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2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 707, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus endemic in south-east Asia. It predominantly occurs in both immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients and can be fatal if diagnosis and treatment are delayed. The clinical manifestations of T. marneffei infection are nonspecific and rapid diagnosis of T. marneffei infection remains challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old man came to our outpatient department with the sign of common skin lesions. The lesions were cuticolor follicular papules with or without central umbilication, nodules and acne-like lesions, which are common in syringoma, steatocystoma multiplex and trichoepithelioma. A dermatoscopy examination was performed to differentiate these skin lesions. The dermatoscopic images revealed circular or quasi-circular whitish amorphous structure with a central brownish keratin plug, providing the diagnostic clues of T. marneffei infection. Therefore, a skin scrapings culture, skin biopsy and serological detection for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were performed. The final diagnosis of this patient was T. marneffei and HIV co-infection. CONCLUSION: Rapid diagnosis of T. marneffei infection is clinically challenging since presenting clinical manifestations are nonspecific with significant overlap with other common conditions. This case highlights that dermatoscopy is a promising tool for the rapid diagnosis of T. marneffei infection in patients with nonspecific skin lesions, assisting clinicians to avoid delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Dermoscopia/métodos , Micoses/diagnóstico , Talaromyces/patogenicidade , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , China , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itraconazol/administração & dosagem , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Micologia/métodos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 36(2): 61-65, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185477

RESUMO

Background: The gold standard for the sporotrichosis diagnosis is culture; however, serologic approaches have been recently implemented to aid in the sporotrichosis diagnosis. Nevertheless, the clinical consequences of the introduction of serologic tests are poorly addressed. Aims: To correlate the results of culture and serology of patients with suspected sporotrichosis. Methods: A retrospective study of 198 patients with suspected sporotrichosis was conducted. Information about culture isolation of Sporothrix from clinical samples and antibody detection by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Results: Positive culture and antibody detection was observed in the samples of 84 patients (42.4%). Forty-one samples (20.7%) showed negative results with both techniques and divergent results were obtained in the samples of 73 patients (36.9%). False negative results in the ELISA were observed with 23 patients (31.5%), 78.3% of them with less than 30 days of infection (p = 0.0045). Among the initial false positive ELISA in the sera of 50 patients, four samples in culture yielded the growth of Sporothrix, and 27 improved with itraconazole. At the end of follow-up, a diagnosis of proven or probable sporotrichosis was established in 139 patients, and possible sporotrichosis in 11 patients. The treatment of the patients with probable sporotrichosis with antifungal drugs resulted in clinical cure for these individuals. Conclusions: These two techniques are complementary in the diagnosis of sporotrichosis, making diagnosis and clinical decision more precise


Antecedentes: El método de referencia en el diagnóstico de la esporotricosis es el cultivo, aunque las técnicas serológicas pueden complementar el diagnóstico. Sin embargo, la interpretación de las pruebas serológicas en la práctica clínica y en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad necesitan un abordaje más eficiente. Objetivos: Correlacionar los resultados del cultivo y la serología en pacientes con posibles síntomas de esporotricosis. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 198 pacientes con posibles síntomas de esporotricosis. Para establecer el diagnóstico se tuvieron en cuenta el aislamiento de Sporothrix a partir de las muestras clínicas y la detección de anticuerpos anti-Sporothrix realizados por un análisis de inmunoabsorción enzimática (ELISA), datos todos ellos registrados en las respectivas historias clínicas. Resultados: Los cultivos y la detección de anticuerpos fueron positivos en 84 pacientes (42,4%). Las muestras de 41 pacientes (20,7%) resultaron negativas con ambas técnicas y en 73 pacientes (36,9%) los resultados fueron divergentes. Se obtuvieron resultados falsos negativos en el ELISA en 23 pacientes (31,5%), el 78,3% de ellos con menos de 30días de infección (p = 0,0045). De los 50 pacientes con un resultado falso positivo en el ELISA, en 4 de ellos se obtuvo cultivo positivo de Sporothrix y 27 mejoraron con itraconazol. Al finalizar el estudio se estableció un diagnóstico de esporotricosis, que fue probada o probable en 139 pacientes y posible en 11 pacientes. El tratamiento de pacientes con esporotricosis probable con fármacos antifúngicos produjo la cura clínica de estos individuos. Conclusiones: Estos dos métodos son complementarios en el diagnóstico de la esporotricosis y ayudan a la toma de las decisiones clínicas más acertadas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Micologia/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Esporotricose , Esporotricose/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/análise , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/estatística & dados numéricos , Reações Falso-Positivas , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Resultados Negativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esporotricose/imunologia , Esporotricose/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Hautarzt ; 70(8): 575-580, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many dermatologists do not understand the perpetual adjustments in the dermatophyte nomenclature. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to explain the background and the development of methods that have led to previous and current changes of dermatophyte taxonomy and to the detection of new dermatophytes. METHODS: In this article we evaluate the recent literature on this topic and our own results in the fields of dermatophyte identification, their detection, and of the associated taxonomic developments. RESULTS: Today, the phylogenetic species concept is the basis of taxonomic classification, including that of dermatophytes. Genetic techniques have decisively advanced this and are state of the art nowadays. The detection of new dermatophyte species was often triggered by clinical observations and by morphologically conspicuous cultures that prompted their subsequent exact mycological characterization. Even today not all species of dermatophytes are unequivocally defined. CONCLUSIONS: By exclusively using selected genetic characteristics for the construction of phylogenetic trees additional taxonomically relevant features are neglected. Therefore it is necessary to better integrate data derived from morphologic, physiologic, ecologic and pathophysiologic observations into phylogenetic analyses. Dermatologists are still asked to contribute such information.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Classificação/métodos , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Micologia/métodos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
mSphere ; 4(2)2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894430

