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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 165, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To decipher the root and microbial interaction, secondary metabolite accumulation in roots and the microbial community's succession model during the plant's growth period demands an in-depth investigation. However, till now, no comprehensive study is available on the succession of endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) with roots of medicinal licorice plants and the effects of endophytic fungi and AMF on the secondary metabolite accumulation in licorice plant's root. RESULTS: In the current study, interaction between root and microbes in 1-3 years old medicinal licorice plant's root and rhizospheric soil was investigated. Secondary metabolites content in licorice root was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composition and diversity of endophytic and AMF in the root and soil were deciphered using high-throughput sequencing technology. During the plant's growth period, as compared to AMF, time and species significantly affected the diversity and richness of endophytic fungi, such as Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Sarocladium. The growth period also influenced the AMF diversity, evident by the significant increase in the relative abundance of Glomus and the significant decrease in the relative abundance of Diversispora. It indicated a different succession pattern between the endophytic fungal and AMF communities. Meanwhile, distance-based redundancy analysis and Mantel tests revealed root's water content and secondary metabolites (glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, and total flavonoids), which conferred endophytic fungi and AMF diversity. Additionally, plant growth significantly altered soil's physicochemical properties, which influenced the distribution of endophytic fungal and AMF communities. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated a different succession pattern between the endophytic fungal and AMF communities. During the plant's growth period, the contents of three secondary metabolites in roots increased per year, which contributed to the overall differences in composition and distribution of endophytic fungal and AMF communities. The endophytic fungal communities were more sensitive to secondary metabolites than AMF communities. The current study provides novel insights into the interaction between rhizospheric microbes and root exudates.


Assuntos
Fungos/fisiologia , Glycyrrhiza/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Endófitos/fisiologia , Glycyrrhiza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 171, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics in trees under drought stress is critical to elucidate the mechanisms underlying forest decline and tree mortality from extended periods of drought. This study aimed to assess the contribution of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus (Suillus variegatus) to hydraulic function and NSC in roots, stems, and leaves of Pinus tabulaeformis subjected to different water deficit intensity. We performed a continuous controlled drought pot experiment from July 10 to September 10, 2019 using P. tabulaeformis seedlings under 80, 40, and 20% of the field moisture capacity that represented the absence of non-drought, moderate drought, and severe drought stress, respectively. RESULTS: Results indicated that S. variegatus decreased the mortality rate and increased height, root biomass, and leaf biomass of P. tabulaeformis seedlings under moderate and severe drought stress. Meanwhile, the photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rates of P. tabulaeformis were significantly increased after S. variegatus inoculation. Moreover, the inoculation of S. variegatus also significantly increased the NSC concentrations of all seedling tissues, enhanced the soluble sugars content, and increased the ratios of soluble sugars to starch on all tissues under severe drought. Overall, the inoculation of S. variegatus has great potential for improving the hydraulic function, increasing the NSC storage, and improving the growth of P. tabulaeformis under severe drought. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the S. variegatus can be used as a potential application strain for ecological restoration on arid regions of the Loess Plateau, especially in the P. tabulaeformis woodlands.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Secas , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Pinus/fisiologia , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pinus/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
3.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(3): 313-324, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829296

