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1.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(3): 299-313, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540816

RESUMO

The diagnosis of parasitic and fungal infections, historically based on the detection of these pathogens using direct diagnosis (macro/microscopic examination, culture) or serological methods, has considerably evolved in the last decades, especially with the development of molecular approaches and mass spectrometry. These techniques, as well as most analyses of parasitic and fungal serology, are mostly the preserve of Hospital University Centers Parasitology-Mycology laboratories. In 2016, the French association of medical parasitology and mycology teachers and hospital practitioners (Anofel) has provided a Catalogue of rare analyses, regularly updated and freely accessible on the Anofel website (https://anofel.net/). This tool, which hinges on 4 parts (parasitology, parasitic serology, mycology, and fungal serology), aims to provide information on all available analyses, and a list of hospital laboratories able to undertake them. It is complementary to the other reference works that were developed by our association, including the Guide of analyses and methods in parasitology and mycology, published in 2018, and the eANOFEL pictures and videos database, freely accessible online (http://www.eanofel.fr). In this article, we draw-up a state-of-the-art of the most specialized techniques available in the parasitology-mycology laboratories and presented in the Catalogue of rare analyses of the Anofel collegium, and their interest for the diagnosis of these infections.


Assuntos
Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Micologia/métodos , Micoses/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Parasitologia/métodos , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/tendências , Humanos , Laboratórios Hospitalares/normas , Laboratórios Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Micologia/tendências , Micoses/microbiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Parasitologia/tendências
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(1): e1008201, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945142

RESUMO

Fungal pathogens represent a major human threat affecting more than a billion people worldwide. Invasive infections are on the rise, which is of considerable concern because they are accompanied by an escalation of antifungal resistance. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying virulence traits and drug resistance strongly relies on genetic manipulation techniques such as generating mutant strains carrying specific mutations, or gene deletions. However, these processes have often been time-consuming and cumbersome in fungi due to a number of complications, depending on the species (e.g., diploid genomes, lack of a sexual cycle, low efficiency of transformation and/or homologous recombination, lack of cloning vectors, nonconventional codon usage, and paucity of dominant selectable markers). These issues are increasingly being addressed by applying clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 mediated genetic manipulation to medically relevant fungi. Here, we summarize the state of the art of CRISPR-Cas9 applications in four major human fungal pathogen lineages: Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Mucorales. We highlight the different ways in which CRISPR has been customized to address the critical issues in different species, including different strategies to deliver the CRISPR-Cas9 elements, their transient or permanent expression, use of codon-optimized CAS9, and methods of marker recycling and scarless editing. Some approaches facilitate a more efficient use of homology-directed repair in fungi in which nonhomologous end joining is more commonly used to repair double-strand breaks (DSBs). Moreover, we highlight the most promising future perspectives, including gene drives, programmable base editors, and nonediting applications, some of which are currently available only in model fungi but may be adapted for future applications in pathogenic species. Finally, this review discusses how the further evolution of CRISPR technology will allow mycologists to tackle the multifaceted issue of fungal pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Micologia/métodos , Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Previsões , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Mucorales/genética
5.
J Med Biogr ; 28(1): 24-30, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965910

RESUMO

Although Charles Edward Smith did not discover coccidioidomycosis, he defined the disease through his infatigueable studies of the epidemiology, clinical findings, and immunology of this infection. He became its preeminent authority. He also had an important role in the development of public health, and for the last 16 years of his life he was the Dean of the School of Public Health at the University of California at Berkeley, where he was a revered and energetic leader.


Assuntos
Coccidioides/fisiologia , Coccidioidomicose/história , Micologia/história , Saúde Pública/história , California , Coccidioidomicose/microbiologia , Coccidioidomicose/terapia , História do Século XX
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 471-480, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are a serious threat, but physicians in Asia lack access to many advanced diagnostics in mycology. It is likely that they face other impediments in the management of IFD. A gap analysis was performed to understand the challenges Asian physicians faced in medical mycology. METHODS: The Asia Fungal Working Group (AFWG) conducted a web-based survey on management practices for IFD among clinicians in China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. FINDINGS: Among 292 respondents, 51.7% were infectious disease (ID) specialists. Only 37% of respondents had received formal training in medical mycology. They handled only around 2-4 proven cases of each fungal infection monthly, with invasive candidiasis the most common. For laboratory support, the majority had access to direct microscopy (96%) and histopathology (87%), but galactomannan and azole levels were available to 60% and 25% of respondents, respectively. The majority (84%) used clinical parameters for treatment response monitoring, and 77% followed the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. The majority (84%) did not use the services of an ID physician. Where febrile neutropenia was concerned, 74% of respondents used the empirical approach. Only 30% had an antifungal stewardship program in their hospital. Eighty percent could not use preferred antifungals because of cost. INTERPRETATION: The survey identified inadequacies in medical mycology training, non-culture diagnostics, access to antifungal drugs, and local guidelines as the major gaps in the management of IFDs in Asian countries. These gaps are targets for improvement.