RESUMO

Regular protocols for the isolation of fungal extracellular vesicles (EVs) are time-consuming, hard to reproduce, and produce low yields. In an attempt to improve the protocols used for EV isolation, we explored a model of vesicle production after growth of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans on solid media. Nanoparticle tracking analysis in combination with transmission electron microscopy revealed that C. gattii and C. neoformans produced EVs in solid media. The properties of cryptococcal vesicles varied according to the culture medium used and the EV-producing species. EV detection was reproduced with an acapsular mutant of C. neoformans, as well as with isolates of Candida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cryptococcal EVs produced in solid media were biologically active and contained regular vesicular components, including the major polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and RNA. Since the protocol had higher yields and was much faster than the regular methods used for the isolation of fungal EVs, we asked if it would be applicable to address fundamental questions related to cryptococcal secretion. On the basis that polysaccharide export in Cryptococcus requires highly organized membrane traffic culminating with EV release, we analyzed the participation of a putative scramblase (Aim25; CNBG_3981) in EV-mediated GXM export and capsule formation in C. gattii EVs from a C. gattii aim25Δ strain differed from those obtained from wild-type (WT) cells in physical-chemical properties and cargo. In a model of surface coating of an acapsular cryptococcal strain with vesicular GXM, EVs obtained from the aim25Δ mutant were more efficiently used as a source of capsular polysaccharides. Lack of the Aim25 scramblase resulted in disorganized membranes and increased capsular dimensions. These results associate the description of a novel protocol for the isolation of fungal EVs with the identification of a previously unknown regulator of polysaccharide release.IMPORTANCE Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are fundamental components of the physiology of cells from all kingdoms. In pathogenic fungi, they participate in important mechanisms of transfer of antifungal resistance and virulence, as well as in immune stimulation and prion transmission. However, studies on the functions of fungal EVs are still limited by the lack of efficient methods for isolation of these compartments. In this study, we developed an alternative protocol for isolation of fungal EVs and demonstrated an application of this new methodology in the study of the physiology of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii Our results describe a fast and reliable method for the study of fungal EVs and reveal the participation of scramblase, a phospholipid-translocating enzyme, in secretory processes of C. gattii.


Assuntos
Cryptococcus gattii/enzimologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Micologia/métodos , Transporte Biológico , Cryptococcus gattii/genética , Cryptococcus neoformans/citologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Polissacarídeos/genética , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
6.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 36(1): 9-16, ene.-mar. 2019. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185487