RESUMO

Viewing plant species by their mycorrhizal type has explained a range of ecosystem processes. However, mycorrhizal type is confounded with plant phylogeny and the environments in which mycorrhizal partners occur. To circumvent these confounding effects, "dual-mycorrhizal" plant species may be potential models for testing the influence of mycorrhizal type on stand biogeochemistry. To assess their use as models, duality in mycorrhizas within a single host species must be confirmed and factors underlying their variation understood. We surveyed roots, soils, and leaves of mature aspen (Populus tremuloides) across 27 stands in western Canada spanning two biomes: boreal forest and parklands. Aspen roots were mostly ectomycorrhizal with sporadic and rare occurrences of arbuscular mycorrhizas. We further tested whether a climate moisture index predicted abundance of ectomycorrhizal roots (number of ectomycorrhizal root tips m-1 root length) surveyed at two depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) and found that ectomycorrhizal root abundance in subsoils (20-40 cm) was positively related to the index. We subsequently examined the relationships between ectomycorrhizal root abundance, leaf traits, and slow and fast pools of soil organic carbon and nitrogen. The ratio of leaf lignin:N, but not its components, increased along with ectomycorrhizal root abundance in subsoils. Soil carbon and nitrogen pools were independent of ectomycorrhizal root abundance. Our results suggest that (1) categorizing aspen as dual-mycorrhizal may overstate the functional importance of arbuscular mycorrhizas in this species and life stage, (2) water availability influences ectomycorrhizal root abundance, and (3) ectomycorrhizal root abundance coincides with leaf quality.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Carbono , Ecossistema , Raízes de Plantas , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Árvores
4.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(3): 389-394, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835237

RESUMO

Tuber magnatum (the white truffle) is the most precious species of the genus Tuber which comprises the hypogeous ectomycorrhizal species called "true truffle." Despite its high economic value, the knowledge on its ecology is scant, principally due to the difficulty to find its mycorrhizas in the soil. The possibility to detect its mycelium by DNA extracted from soil has given a new chance for studying this truffle species. In this work, the co-occurrence of other Tuber species with T. magnatum mycelium was investigated by using species-specific primers in several productive areas located in central and northern Italy. Most (82%) of the examined soil samples showed at least one other Tuber species in addition to T. magnatum. The most common was T. maculatum (72% of soil samples) followed by T. borchii, T. rufum, T. brumale, T. dryophilum, T. macrosporum, and T. melanosporum (40%, 37%, 22%, 19%, 12%, and 1% of soil samples, respectively). Tuber aestivum was never detected in T. magnatum productive patches. Analysis of species co-occurrence showed that the pairwise associations between T. dryophilum-T. brumale, T. brumale-T. borchii, and T. borchii-T. dryophilum was significant. The results suggest that Tuber mycelial network in white truffle grounds is much more extensive than the distribution of their ectomycorrhizas and competitive exclusion between different Tuber species seems to take place only for root colonization.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Ascomicetos , Itália , Micélio , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(3): 301-312, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852063

RESUMO

Most green orchids form mycorrhizal associations with rhizoctonia fungi, a polyphyletic group including Serendipitaceae, Ceratobasidiaceae, and Tulasnellaceae. Although accumulating evidence indicated that partial mycoheterotrophy occurs in such so-called rhizoctonia-associated orchids, it remains unclear how much nutrition rhizoctonia-associated orchids obtain via mycoheterotrophic relationships. We investigated the physiological ecology of green and albino individuals of a rhizoctonia-associated orchid Cypripedium debile, by using molecular barcoding of the mycobionts and stable isotope (13C and 15 N) analysis. Molecular barcoding of the mycobionts indicated that the green and albino individuals harbored Tulasnella spp., which formed a clade with the previously reported C. debile mycobionts. In addition, stable isotope analysis showed that both phenotypes were significantly enriched in 13C but not in 15 N. Therefore, green and albino individuals were recognized as partial and full mycoheterotrophs, respectively. The green variants were estimated to obtain 42.5 ± 8.2% of their C from fungal sources, using the 13C enrichment factor of albino individuals as a mycoheterotrophic endpoint. The proportion of fungal-derived C in green C. debile was higher than that reported in other rhizoctonia-associated orchids. The high fungal dependence may facilitate the emergence of albino mutants. Our study provides the first evidence of partial mycoheterotrophy in the subfamily Cypripedioideae. Partial mycoheterotrophy may be more general than previously recognized in the family Orchidaceae.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Micorrizas , Orchidaceae , Basidiomycota/genética , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Micorrizas/química , Micorrizas/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Simbiose
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112170, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773154

