nests (based on observed ant activity at nest entrances throughout the summer). We split fungal communities by functional guild to determine seed-dispersing ant-induced changes in the overall fungal community, the animal pathogen fungal community, the plant pathogen fungal community, and the myrmecochore pathogen fungal community. Nest substrate (soil or log) explained much of the variation in fungal community dissimilarity, while substrate occupation (ant nest or control sample) and time had no influence on fungal community composition. Average ant activity had no effect on the community turnover in fungal communities except for the myrmecochore pathogenic fungal community. In this community, higher ant activity throughout the summer resulted in more fluctuation in the pathogenic community in the ant nest. Our results are not consistent with a byproduct benefit framework in myrmecochory, but suggest that nest substrate drives dissimilarity in fungal communities. The influence of nest substrate on fungal communities has important implications for seeds taken into ant nests, as well as ant nest location choice by queens and during nest relocation.


Assuntos
Formigas , Micobioma , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Ecossistema , Sementes
13.
Oecologia ; 194(4): 659-672, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141324

RESUMO

The impacts of invasive species on biodiversity may be mitigated or exacerbated by abiotic environmental changes. Invasive plants can restructure soil fungal communities with important implications for native biodiversity and nutrient cycling, yet fungal responses to invasion may depend on numerous anthropogenic stressors. In this study, we experimentally invaded a long-term soil warming and simulated nitrogen deposition experiment with the widespread invasive plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and tested the responses of soil fungal communities to invasion, abiotic factors, and their interaction. We focused on the phytotoxic garlic mustard because it suppresses native mycorrhizae across forests of North America. We found that invasion in combination with warming, but not under ambient conditions or elevated nitrogen, significantly reduced soil fungal biomass and ectomycorrhizal relative abundances and increased relative abundances of general soil saprotrophs and fungal genes encoding for hydrolytic enzymes. These results suggest that warming potentially exacerbates fungal responses to plant invasion. Soils collected from uninvaded and invaded plots across eight forests spanning a 4 °C temperature gradient further demonstrated that the magnitude of fungal responses to invasion was positively correlated with mean annual temperature. Our study is one of the first empirical tests to show that the impacts of invasion on fungal communities depends on additional anthropogenic pressures and were greater in concert with warming than under elevated nitrogen or ambient conditions.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Micorrizas , Nitrogênio/análise , América do Norte , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 5193-5200, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124264

RESUMO

There are complex interrelationships between plant microorganisms (phyllosphere and rhizosphere) and host plants, which can promote plant growth and enhance the tolerance of host plants to stress. In this study, we selected the dominant species Bothriochloa ischaemum as the research subject in a copper tailings dam. Using high-throughput sequencing, we investigated the structures of the fungal communities and diversities in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of B. ischaemum. This study also explored the effects of heavy metal content on fungal community characteristics. The results showed that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the dominant phyla in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of B. ischaemum. The diversities and richness of the rhizosphere fungal community were higher than that of the phyllosphere fungal community. The diversities of rhizosphere and phyllosphere fungal communities was affected by different heavy metals. Phyllosphere fungal diversity was mainly affected by the content of Zn and Cu in leaves, and the content of Pb in roots was the key factor affecting the diversity of the rhizophere fungal community. Furthermore, Pleosporaceae had a very significant positive correlation with Cd in the phyllosphere, and Nectriaceae had a significant positive correlation with Zn in the rhizosphere. These fungal communities could be used as indicators of ecological recovery in areas with heavy metal pollution. The results could provide an ecological basis for the exploration and utilization of phyllosphere or rhizosphere fungi resources during ecological restoration processes. This study also provides guidance for selecting the plant-microbial symbionts during ecological restoration in areas with heavy metal pollution.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Micobioma , Poluentes do Solo , Cobre/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 4294-4304, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124311