Assuntos
Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/terapia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Invasiva/terapia , China , Competência Clínica , Educação Médica , Humanos , Índia , Indonésia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Mananas/metabolismo , Micologia/educação , Filipinas , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Tailândia
7.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0217667, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647810

RESUMO

Rice false smut, caused by the ascomycete Ustilaginoidea virens, is a serious disease of rice worldwide. Conidia are very important infectious propagules of U. virens, but the ability of pathogenic isolates to produce conidia frequently decreases in culture, which influences pathogenicity testing. Here, we developed tissue media with rice leaves or panicles that stimulate conidiation of U. virens. Among the tested media, 0.10 g/ml panicle medium was most efficient for conidiation. Whereas, some rice leaf media more effectively increased conidiation than panicle media except 0.10 g/ml panicle medium, and certain non-filtered tissue media were better than their filtered counterparts. Although the conidia induced in rice tissue media were smaller, they were able to germinate on potato sucrose agar medium and infect rice normally. The rice tissue medium is also workable in inducing conidia for conidiation-defective isolates. This method provides a foundation for the production of conidia by U. virens that will be widely applicable in pathogenicity testing as well as in genetic analyses for false smut resistance in rice cultivars.


Assuntos
Hypocreales/fisiologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Inflorescência/química , Inflorescência/microbiologia , Micologia/métodos , Oryza/química , Oryza/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(10): 2807-2817, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529025

RESUMO

Podospora anserina is a model ascomycetous fungus which shows pronounced phenotypic senescence when grown on solid medium but possesses unlimited lifespan under submerged cultivation. In order to study the genetic aspects of adaptation of P. anserina to submerged cultivation, we initiated a long-term evolution experiment. In the course of the first 4 years of the experiment, 125 single-nucleotide substitutions and 23 short indels were fixed in eight independently evolving populations. Six proteins that affect fungal growth and development evolved in more than one population; in particular, in the G-protein alpha subunit FadA, new alleles fixed in seven out of eight experimental populations, and these fixations affected just four amino acid sites, which is an unprecedented level of parallelism in experimental evolution. Parallel evolution at the level of genes and pathways, an excess of nonsense and missense substitutions, and an elevated conservation of proteins and their sites where the changes occurred suggest that many of the observed fixations were adaptive and driven by positive selection.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Podospora/genética , Alelos , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Fúngico , Mutação INDEL , Micologia/métodos , Fenótipo , Podospora/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 707, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus endemic in south-east Asia. It predominantly occurs in both immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients and can be fatal if diagnosis and treatment are delayed. The clinical manifestations of T. marneffei infection are nonspecific and rapid diagnosis of T. marneffei infection remains challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old man came to our outpatient department with the sign of common skin lesions. The lesions were cuticolor follicular papules with or without central umbilication, nodules and acne-like lesions, which are common in syringoma, steatocystoma multiplex and trichoepithelioma. A dermatoscopy examination was performed to differentiate these skin lesions. The dermatoscopic images revealed circular or quasi-circular whitish amorphous structure with a central brownish keratin plug, providing the diagnostic clues of T. marneffei infection. Therefore, a skin scrapings culture, skin biopsy and serological detection for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were performed. The final diagnosis of this patient was T. marneffei and HIV co-infection. CONCLUSION: Rapid diagnosis of T. marneffei infection is clinically challenging since presenting clinical manifestations are nonspecific with significant overlap with other common conditions. This case highlights that dermatoscopy is a promising tool for the rapid diagnosis of T. marneffei infection in patients with nonspecific skin lesions, assisting clinicians to avoid delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Dermoscopia/métodos , Micoses/diagnóstico , Talaromyces/patogenicidade , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , China , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itraconazol/administração & dosagem , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Micologia/métodos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hautarzt ; 70(8): 558-560, 2019 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384967
12.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 36, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Guatemalan Highlands is a region of great but so far poorly known mycological diversity. People living in this area have long used wild fungi as a source of food and income. However, our knowledge of the ethnomycological practices of the Mayan peoples of Guatemala is still rudimental, especially if compared with information reported for the neighboring region of Mexico. Among the main indigenous groups of the Maya people inhabiting the highlands of Central Guatemala, stand the Kaqchikel, accounting for nearly 8% of the entire Guatemalan population. The main aim of this study was to record the traditional knowledge and use of edible wild mushrooms by inhabitants of the municipality of San Juan Sacatepéquez that lies at the heart of the Kaqchikel area in the central highlands of Guatemala, also describing the relevant selling practices and dynamics. A secondary aim was to compare the diversity and composition of the mushroom assemblage offered at the market with the macrofungal diversity of woods in the area. METHODOLOGY: This study is the result of 4 years of ethnomycological research, conducted through continuous visits to the municipal market and focused interviews with collectors and vendors. Field sampling in pine-oak forested areas surrounding San Juan Sacatepéquez, from where the mushrooms sold at the market are foraged, were also conducted, in the presence of local collectors. RESULTS: The results show a significant richness of species sold in the market, a network of commerce of purchase, sale, and resale of several species, with relatively stable prices, and knowledge about edible and inedible species that is transmitted mainly within the family nucleus. The business of selling mushrooms in the market is an exclusive activity of women, who are supplied by collectors or by other vendors. Fungi are sold and bought only as food, while no consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms or medicinal mushrooms was recorded. Several species of Amanita, Cantharellus, Boletus, Lactarius, and Russula were those most commercialized in the 4 years of the study, but we also spotted fungi never reported before as consumed in the country, including Gastropila aff. fumosa (= Calvatia fumosa) and several species of Cortinarius. Field sampling in nearby pine-oak forests confirmed an elevated local macrofungal diversity. CONCLUSION: Our study unveiled the contemporary wealth of Kaqchikel culture for what concerns mushrooms, demonstrating that mushrooms continue to be culturally and economically important for these communities despite the erosion of traditional knowledge. Our results also confirmed the need to investigate in greater detail the Guatemalan mycodiversity that is vast and poorly known.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Biodiversidade , Comércio/economia , Micologia/métodos , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Conhecimento , Masculino , Micologia/economia
13.
Med Mycol ; 57(Supplement_3): S259-S266, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292661