RESUMO

Background: Invasive candidiasis by Candida albicans is associated with high morbidity and mortality, due in part to the late implementation of an appropriate antifungal therapy hindered by the lack of an early diagnosis. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of the antibodies against C. albicans germ tubes (CAGTA) raised in a rabbit model of candidemia. Methods: We measured the effect of CAGTA activity by colorimetric XTT and crystal violet assays, and colony forming units count, both on C. albicans planktonic cells and during the course of biofilm formation and maturation. Viability and cell morphology were assessed by optical, fluorescent or scanning electron microscopy. Results: CAGTA ≥ 50 μg/ml caused a strong inhibition of C. albicans blastospores growth, and DiBAC fluorescent staining evidenced a fungicidal activity. Moreover, electron microscopy images revealed that CAGTA induced morphological alterations of the surface of C. albicans germ tubes grown free as well as in biofilm. Interestingly, CAGTA ≥ 80 μg/ml reduced the amount of C. albicans biofilm, and this effect started at the initial adhesion stage of the biofilm formation, during the first 90 min. Conclusions: This is the first report showing that CAGTA reduce C. albicans growth, and impair its metabolic activity and ability to form biofilm in vitro. The antigens recognized by CAGTA could be the basis for the development of immunization protocols that might protect against Candida infections


Antecedentes: La infección invasora por Candida albicans está asociada a altas tasas de morbimortalidad, en parte debido al retraso en la instauración de una terapia antifúngica adecuada, dificultada a su vez por la falta de un diagnóstico precoz. Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad antifúngica de los anticuerpos contra tubos germinales de C. albicans (CAGTA) obtenidos a partir de un modelo animal de candidemia en conejo. Métodos. El efecto de los CAGTA se evaluó mediante los ensayos colorimétricos XTT y cristal violeta, así como mediante el recuento de unidades formadoras de colonias, tanto en células planctónicas de C. albicans como en distintos estadios de formación y maduración de biopelículas. La viabilidad y la morfología de las células tratadas con CAGTA se determinó mediante microscopía óptica, de fluorescencia o electrónica (SEM). Resultados: Concentraciones de CAGTA ≥ 50 μg/ml generaban una fuerte inhibición del crecimiento de C. albicans, y su actividad se mostró fungicida. Los CAGTA producían alteraciones en la superficie de los tubos germinales desarrollados tanto a partir de células en suspensión como de células en biopelículas. Además, concentraciones de CAGTA ≥ 80 μg/ml redujeron la biomasa de biopelículas de Candida, y este efecto se desencadenaba en los primeros 90min de su formación. Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio que demuestra la capacidad de los CAGTA para reducir el crecimiento de C. albicans y su actividad metabólica, así como para alterar la formación de biopelículas in vitro. Los antígenos reconocidos por los CAGTA podrían servir de base para el desarrollo de protocolos de inmunización protectores frente a infecciones por Candida


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Estruturas Fúngicas/imunologia , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micologia/métodos
7.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 36(1): 9-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis by Candida albicans is associated with high morbidity and mortality, due in part to the late implementation of an appropriate antifungal therapy hindered by the lack of an early diagnosis. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of the antibodies against C. albicans germ tubes (CAGTA) raised in a rabbit model of candidemia. METHODS: We measured the effect of CAGTA activity by colorimetric XTT and crystal violet assays, and colony forming units count, both on C. albicans planktonic cells and during the course of biofilm formation and maturation. Viability and cell morphology were assessed by optical, fluorescent or scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: CAGTA ≥50µg/ml caused a strong inhibition of C. albicans blastospores growth, and DiBAC fluorescent staining evidenced a fungicidal activity. Moreover, electron microscopy images revealed that CAGTA induced morphological alterations of the surface of C. albicans germ tubes grown free as well as in biofilm. Interestingly, CAGTA ≥80µg/ml reduced the amount of C. albicans biofilm, and this effect started at the initial adhesion stage of the biofilm formation, during the first 90min. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report showing that CAGTA reduce C. albicans growth, and impair its metabolic activity and ability to form biofilm in vitro. The antigens recognized by CAGTA could be the basis for the development of immunization protocols that might protect against Candida infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Estruturas Fúngicas/imunologia , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micologia/métodos
8.
Mycorrhiza ; 29(1): 1-11, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324505