RESUMO

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) shows an excellent degradation effect on chlorinated contaminants in soil, but poses a threat to plants in combination with phytoremediation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus can reduce the phyototoxicity of nZVI, but their combined impacts on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) degradation and plant growth remain unclear. Here, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of nZVI and/or Funneliformis caledonium on soil PCB degradation and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) antioxidative responses. The amendment of nZVI significantly reduced not only the total and homolog concentrations of PCBs in the soil, but also the ryegrass biomass as well as soil available P and root P concentrations. Moreover, nZVI significantly decreased leaf superoxide disutase (SOD) activity, while tended to decrease the protein content. In contrast, the additional inoculation of F. caledonium significantly increased leaf SOD activity and protein content, while tended to increase the catalase activity and tended to decrease the malondialdehyde content. The additional inoculation of F. caledonium also significantly increased soil alkaline phosphatase activity, and tended to increase root P concentration, but had no significantly effects on soil available P concentration, the biomass and P acquisition of ryegrass, which could be attributed to the fixation of soil available nutrients by nZVI. Additionally, F. caledonium facilitated PCB degradation in the nZVI-applied soil. Thus, AM fungus can alleviate the nZVI-induced phytotoxicity, showing great application potentials in accompany with nZVI for soil remediation.


Assuntos
Lolium/fisiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Fungos , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Lolium/metabolismo , Lolium/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(3): 413-421, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661390

RESUMO

Hydrocarbon pollution is an increasing problem affecting soil ecosystems. However, some microorganisms can cope with these pollutants and even facilitate plant establishment and thus phytoremediation. Within soil, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have developed several strategies to survive and flourish under adverse conditions. Among these is the hyphal healing mechanism (HHM), a process allowing hyphae to re-establish integrity after physical injury. This mechanism differs among species and genera of AMF. However, whether and to what extent hydrocarbon pollution impacts the HHM is unknown. Here, the HHM was monitored in vitro on two AMF strains, Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Gigaspora sp. MUCL 52331, under increasing concentrations of diesel (1, 2, and 5% v:v). The addition of diesel slowed-down the HHM in both fungi. On Gigaspora sp., this effect was limited and most hyphae were able to heal after injury. Conversely, all steps of healing were severely impaired in R. irregularis. That fungus reconnected the injured hyphae at a much lower frequency than the Gigaspora sp., instead investing its energy to link neighboring hyphae or roots, or developing new branches from uninjured hyphae.


Assuntos
Glomeromycota , Micorrizas , Ecossistema , Fungos , Gasolina , Hifas , Raízes de Plantas
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 162: 27-35, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662869

RESUMO

Aquaporins (AQPs) involved in water and small molecule transport respond to environmental stress, while it is not clear how arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) regulate AQP expression. Here, we investigated the change in leaf water potential and expression level of four tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), six plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), and four nodin-26 like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) genes in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae under well-watered (WW), salt stress (SS), and waterlogging stress (WS). Root AMF colonization and soil hyphal length collectively were reduced by SS and WS. Under WW, inoculation with AMF gave diverse responses of AQPs: six AQPs up-regulated, three AQPs down-regulated, and five AQPs did not change. Such up-regulation of more AQPs under mycorrhization and WW partly accelerated water absorption, thereby, maintaining higher leaf water potential. However, under SS, all the fourteen AQPs were dramatically induced by AMF inoculation, which improved water permeability of membranes and stimulated water transport of the host. Under WS, AMF colonization almost did not induce or even down-regulated these AQPs expressions with three exceptions (PtTIP2;2, PtPIP1;1, and PtNIP1;2), thus, no change in leaf water potential. As a result, mycorrhizal plants under flooding may have an escape mechanism to reduce water absorption. It is concluded that AMF had different strategies in response to environmental stresses (e.g. SS and WS) by regulating leaf AQP expression in the host (e.g. trifoliate orange).