RESUMO

Studying the impact of land-use on fungal communities and their functional groups in wetland soil can provide a theoretical basis for the protection of wetlands. The top soil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from the wetlands with Phragmites communis (PCW), wetlands with Cladium chinense (CCW), abandoned paddy fields (APF), paddy fields (PF), and corn fields (CF) in the Huixian Karst Wetland. The fungal community structure and its functional groups were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing methods and the FUNGuild database, respectively. The results showed that the Simpson and Shannon index in PF and CF were significantly higher than those in PCW and CCW. Ascomyceta was the most dominant phylum in five land-use types with the abundance of 70.60%-87.02%, followed by Rozellomycota in PCW with the abundance of 7.14% and Basidiomycota in CCW, APF, PF, and CF with the abundance of 9.70%, 5.19%, 8.13%, and 7.50%, respectively. Pleosporales was the most dominant order in PCW with the abundance of 16.47%, while Hypocreales was the dominant one in CCW, APF, PF, and CF with the abundance of 22.52%, 23.50%, 17.60, and 23.80%, respectively. Ascobolus and Archaeorhizomyces were the most dominant genera in PCW and CCW with the abundance of 6.65% and 13.44%, respectively, and Fusarium was the most dominant genus in APF, PF, and CF with the abundance of 10.22%, 10.51%, and 11.12%, respectively. Saprotroph was the main trophic mode in the Huixian wetland with the abundance of 48.67%-80.13%. The abundance of pathotroph in CF (5.39%) was higher than that in PCW (2.34%) and CCW (1.53%). Dung saprotroph-wood saprotroph and soil saprotroph were the most dominant functional groups in PCW and CCW, respectively, while animal pathogen-endophyte-lichen parasite-plant pathogen-soil saprotroph-wood saprotroph was the most dominant functional group in APF, PF, and CF. Redundancy analysis showed that both soil water content and the ratio of carbon-to-nitrogen were the main factors affecting fungal communities, and available nitrogen was the main factor affecting the functional groups. Overall, the results indicated that land-use has changed the soil fungal diversity and community structure, complicated the functional groups, and increased the risk of corn disease in the Huixian Karst wetland.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Animais , China , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Áreas Alagadas
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 4305-4313, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124312

RESUMO

Fungi play an important role in the accumulation and transformation of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient cycling. To investigate the relationship between the fungal community and soil organic carbon functional groups under gradient SOM contents in arable mollisols, arable mollisols with 2%-9% SOM content were collected in Northeast China. Solid-state 13C-NMR technology was used to explore the differences in the functional group structure of SOM, and ITS high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate the fungal community structure. The potential interactions between different taxonomic groups of soil fungal community and their associations with organic carbon molecular structures were compared by constructing molecular ecological networks under low SOM (2%-5%) and high SOM (7%-9%) conditions. The 13C-NMR results indicated an increase in the relative abundance of Alkyl C (25.8% to 35.9%). The decrease in Alkyl C/O-Alkyl C indicated a smaller degree of decomposition in high SOM soils. Sordariomycetes and Mortierellomycotina dominated the fungal community and their relative abundance increased with the SOM gradient (P<0.05) from 14.33% to 28.17% and from 7.32% to 23.14%, respectively. The network analysis showed simpler ecological topological properties of the fungal community in low SOM soils, with lower numbers of nodes, edges, and average clustering coefficients than those in high SOM soils. A closer relationship between fungi and organic carbon functional groups, especially LOC, was observed in low SOM soils. The random forest model showed that LOC had the largest amount for fungal interactions in low SOM soils (10%), followed by recalcitrant organic carbon (ROC). In comparison, LOC contributed less to the variations in fungal interactions in high SOM soils (7.4%). With globally increasing soil carbon loss, the limition of the carbon resources, especially the reduction of LOC, may reduce the stability and ecological functions of soil fungal communities.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Carbono , China , Fungos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(8): 3846-3854, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124362