RESUMO

The field of diagnostic mycology represents much more than culture and microscopy and is rapidly embracing novel techniques and strategies to help overcome the limitations of conventional approaches. Commercial molecular assays increase the applicability of PCR testing and may identify markers of antifungal resistance, which are of great clinical concern. Lateral flow assays simplify testing and turn-around time, with potential for point of care testing, while proximity ligation assays embrace the sensitivity of molecular testing with the specificity of antibody detection. The first evidence of patient risk stratification is being described and together with the era of next generation sequencing represents an exciting time in mycology.


Assuntos
Micologia/tendências , Micoses/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/tendências , Humanos
14.
Adv Neonatal Care ; 19(6): E3-E10, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite availability of rapid fungal potassium hydroxide (KOH) tests, many care providers rely on visual assessment to determine the diagnosis of monilial diaper dermatitis (MDD). PURPOSE: To determine whether a KOH test, when MDD is suspected, would result in more accurate diagnoses, with decreased antifungal medication prescription and exposure. METHODS: Quality improvement project from 2016 through 2017 with protocol implemented in 2017 for treatment of MDD after positive KOH testing. If monilial rash suspected, after 2 negative KOH tests, then antifungal ordered (considered false negative). χ testing and cost determination were performed. SAMPLE: Neonates in 2 level III neonatal intensive care units. OUTCOME VARIABLES: KOH test results, use of antifungal medication, and cost. RESULTS: The patient census included 1051 and 1015 patients in the year before and after the protocol initiation. The medical orders for antifungal medication decreased from 143 to 36 (P < .001; 95% odds ratio confidence interval, 2.24-4.38). There was a 75% reduction in both use and cost, as charged, of antifungal agents. Overall charges, including KOH test costs, decreased by 12%. Three infants received multiple negative KOH tests, then a positive one. These met the definition of false-negative tests, per protocol. There were no cases of fungal sepsis. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Use of a quality improvement protocol, in which the use of KOH testing is required, before antifungal agents are prescribed, results in decreased exposure and costs. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH: To test the feasibility of bedside "point-of-care" KOH testing, and whether KOH testing and reduced antifungal medication use affects antimicrobial resistance or invasive fungal sepsis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candidíase Cutânea , Dermatite das Fraldas , Hidróxidos/farmacologia , Sobremedicalização , Compostos de Potássio/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/economia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Cutânea/diagnóstico , Candidíase Cutânea/etiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dermatite das Fraldas/diagnóstico , Dermatite das Fraldas/microbiologia , Dermatite das Fraldas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes/farmacologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sobremedicalização/economia , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Micologia/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade
15.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(2): 94-99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187748