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Micorrizas , Poncirus , Fungos , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Poncirus/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Água/metabolismo
9.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(3): 423-430, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674909

RESUMO

Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) effects on plants depend on several factors including plant photosynthetic physiology (e.g. C3, C4), soil nutrient availability and plants' co-evolved soil-dwelling fungal symbionts, namely arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Complicated interactions among these components will determine the outcomes for plants. Therefore, clearer understanding is needed of how plant growth and nutrient uptake, along with root-colonising AM fungal communities, are simultaneously impacted by eCO2. We conducted a factorial growth chamber experiment with a C3 and a C4 grass species (± AM fungi and ± eCO2). We found that eCO2 increased plant biomass allocation towards the roots, but only in plants without AM fungi, potentially associated with an eCO2-driven increase in plant nutrient requirements. Furthermore, our data suggest a difference in the identities of root-colonising fungal taxa between ambient CO2 and eCO2 treatments, particularly in the C4 grass species, although this was not statistically significant. As AM fungi are ubiquitous partners of grasses, their response to increasing atmospheric CO2 is likely to have important consequences for how grassland ecosystems respond to global change.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Dióxido de Carbono , Ecossistema , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Solo , Simbiose
10.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(3): 335-347, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761015

RESUMO

In vitro ectomycorrhizal synthesis of Tricholoma matsutake with host plants has been widely conducted to elucidate fungal symbiotic properties for future cultivation practices. Here, we report on the importance of basidiospore inocula for this fungus to provide ectomycorrhizal seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal pine seedlings synthesized in vitro with cultured mycelium of T. matsutake (isolate #45 or #84) in a 250-mL culture vessel (soil volume) were transplanted to a large 1-L culture vessel. Fresh basidiospores of this fungus were aseptically inoculated on the ectomycorrhizal root system. The ectomycorrhizal seedlings in the 1-L vessel were grown for 9 months, and some plants were further grown for 6 more months under non-aseptic conditions in 4.1-L jars. The ectomycorrhizal seedlings previously inoculated with isolate #84 in the 1-L vessel showed significant ectomycorrhizal biomass (mycorrhizal root length) after spore inoculation. The ectomycorrhizal seedlings in the 4.1-L vessel showed large shiro structures (> 10 cm in diameter). PCR amplification of intergenic spacer 1 of the rRNA gene and long terminal repeat retroelement of T. matsutake in ectomycorrhizal root tips in both the 1-L vessels and 4.1-L jars revealed the presence of amplicons of the previously inoculated culture isolate of T. matsutake and the new genet(s) that established via germination of the inoculated basidiospores. This is the first report that inoculated basidiospores of T. matsutake germinated and colonized the host root to generate ectomycorrhizae in vitro.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Pinus , Tricholoma , Agaricales , Germinação
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 162: 592-602, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773234

RESUMO

The expression stability of six commonly used housekeeping genes (18S rRNA-18S ribosomal RNA, EF1α-elongation factor 1α, ACT1-Actin 1, GAPDH-Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, TUB6-Tubulin/FtsZ family and UBC-Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme) were scrutinized in leaves and roots of Cd stressed pigeonpea plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species- Rhizoglomus intraradices (Ri), Funneliformis mosseae (Fm), Claroideoglomus etunicatum (Ce), C. claroideum (Cc). The stability profile of each gene was assessed using ΔCt, BestKeeper, NormFinder, RefFinder and geNorm algorithmic programs, which ranked different genes as most and least stable according to the tissues analysed. All the statistical algorithms ranked TUB6 as most stable and EF1α least stable housekeeping (HK) genes in both the plant tissues. The selected HK genes were verified using metallothionein (CcMT1) i.e. a stress responsive gene, whose expression altered under conditions of metal stress and AM inoculation. The expression pattern of CcMT1 varied highly when least stable reference gene was used for normalization as compared to most stable gene, under different treatments. Thus, there is a need of selecting suitable reference gene to achieve reliable results in gene expression studies using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The study conducted will help future gene expression analysis in pigeonpea under specific stress.