RESUMO

To study the effects of cotton stalk biochar on the regulation of fungal diversity, the structure and function of alkaline rice rhizosphere soil under cadmium pollution was investigated. An outdoor pot experiment was conducted by adding cotton stalk biochar (0%, 1%, and 5%) to an alkaline paddy soil with a cadmium concentration of 0.1 and 8 mg·kg-1. Taking rice rhizosphere soil as the research object, Illumina HiSeq sequencing was used to analyze the effects of cotton stalk biochar and cadmium pollution on the diversity, structure, abundance, and function of fungi in an alkaline rhizosphere soil, and to explore the correlation between soil environmental factors and the fungal community under the control of cotton stalk biochar. The results showed that:① the application of cotton stalk biochar significantly increased the soil pH, available nutrients, and organic matter, and reduced the content of reducible cadmium in the soil (P<0.05). ② The distribution of rice rhizosphere soil fungi was mainly Ascomycota, Aphelidiomycota, and Chytridiomycota, which accounted for 57% of all mycophytes. The genus was mainly Mortierella, Alternaria, and Fusarium. There was a significant difference in the α-diversity of the fungal community among the treatments (P<0.05). In the absence of cotton stalk biochar (C0), the increase in the cadmium concentration reduced the relative abundance and fungal diversity index (Shannon index) of Chytridiomycota, Mortierella, and Alternaria in the soil. Under different concentrations of cadmium (Cd0, Cd1, and Cd8), increasing cotton stalk biochar reduced the fungal community richness index (Chao1 index) and Shannon index. Cadmium pollution resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of Chytridiomycota in the soil, but decreased the abundance of Alternaria. The application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase the relative abundance of Chytridiomycota (P<0.05). Cadmium pollution reduced the abundance of Mortierella and Alternaria, but the application of cotton stalk biochar could increase the relative abundance of Alternaria. Increasing cotton stalk biochar means that soil will have more endophytes, plant pathogens, and saprophytes; while increasing cadmium pollution will reduce endophytes, plant pathogens, and saprophytes in the soil. ③ The main environmental factors affecting the diversity and structure of fungal communities are the available potassium, organic matter, and pH of the soil. The reducible cadmium content, which comprises the largest proportion of cadmium in rice soil, was significantly positively correlated to Rotifera, Aphelidiomycota, and Ascomycota (P<0.05), but negatively correlated to other mycophytes (P<0.05). The results indicate that cotton stalk biochar plays a certain role in the microecological regulation of alkaline cadmium-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Carvão Vegetal , Fungos , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(10): 4669-4681, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124400

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of chemical fertilizer reduction combined with organic fertilizer and straw on bacterial and fungal communities in fluvo-aquic soil under a wheat-maize rotation system in North China, a field-oriented fertilization experiment was performed at a trial base in Ninghe District of Tianjin. The differences in composition, diversity, and structure of bacterial and fungal communities were evaluated using five fertilization patterns (chemical fertilizer, F; chemical fertilizer reduction, FR; chemical fertilizer reduction combined with straw, FRS; chemical fertilizer reduction combined with organic fertilizer, FRO; chemical fertilizer reduction combined with organic fertilizer and straw, FROS) using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. Further, the main soil environmental factors driving the alteration of bacterial and fungal communities under different fertilization treatments were explored in combination with soil chemical analysis. The results showed that adding organic fertilizer (FRO) significantly increased the SOM content. In comparison with the FRS treatment, the TP content in the FROS treatment significantly increased by 13.33%. The AP content increased significantly after applying the FRO and FROS treatment, and it increased by 18.03%-33.45% and 22.69%-38.72%, respectively, as compared to that with the other treatments. The NH4+-N content of FRO and FROS treatments was significantly higher than that of chemical fertilizer treatments (F and FR), which was 2.14 and 2.23 times that of F treatment, and 2.23 and 2.33 times that of FR treatment, respectively. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria were the dominant bacterial phyla for all treatments, with Ascomycota being the dominant fungal phylum. Based on the chemical fertilizer reduction combined with organic fertilizer, the addition of straw (FROS) significantly decreased the relative abundance of Actinobacteria. Under the FRS and FROS treatments, a significant decrease in the relative abundance of Gemmatimonadetes was observed. Moreover, the FROS treatment caused a significant decrease in the relative abundance of Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia. As for the fungal community, the relative abundance of Ascomycota was significantly increased under the treatments applying organic fertilizer (FRO and FROS). In comparison with the FR treatment, the FROS treatment significantly decreased the relative abundance of Mortierellomycota and Olpidiomycota, and the FRS treatment also showed a significant inhibitory effect on the relative abundance of Mortierellomycota. The Shannon index of bacterial community of the FROS treatment was significantly reduced by 1.26% and 1.25% in comparison with the F and FR treatments, respectively; the Chao1 index increased by 4.51% as compared with that of the F treatment. The Shannon index of bacterial community exhibited a significantly positive correlation with available phosphorus as well as ammonium content (P<0.05). In comparison to the FR treatment, the FRS, FRO, and FROS treatments significantly decreased the Shannon index of fungal community by 29.85%, 24.94%, and 25.73%, respectively. A significantly positive relationship between the Shannon index of fungal community and available phosphorus content was observed. The community structure of bacteria of the FROS treatment was significantly different from that of F, FR, and FRO treatments, with the soil moisture, total phosphorus, pH, and available phosphorus as the major driving factors; the fungal community structure of the FRO and FROS treatments showed significant difference from that of the F and FR treatments, and the fungal community structure was mainly altered by total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and total phosphorus. In summary, our results indicated that the bacterial and fungal communities in fluvo-aquic soil exhibited a relatively strong response to the chemical fertilizer reduction combined with organic fertilizer and straw; meanwhile, the fungal community was also significantly influenced by chemical fertilizer reduction with organic fertilizer. Therefore, the organic fertilizer and straw drive the changes in the bacterial and fungal community composition, while improving the soil physicochemical properties. The fluvo-aquic fungi were more sensitive to the organic materials than the bacteria. Soil P was a common important influencing factor for regulating the bacterial and fungal community structure, and it should be paid full attention during the agricultural cultivation of fluvo-aquic soil.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Micobioma , Bactérias , China , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(10): 4682-4689, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124401