RESUMO

Empirical and taxonomic approaches are the two main methods used to assign plant mycorrhizal traits to species lists. While the empirical approach uses only available empirical information, the taxonomic approach extrapolates certain core information about plant mycorrhizal types and statuses to related species. Despite recent claims that the taxonomic approach is now almost definitive, with little benefit to be gained from further empirical data collection, it has not been thoroughly compared with the empirical approach. Using the most complete available plant mycorrhizal trait information for Europe and both assignment approaches, we calculate the proportion of species for each trait, and model environmental drivers of trait distribution across the continent. We found large degrees of mismatch between approaches, with consequences for biogeographical interpretation, among facultatively mycorrhizal (FM; 91% of species mismatched), non-mycorrhizal (NM; 45%), and to a lesser extent arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM; 16%) plant species. This can partly be attributed to the taxonomic precision of the taxonomic approach and the use of different AM, NM, and FM concepts. Our results showed that the extrapolations of the taxonomic approach do not consistently match with empirical information and indicate that more empirical data are needed, in particular for FM, NM, and AM plant species. Clarifying certain concepts underlying mycorrhizal traits and empirically describing NM, AM, and FM species within plant families can greatly improve our understanding of the biogeography of mycorrhizal symbiosis.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Botânica/métodos , Micologia/métodos , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Plantas/microbiologia , Simbiose
9.
Int J Dermatol ; 58(3): 319-324, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the absence of a real gold standard, comparative studies are still done on diagnostic methods for onychomycosis. There are only a few attempts using latent class analysis to determine the value of polymerase chain reaction in comparison to conventional methods. We aimed to determine the value of histological examination in such a way for the diagnosis of onychomycosis. METHODS: Potassium hydroxide mount (KOH), culture and histological examination with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and Gomori's methenamine silver (GMS) stains were done in 106 patients having clinically suspected toenail onychomycosis. RESULTS: KOH was positive in 74% of the patients; culture in 14%; PAS in 30%; and GMS in 66%. According to the results of the latent class analysis, culture and PAS were highly specific but poorly sensitive; KOH, highly sensitive but poorly specific; and GMS, both highly sensitive and specific. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, we have proposed KOH as a screening test and GMS as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis of onychomycosis in our own practice. However, since positivity rates of different diagnostic methods vary widely in different centers, it is more suitable that every center should determine their own diagnostic strategy by evaluating their own results with latent class analysis.


Assuntos
Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Corantes , Feminino , Humanos , Hidróxidos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Metenamina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micologia/métodos , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Reação do Ácido Periódico de Schiff , Compostos de Potássio , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 27(4): 752-756, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487490

RESUMO

Onychomycosis is a common nail problem in our country. Diabetic patients are more prone to develop onychomycosis. Various types of fungi are the causative agents of nail infections. This cross sectional explorative study was designed to find out the pattern of onychomycosis among diabetic and non-diabetic patients attending the out patient Department of Dermatology and Venereology and Endocrinology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2012 to June 2013. Clinically diagnosed patients of onychomycosis with diabetic or non-diabetic were included purposively in this study. Scraping or clipping from infected nail materials were processed for microscopy and culture in Sabouraud's dextrose agar media and Dermatophyte test media. Clinical features, microscopic examination results and culture interpretations were recorded and compared in two groups. A total of 87 clinically diagnosed patients of onychomycosis were included in this study. Out of 87 patients of onychomycosis, 54 patients were diabetic and 33 patients were non-diabetic. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were found in 24(44.44%) and 19(35.18%) diabetic patients. Candida albicans and non-albicanscandida species were found in 1(1.85%) and 2(3.70%) diabetic patients. On the other hand, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were found in 1(3.03%) and 2(6.06%) non-diabetic patients. Candida albicans and non-albicanscandida species were found in 8(24.24%) and 8(24.24%) non-diabetic patients. Growth of fungus was found in 46(85.19%) diabetic patients which was significant (p=0.004) compared to that found in 19(57.58%) non-diabetic patients. No growth was found in 8(14.81%) diabetic and in 14(42.42%) non-diabetic patients. Dermatophytes were more found in diabetic patients and Candida albicans and non-albican Candida spp. were more found in non-diabetic patients. So, the pattern of onychomycosis was different in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Further study may be done with large number of sample to determine more accurate pattern of onychomycosis among diabetics.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Dermatoses do Pé , Fungos , Dermatoses da Mão , Unhas/microbiologia , Onicomicose , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Feminino , Dermatoses do Pé/diagnóstico , Dermatoses do Pé/epidemiologia , Dermatoses do Pé/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Dermatoses da Mão/diagnóstico , Dermatoses da Mão/epidemiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micologia/métodos , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/etiologia
11.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 35(3): 130-133, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) represents a revolution in the identification of microorganisms of clinical interest. Many studies have confirmed the accuracy and fastness of this tool with routine strains. AIMS: To identify clinical isolates of Candida from patients diagnosed with candidemia. METHODS: Vitek-MS™ system was used with a collection of 298 blood isolates of the genus Candida represented by 9 different species. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA cluster was used as the reference method. RESULTS: The results of Vitek-MS™ were concordant with those obtained with the reference method for 279 (93.62%) isolates (Kappa coefficient (κ)=0.91). Vitek-MS™ misidentified 10 (3.36%) isolates and did not identify 9 (3.02%) isolates. CONCLUSIONS: This study determines the potential of Vitek-MS™ in yeast identification, being a reliable and fast alternative in the clinical laboratory, with an acceptable sensitivity of 82% (IC 95%: 70-90.6%), in comparison with a 100% (IC 95%: 92.9-100%) sensitivity of the conventional methods.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/microbiologia , Humanos , Micologia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Biotechnol Lett ; 40(11-12): 1541-1550, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203158