Assuntos
Cajanus , Micorrizas , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cajanus/genética , Fungos , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Essenciais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Padrões de Referência
12.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(3): 395-401, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782833

RESUMO

Rhizosphere microbiome is one of the main sources of plant protection against drought. Beneficial symbiotic microorganisms, such as ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) and mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB), interact with each other for increasing or maintaining host plant fitness. This mutual support benefits all three partners and comprises a natural system for drought acclimation in plants. Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) tolerance to drought scenarios is widely known, but adaptation to climate changes has been a challenge for forest sustainability protection. In this work, ECMF and MHB communities from cork oak forests were cross-linked and correlated with climates. Cenococcum, Russula and Tuber were the most abundant ECMF capable of interacting with MHB (ECMF~MHB) genera in cork oak stands, while Bacillus, Burkholderia and Streptomyces were the most conspicuous MHB. Integrating all microbial data, two consortia Lactarius/Bacillaceae and Russula/Burkholderaceae have singled out but revealed a negative interaction with each other. Russula/Burkholderaceae might have an important role for cork oak forest sustainability in arid environments, which will be complemented by the lower drought adaptation of competitive Lactarius/Bacillaceae. These microbial consortia could play an essential role on cork oak forest resilience to upcoming climatic changes.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Quercus , Bactérias , Secas , Florestas
13.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116758, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652182

RESUMO

Rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) are important symbiotic microbes that are advantageous to plants growing in metal-contaminated soil. However, it remains unclear how inoculated microbes affect rhizosphere microbial communities or whether subsequent changes in rhizosphere microbiomes contribute to improving plant resistance under metal stress. This study investigated the effects of rhizobia and AMF inoculation on alfalfa resistance to Cd stress. The response of rhizosphere microbial communities to inoculation and its role in increasing alfalfa' ability to cope with stress were further analyzed using high-throughput sequencing of 16S and ITS rRNA genes. Results showed that single rhizobia or AMF inoculation significantly improved alfalfa resistance to Cd stress, while their co-inoculation resulted in the greatest overall improvement. Improved resistance was reflected by the significant mitigation of Cd-induced lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress caused by increases in antioxidant enzyme activities along with co-inoculation. Furthermore, co-inoculation significantly altered the rhizosphere microbial community structure by decreasing fungal community diversity and increasing bacterial community diversity. Results of partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM) and variation partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that the rhizosphere bacterial community predominated over the fungal community with respected to improvements in resistance to Cd stress under the co-inoculation treatments. This improvement was specifically seen in the enrichment of certain key bacterial taxa (including Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi) induced by the rhizobia and AMF co-inoculation, enhancing alfalfa' ability to uptake rhizosphere nutrients and reduce its release of photosynthetically-derived carbon (C) into soil. Our findings revealed that the co-inoculation of multiple symbiotic microbes can assist plants to effectively cope with Cd stress, providing a greater understanding of rhizosphere bacterial taxa in the microbe-induced phytomanagement.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Rhizobium , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Fungos , Medicago sativa , Micorrizas/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
15.
New Phytol ; 230(4): 1296-1299, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778943
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(2): 529-537, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650362

RESUMO

We measured the morphology traits (specific root length, specific root surface area, root tissue density, average root diameter) and architecture traits (root fork, root fork ratio, increase rate of root length, root tip density, root fork density) of fine roots in two mycorrhiza tree species, Castanopsis faberi (ectomycorrhizal) and Schima superba (arbuscular mycorrhizal), in an evergreen broadleaved forest in the middle subtropical zone. Root bags method was used in an in situ nitrogen deposition experiment. The aim of this study was to reveal the differences in the plastic responses of fine root morphology and architecture traits to nitrogen deposition between the different mycorrhizal trees. The plastic responses of specific root length, specific root surface area and root fork to nitrogen addition decreased from the first-order root to the fourth-order root, while root tissue density showed an opposite pattern. Such a result indicated a trade-off between nutrient acquisition and resource maintenance of different fine root orders. Different mycorrhizal tree species adopted diffe-rent adaptation strategies to the variations of soil nitrogen availability. C. faberi adopted an opportuni-stic strategy, which relied on fine root to improve nutrient absorption efficiency, enhanced the capacity of space expansion and in-situ nutrient absorption to focus on rapid nutrient absorption strategy. S. superba did not change fine root morphological traits through the trade-off between nutrient absorption efficiency and root construction cost, but relied more on the complementarity between mycorrhizal fungi and fine root architecture traits for nutrient acquisition. The differences in the cost of maintaining and constructing fine root C between different mycorrhizal trees led to fine root adopting the most suitable nutrient capture strategy.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Florestas , Nitrogênio , Raízes de Plantas , Plásticos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Árvores
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 2066-2079, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742842