RESUMO

To study the characteristics of soil nutrients and fungal community composition under different rotation patterns in the arid zone of central Ningxia, we used millet rotation soybean (MRG), rotation grain amaranth (MRA), rotation quinoa (MRQ), and continuous millet rotation (CK) as the objects. The soil nutrient content was determined, and the sequence of the ITS variation region of soil fungi was determined using the Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing platform. The results showed that the effects of different rotation patterns on the soil nutrients were different. The soil pH and electrical conductivity decreased under three rotation patterns, and the soil total nitrogen, total potassium, total phosphorus, and organic matter contents increased. The number of OTUs and α diversity index was higher than those of continuous millet rotation. The results of the fungal community composition study showed that Ascomycota was the dominant flora in 4 patterns. The cluster analysis showed that the fungal genus composition of MRA and MRG was the most similar, followed by MRQ, and that of CK was significantly different with the other three rotation patterns. A correlation analysis showed that the soil nutrients were significantly correlated with several dominant fungal genera (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Further, the soil total nitrogen, total potassium, nitrate nitrogen, and organic matter contents were the most important factors influencing the soil fungal communities. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the MRG rotation patterns were better than those of the MRA and MRQ patterns. In summary, crop rotation improved the polytrophic index of the fungal community, changed the soil fungal community structure, and improved soil fertility. Among, the millet and soybean rotation were the best, and we have suggested to promote cereal rotation as one of the main rotation patterns in the cereal industry in the central dry zone.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Nutrientes , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
BMC Dermatol ; 20(1): 9, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of Malassezia yeasts on skin mycobiome and health has received considerable attention recently. Pityriasis versicolor (PV), a common dermatosis caused by Malassezia genus worldwide, is a manifestation of dysbiosis. PV can be associated with hyper- and/or hypopigmented skin lesions. This disease entity is characterized by high percentage of relapses, which demands a proper antifungal therapy that is based on unambiguous species identification and drug susceptibility testing. CASE PRESENTATION: Comprehensive analysis of PV case in man presenting simultaneously hyper- and hypopigmented skin lesions was performed. Conventional and molecular diagnostic procedures revealed Malassezia furfur and Malassezia sympodialis, respectively as etiological agents of skin lesions observed. Susceptibility tests showed significantly lowered sensitivity of M. furfur cells to fluconazole. Based on susceptibility profiles local antifungal therapy with drugs characterized by entirely different mechanism of action was included. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that cases of PV represented by two types of skin lesions in one patient may be associated with distinct Malassezia species. Moreover, as observed in this case, each of the isolated etiological agents of PV may differ significantly in susceptibility to antifungals. This can significantly complicate the treatment of dermatosis, which by definition is associated with a significant percentage of relapses. In the presented case localized topical treatment was sufficient and successful while allowing maintaining the physiological mycobiome.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Ciclopirox/administração & dosagem , Malassezia/isolamento & purificação , Micobioma/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/microbiologia , Terbinafina/administração & dosagem , Tinha Versicolor/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Pigmentação/etiologia , Tinha Versicolor/complicações
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