RESUMO

The first and most crucial step of all molecular techniques is to isolate high quality and intact nucleic acids. However, DNA and RNA isolation from fungal samples are usually difficult due to the cell walls that are relatively unsusceptible to lysis and often resistant to traditional extraction procedures. Although there are many extraction protocols for Ganoderma species, different extraction protocols have been applied to different species to obtain high yields of good quality nucleic acids, especially for genome and transcriptome sequencing. Ganoderma species, mainly G. boninense causes the basal stem rot disease, a devastating disease that plagues the oil palm industry. Here, we describe modified DNA extraction protocols for G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum and G. tornatum, and an RNA extraction protocol for G. boninense. The modified salting out DNA extraction protocol is suitable for G. boninense and G. miniatocinctum while the modified high salt and low pH protocol is suitable for G. tornatum. The modified DNA and RNA extraction protocols were able to produce high quality genomic DNA and total RNA of ~ 140 to 160 µg/g and ~ 80 µg/g of mycelia respectively, for Single Molecule Real Time (PacBio Sequel® System) and Illumina sequencing. These protocols will benefit those studying the oil palm pathogens at nucleotide level.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Ganoderma/genética , RNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/análise , DNA Fúngico/química , Ganoderma/química , Micologia/métodos , RNA Fúngico/análise , RNA Fúngico/química
13.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 18(8)2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247671

RESUMO

Cletus P. Kurtzman transformed the way yeast systematists practice their trade and how they perceive the yeast species. He redefined many genera of ascomycetous yeasts and provided a sound basis upon which to base higher taxonomic categories. Within his extraordinary corpus lies a trail of elements that can be used to reconstruct his evolving vision of the concepts that underlie the species and the genus, rarely set in a theoretical framework. While occasionally tipping his hat to the biological and phylogenetic species, Kurtzman espoused a concept founded primarily on genetic distance, even when claiming otherwise. In contrast, his notion of genus incorporated components of both genetic distance and phylogenetic structure, and possibly a size consideration. A phylogenetic approach predominated with higher taxa.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Micologia/métodos , Filogenia , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/genética , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Micologia/história
14.
J Mycol Med ; 28(4): 651-654, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107987

RESUMO

Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts or non-dermatophyte molds. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological features of onychomycoses encountered in the Tunis region. A retrospective study concerned 3458 cases of onychomycosis, confirmed by direct examination and/or a positive culture, was conducted in Parasitology - Mycology Laboratory, Rabta hospital, over a five-year period (2012-2016). Our patients were aged 1 to 85; more than half of the patients were aged over 60 years with a female predominance (67%). Toenail infections were most common, observed in 2702 cases (78%). Direct examination was positive in 3284 cases (95%), culture in 2409 cases (69.6%); these two examinations were positive simultaneously in 2235 cases (64.6%). The causative agents of these onychomycoses were dominated by the genus Candida in fingernails: Candida albicans (55.6%), Candida tropicalis (8.5%) and Candida parapsilosis (8.2%) were the most frequently incriminated species; while in toenail lesions, Trichophyton rubrum was by far the most frequently isolated species (96.8%). Our results join the literature; onychomycosis is a pathology of the adult, mainly candidosic etiology in hands and dermatophytic in feet.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micologia/métodos , Unhas/microbiologia , Unhas/patologia , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 35(3): 151-154, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections are increasing, and Candida yeasts are the main cause. Species other than Candida albicans are becoming more frequent, and some of them may have variable patterns of susceptibility to antifungal agents, making it important to identify them correctly. Conventional identification methods used by most laboratories may present with drawbacks. Mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as an alternative method. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance of the identification, at species level, by conventional methods (API) and MALDI-TOF MS. METHODS: The following species and number of isolates were studied: Candida parapsilosis (28), Candida glabrata (34), Candida krusei (24), Candida tropicalis (45), Candida guilliermondii (30), C. albicans (28), Candida dubliniensis (6), Candida kefyr (1), and Candida lipolytica (1) from the strain collection of Autonomous City of Buenos Aires Mycology Network (RMCABA). The strains C. parapsilosis 22019, C. glabrata 90030, C. krusei 6258 and C. albicans 68548 from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) were also included. Discrepancies were resolved by genotyping. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The direct concordance between the conventional identification method and MALDI-TOF MS was 92.5% (186/201).