RESUMO

Sandy soils are considered as a significant transition phase to desertification. The effective recovery of sandy soils is of great significance to mitigate the desertification process. Some studies have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and biochar improved the sandy soil, but there have been very few studies regarding the combined effects of AM fungi and biochar amendments on sandy soil improvement. Additionally, the roles of the bacterial and fungal community during the process of sandy soil improvement remain unclear. A greenhouse pot experiment with four treatments, including a control (CK, no amendment), single AM fungi-assisted amendment (RI), single biochar amendment (BC), and combined amendment (BC_RI, biochar plus AM fungi), was set up. This study investigated the effects of different amendment methods on the Nitrariasi birica mycorrhizal colonization, biomass, nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) content, soil organic carbon, soil nutrient (TN, TP, and TK) content, and soil water-stable aggregate composition. High throughput sequencing technology was used to investigate the roles of the bacterial and fungal communities during the process of sandy soil improvement. Combined with multiple analysis methods, the improvement mechanisms of different amendment methods were explored. The aim was to provide basic data and scientific basics for reasonably and effectively improving sandy soils. The results indicated that a significant mycorrhiza colonization was observed in the inoculation (RI and BC_RI) treatments, but there was no substantial difference in the mycorrhiza colonization with the RI and BC_RI. Compared with the CK, the shoot biomass and shoot element (N, K, Ca, and Mg) contents were significantly increased in the RI, and the shoot element (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) contents were significantly increased in the BC and BC_RI; compared with the RI and BC, the root biomass and the root element (P, K, Ca, and Mg) contents were significantly increased in the BC_RI. Compared with the CK, the soil organic carbon contents were significantly increased in the BC and BC_RI, the soil TN contents were significantly increased by 152.54%, and the soil TP and TK contents were significantly decreased by 12.5% and 18.8%, respectively. The proportion of soil aggregates with particle sizes of 0.25-0.05 mm was the highest in each treatment, and the large particle size (>0.25 mm) soil aggregate was significantly increased in the BC_RI. Compared with the CK, the Sobs and Shannon indices of the bacterial/fungal community were significantly decreased in the RI and BC_RI. There was a difference in the microbial community compositions and abundance in the various treatments. The results of the RDA and network analysis were as follows:the effects of AM fungi, biochar, and combined amendment on the soil environment and microbial community structure were significant; in the different amendment treatments, the relationship of the microbial molecular ecological network was significantly changed, and the composition of the core species varied; compared with the RI, there was a higher network connection degree and a richer core species composition in the BC and BC_RI; moreover, the essential role of Rhizophagus intraradices was weaken and the core roles of the other microorganisms (especially bacterial species) were enhanced under the combined effects of biochar and AM fungi. The SEM results demonstrated that the application of AM fungi and biochar could directly affect the bacteria/fungi community structure, and further affect the plant growth and soil properties. The differences in the microbial community structure (especially the change in the microbial interaction) were the key driving factors that led to the difference in the soil improvement effectiveness. In summary, the effects of the different amendment methods on the improvement effectiveness of sandy soils varied. The microbial community played key roles in the process of sandy soil improvement, and there were potential advantages and applications in accelerating the ecological restoration of sandy soils under the combined AM fungi and biochar amendment.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micorrizas , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Fungos , Areia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112072, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691243