RESUMO

Background: The actual burden of fungal infections in Nigeria is uncertain due to the dearth of research in medical mycology. Evidence generated from dissertations is often overlooked, becoming moribund if not appropriately disseminated. The objectives of this study were to assess dissertations submitted to the Faculty of Pathology, National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria, for medical mycology-centred research and ascertain their dissemination by scientific communication. Materials and Methods: Dissertations accepted by the faculty of pathology from 1980 to 2017 were analysed and categorised into respective subdisciplines. Medical microbiology dissertations were further categorised into bacteriology, parasitology, virology and mycology. The proportion of titles under each subcategory was determined. A literature search was conducted to determine if mycology-related dissertations were published in peer-reviewed journals. Results: Six hundred dissertations were indexed under the faculty of pathology. There were 95 (15.8%) medical microbiology dissertations. The distribution of subject matter was bacteriology 62 (65.3%), parasitology 13 (13.7%), virology 15 (15.8%) and mycology 5 (5.3%). Two dissertations in anatomic pathology dealt with fungi. Mycology-related dissertations accounted for 0.8% of all dissertations submitted. Research focused on Candida, Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii, dermatophytes and others. At least 57.1% of mycology-related dissertations were disseminated by means of publication in peer-reviewed journals and/or abstract at scientific conferences. Conclusion: Mycology is a neglected research domain amongst post-graduates in the faculty. Scientific communication of research findings was above average.


Assuntos
Dissertações Acadêmicas como Assunto , Comunicação , Micologia , Patologia/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Docentes , Humanos , Nigéria , Universidades
16.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 36(2): 61-65, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185477

RESUMO

Background: The gold standard for the sporotrichosis diagnosis is culture; however, serologic approaches have been recently implemented to aid in the sporotrichosis diagnosis. Nevertheless, the clinical consequences of the introduction of serologic tests are poorly addressed. Aims: To correlate the results of culture and serology of patients with suspected sporotrichosis. Methods: A retrospective study of 198 patients with suspected sporotrichosis was conducted. Information about culture isolation of Sporothrix from clinical samples and antibody detection by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Results: Positive culture and antibody detection was observed in the samples of 84 patients (42.4%). Forty-one samples (20.7%) showed negative results with both techniques and divergent results were obtained in the samples of 73 patients (36.9%). False negative results in the ELISA were observed with 23 patients (31.5%), 78.3% of them with less than 30 days of infection (p = 0.0045). Among the initial false positive ELISA in the sera of 50 patients, four samples in culture yielded the growth of Sporothrix, and 27 improved with itraconazole. At the end of follow-up, a diagnosis of proven or probable sporotrichosis was established in 139 patients, and possible sporotrichosis in 11 patients. The treatment of the patients with probable sporotrichosis with antifungal drugs resulted in clinical cure for these individuals. Conclusions: These two techniques are complementary in the diagnosis of sporotrichosis, making diagnosis and clinical decision more precise


Antecedentes: El método de referencia en el diagnóstico de la esporotricosis es el cultivo, aunque las técnicas serológicas pueden complementar el diagnóstico. Sin embargo, la interpretación de las pruebas serológicas en la práctica clínica y en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad necesitan un abordaje más eficiente. Objetivos: Correlacionar los resultados del cultivo y la serología en pacientes con posibles síntomas de esporotricosis. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 198 pacientes con posibles síntomas de esporotricosis. Para establecer el diagnóstico se tuvieron en cuenta el aislamiento de Sporothrix a partir de las muestras clínicas y la detección de anticuerpos anti-Sporothrix realizados por un análisis de inmunoabsorción enzimática (ELISA), datos todos ellos registrados en las respectivas historias clínicas. Resultados: Los cultivos y la detección de anticuerpos fueron positivos en 84 pacientes (42,4%). Las muestras de 41 pacientes (20,7%) resultaron negativas con ambas técnicas y en 73 pacientes (36,9%) los resultados fueron divergentes. Se obtuvieron resultados falsos negativos en el ELISA en 23 pacientes (31,5%), el 78,3% de ellos con menos de 30días de infección (p = 0,0045). De los 50 pacientes con un resultado falso positivo en el ELISA, en 4 de ellos se obtuvo cultivo positivo de Sporothrix y 27 mejoraron con itraconazol. Al finalizar el estudio se estableció un diagnóstico de esporotricosis, que fue probada o probable en 139 pacientes y posible en 11 pacientes. El tratamiento de pacientes con esporotricosis probable con fármacos antifúngicos produjo la cura clínica de estos individuos. Conclusiones: Estos dos métodos son complementarios en el diagnóstico de la esporotricosis y ayudan a la toma de las decisiones clínicas más acertadas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Micologia/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Esporotricose , Esporotricose/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/análise , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/estatística & dados numéricos , Reações Falso-Positivas , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Resultados Negativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esporotricose/imunologia , Esporotricose/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 36(2): 97-107, abr.-jun. 2019. tablas, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185485