Assuntos
Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Micologia/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
16.
Ann Dermatol Venereol ; 145(10): 623-632, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143320

RESUMO

Dermatomycoses are dermatological infections very commonly encountered in private dermatological practice since they affect up to one third of the population. However, the symptoms are very often shared by other skin infections and disorders and may be highly atypical. It is thus impossible to make a diagnosis with any certainty on clinical grounds alone. For this reason, mycological diagnosis is essential to either confirm or rule out dermatomycosis, and is unavoidable when antifungal therapy is required for the treatment of ringworm of the scalp or beard, or for onychomycosis. It is also vital where therapy guided by the clinical appearance of lesions has failed or in the event of recurring skin lesions. Confirmation of mycosis enables antifungals to be initiated and a negative test warrants investigation for other underlying causes for the lesions seen. However, regardless of the mycological diagnostic technique employed, the quality of the results depends chiefly on the quality of sampling of the infected site, but also on the expertise of the microbiologist. Standard mycological testing remains the most informative, the least expensive and the sole examination capable of isolating the causative fungus irrespective of the type of mycosis, such as dermatophytosis, scytalidiosis, mould-induced ungual infection, candidiasis, or infections due to Malassezia sp. This is the only examination able to identify epidemiological variations. All other more recent techniques are either based upon simple demonstration of the fungal elements involved, without identification of the fungal species in question, or else they are reliant upon a fungal database that is generally highly incomplete.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Micologia/métodos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Dermoscopia/métodos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Onicomicose/patologia , Exame Físico , Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos
17.
Curr Protoc Microbiol ; 50(1): e58, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028911

RESUMO

Ploidy, the number of sets of homologous chromosomes in a cell, can alter cellular physiology, gene regulation, and the spectrum of acquired mutations. Advances in single-cell flow cytometry have greatly improved the understanding of how genome size contributes to diverse biological processes including speciation, adaptation, pathogenesis, and tumorigenesis. For example, fungal pathogens can undergo whole genome duplications during infection of the human host and during acquisition of antifungal drug resistance. Quantification of ploidy is dramatically affected by the nucleic acid staining technique and the flow cytometry analysis of single cells. Ploidy in fungi is also impacted by samples that are heterogeneous for both ploidy and morphology, and control strains with known ploidy must be included in every flow cytometry experiment. To detect ploidy changes within fungal strains, the following protocol was developed to accurately and dependably interrogate single-cell ploidy. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Fungos/citologia , Fungos/genética , Micologia/métodos , Ploidias , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo/instrumentação , Fungos/química , Humanos , Micoses/microbiologia , Software
19.
Mycologia ; 110(1): 1-3, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863991

RESUMO

The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st will be remembered as the golden age of molecular systematics of Fungi. The development of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), automated sequencing, and explicit algorithms for inferring phylogenetic trees transformed fungal systematics into a hypothesis-testing discipline that would go on to serve as the foundation for comparative and evolutionary genomics. Many mycologists participated in this modernization of mycology and perhaps none more than Meredith Blackwell. She has played - and continues to play - a leadership role in transforming mycology into a modern science based on a robust understanding of organismal biology, development, testing and refinement of biologically meaningful hypotheses, and incorporation of emerging technologies to data collection and analysis. In this volume we recognize Meredith and her contributions to mycology with the publication of the first Festschrift issue in the 110 year history of Mycologia.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Micologia/métodos , Fungos/fisiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Liderança , Micologia/tendências
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