RESUMO

The Green Revolution faced a great cost to meet ever-increasing demands for food, where indiscriminate use of agrochemicals resulted in non-friendly habitats. Therefore, the development of a sustainable approach to better crop production of onion seeds (Allium cepa L.) is very crucial. It is time to use organic waste as a replacement for agrochemicals by using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Trichoderma. Fish waste as representative of food waste acts as a leading cause of contamination of the environment. The interaction of AMF and Trichoderma viride on biomass, total soluble protein, mycorrhizal colonization, amino acids, phosphatases and phosphorus and nitrogen contents of onion plants grown in fish waste amended soil was studied. Fish waste has caused a slight increase in onions biomass, total free amino acids, and soluble protein content while with AMF and T. viride dual inoculation more increments were recorded; such increases were related to an increase in mycorrhizal colonization. T. viride application significantly increased the mycorrhizal colonization levels, but these were significantly reduced with waste addition. Analysis of amino acids in plants showed that their concentrations had changed as a result of waste addition combined with AMF and/or T. viride. The effectiveness of fish waste combined with low cost and health/environmental safety leads to a prediction that the introduction of fish waste coupled with fungi will become a more popular feature of agriculture in the future.


Assuntos
Micorrizas/fisiologia , Cebolas/fisiologia , Trichoderma/fisiologia , Agricultura , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Biomassa , Alimentos , Fungos/metabolismo , Hypocreales , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Cebolas/química , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos , Solo , Trichoderma/metabolismo
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(6): 1368-1373, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787133

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provided is beneficial to Salvia miltiorrhiza for increasing yield, promoting the accumulation of active ingredients, and alleviating S. miltiorrhiza disease etc. However, the application of fungicides will affect the benefit of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and there is little research about it. This article study the effect of four different fungicides: carbendazim, polyoxin, methyl mopazine, and mancozeb on mycorrhiza benefit to S. miltiorrhiza by the infection intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, and the content of active ingredients. RESULTS:: showed that different fungicides had different effects. The application of mancozeb had the strongest inhibitory effect on the mycorrhizal benefit to S. miltiorrhiza. Mancozeb significantly reduced the mycorrhizal colonization and the beneficial effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and the accumulation of active components of S. miltiorrhiza. The application of polyoxin had no significant effect on mycorrhizal colonization. Instead, it had a synergistic effect with the mycorrhizal benefit to promoting the growth and accumulation of rosmarinic acid of S. miltiorrhiza. The inhibitory strengths of four fungicides are: mancozeb>thiophanate methyl, carbendazim>polyoxin. Therefore, we recommend applying biological fungicides polyoxin and avoid applying chemical fungicides mancozeb for disease control during mycorrhizal cultivation of S. miltiorrhiza.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Micorrizas , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas , Simbiose
20.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(3): 507-515, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559032

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination of soil is of increasing concern because of its potential risk to human health. In this study, two AMFs (Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae) substantially increased the biomass of bashfulgrass in Zn-contaminated soil, even at Zn levels of up to 600 mg kg-1. Zn uptake in R. intraradices- and F. mosseae-mycorrhizal bashfulgrass was increased by 40-fold and 7-fold, respectively, when plants grown in Zn-contaminated (400 mg kg-1) soil. Elemental analysis showed that neither AMF had an effect on Zn concentration in plant tissues, including the roots and shoots. However, a significant increase of phosphorus (P) concentration was observed, suggesting the increased is from the improved use efficiency of soil nutrients by AMFs. Comparing the two AMFs, better growth performance with more biomass occurred with R. intraradices-inoculated bashfulgrass in Zn-contaminated soil. This is consistent with R. intraradices being more tolerant to Zn than F. mosseae, indicated by a higher colonization percentage in bashfulgrass roots. Taken together, our data indicate that AMFs possibly improve acquisition and translocation of P to promote increased biomass. Moreover, mycorrhiza did not enhance Zn accumulation in shoots and roots of bashfulgrass at the same Zn level. In the future, developing AMF (especially R. intraradices) inoculation of plants might be a desirable means of safe production of ornamental plants in metal-polluted soil.


Assuntos
Mimosa , Micorrizas , Poluentes do Solo , Fungos , Humanos , Fósforo , Raízes de Plantas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade
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