RESUMO

No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Micologia , Sociedades Médicas
18.
Hautarzt ; 70(8): 575-580, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many dermatologists do not understand the perpetual adjustments in the dermatophyte nomenclature. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to explain the background and the development of methods that have led to previous and current changes of dermatophyte taxonomy and to the detection of new dermatophytes. METHODS: In this article we evaluate the recent literature on this topic and our own results in the fields of dermatophyte identification, their detection, and of the associated taxonomic developments. RESULTS: Today, the phylogenetic species concept is the basis of taxonomic classification, including that of dermatophytes. Genetic techniques have decisively advanced this and are state of the art nowadays. The detection of new dermatophyte species was often triggered by clinical observations and by morphologically conspicuous cultures that prompted their subsequent exact mycological characterization. Even today not all species of dermatophytes are unequivocally defined. CONCLUSIONS: By exclusively using selected genetic characteristics for the construction of phylogenetic trees additional taxonomically relevant features are neglected. Therefore it is necessary to better integrate data derived from morphologic, physiologic, ecologic and pathophysiologic observations into phylogenetic analyses. Dermatologists are still asked to contribute such information.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Classificação/métodos , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Micologia/métodos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 36(2): 61-65, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gold standard for the sporotrichosis diagnosis is culture; however, serologic approaches have been recently implemented to aid in the sporotrichosis diagnosis. Nevertheless, the clinical consequences of the introduction of serologic tests are poorly addressed. AIMS: To correlate the results of culture and serology of patients with suspected sporotrichosis. METHODS: A retrospective study of 198 patients with suspected sporotrichosis was conducted. Information about culture isolation of Sporothrix from clinical samples and antibody detection by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were obtained from the medical records of the patients. RESULTS: Positive culture and antibody detection was observed in the samples of 84 patients (42.4%). Forty-one samples (20.7%) showed negative results with both techniques and divergent results were obtained in the samples of 73 patients (36.9%). False negative results in the ELISA were observed with 23 patients (31.5%), 78.3% of them with less than 30 days of infection (p=0.0045). Among the initial false positive ELISA in the sera of 50 patients, four samples in culture yielded the growth of Sporothrix, and 27 improved with itraconazole. At the end of follow-up, a diagnosis of proven or probable sporotrichosis was established in 139 patients, and possible sporotrichosis in 11 patients. The treatment of the patients with probable sporotrichosis with antifungal drugs resulted in clinical cure for these individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These two techniques are complementary in the diagnosis of sporotrichosis, making diagnosis and clinical decision more precise.


Assuntos
Micologia/métodos , Testes Sorológicos , Sporothrix/isolamento & purificação , Esporotricose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/análise , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/estatística & dados numéricos , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultados Negativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sporothrix/imunologia , Esporotricose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 17(5): 395-400, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938541

RESUMO

Subculturing is frequently used for the preservation of basidiomycetes. In this study, to assess and verify the risks of repeated subculturing on the long-term preservation of strains of culture collections, we performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in genes encoding enzymes of the mevalonate pathway, 1,3-ß-glucan synthesis, lignin degradation, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of mycelia before and after preserving for a 4-year period by the subculturing 30 times every 45 days of Ganoderma lucidum NBRC 8346. As a result of analyzing 60 genes of the strain, SNPs were found in 18 genes, and 14 of them were found in the exon region. Nonsynonymous coding SNPs were found in two genes (atoB_2, hmgr) encoding enzymes of mevalonate pathway and five genes (lcc1_9, lcc1_11, lcc1_13, dslcc6, aa5_1_9) encoding enzymes of lignin degradation after subculturing of G. lucidum NBRC 8346.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Micologia/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reishi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Éxons , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Preservação Biológica , Reishi/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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