Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.609
Filtrar
1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 407-416, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydric stress affects the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide, making some tools necessary to cope with the decrease in rainfall. A sustainable alternative is the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as biofertilisers. Here, we analysed the effects of AMF strains adapted or non-adapted to hyper-arid conditions on the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of wheat grains from two cultivars with contrasting tolerance to osmotic stress (Ilustre, moderately tolerant; and Maxi, tolerant) grown with and without hydric stress. RESULTS: Eight phenolic compounds were detected, apigenin-C-pentoside-C-hexoside I being the most abundant and showing an increase of 80.5% when inoculated with the fungus Funneliformis mosseae (FM) obtained from Atacama Desert under normal irrigation with respect to non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. NM treatments were associated with higher grain yields. FM showed a noticeable effect on most phenolic compounds, with an increase up to 30.2% in apigenin-C-pentoside-C-hexoside III concentration under hydric stress with respect to normal irrigation, being also responsible for high antioxidant activities such as ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) activities. CONCLUSION: Inoculation with FM adapted to hydric stress produced improvements in phenolics composition and antioxidant activities in grains from wheat plants growing under hydric stress conditions, improving their food quality and supporting the development of further studies to determine whether the use of adapted AMF could be a realistic tool to improve grain quality in a scenario of increasing hydric stress conditions. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/química , Fungos/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Fenóis/química , Sementes/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 389, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416857

RESUMO

Blueberry (Vaccinium ssp.) is a perennial shrub belonging to the family Ericaceae, which is highly tolerant of acid soils and heavy metal pollution. In the present study, blueberry was subjected to cadmium (Cd) stress in simulated pot culture. The transcriptomics and rhizosphere fungal diversity of blueberry were analyzed, and the iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) content of blueberry tissues, soil and DGT was determined. A correlation analysis was also performed. A total of 84 374 annotated genes were identified in the root, stem, leaf and fruit tissue of blueberry, of which 3370 were DEGs, and in stem tissue, of which 2521 were DEGs. The annotation data showed that these DEGs were mainly concentrated in a series of metabolic pathways related to signal transduction, defense and the plant-pathogen response. Blueberry transferred excess Cd from the root to the stem for storage, and the highest levels of Cd were found in stem tissue, consistent with the results of transcriptome analysis, while the lowest Cd concentration occurred in the fruit, Cd also inhibited the absorption of other metal elements by blueberry. A series of genes related to Cd regulation were screened by analyzing the correlation between heavy metal content and transcriptome results. The roots of blueberry rely on mycorrhiza to absorb nutrients from the soil. The presence of Cd has a significant effect on the microbial community composition of the blueberry rhizosphere. The fungal family Coniochaetaceae, which is extremely extremelytolerant, has gradually become the dominant population. The results of this study increase our understanding of the plant regulation mechanism for heavy metals, and suggest potential methods of soil remediation using blueberry.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/genética , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/microbiologia , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Micorrizas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Biodiversidade , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/fisiologia , Cádmio/análise , Cobre/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ferro/análise , Magnésio/análise , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Transcriptoma , Zinco/análise
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254076, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242262

RESUMO

Symbiotic associations with endophytic fungi are ecologically important for medicinal and aromatic plants. Endophytic fungi highly affect the quantity and quality of herbal products. In this study, a pot experiment was carried out in the greenhouse to investigate the interactive effects of Piriformospora indica and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) inoculation on the chlorophyll fluorescence, essential oil composition, and antioxidant enzymes of peppermint under saline condition. The results showed that Fo, YNPQ, YNO, and NPQ values were obviously increased under salinity conditions, while essential oil content, chlorophyll a and b, gs, Fm, Fv, ETR, ФPSII and Fv/Fm ratio decreased by increasing salinity. In addition, salt induced the excess Na+ uptake, whereas the opposite trend was observed for P and K+. The synergistic association of P. indica and AMF caused a considerable increase in the antioxidant ability, essential oil content, Fv/Fm ratio, ФPSII, and amount of P and K+ uptake in salt-stressed plants. The main peppermint oil constituents, menthol, menthone, and 1,8-cineole increased considerably in inoculated plants. Besides, the applied endophytic fungi positively enhanced the ability of peppermint to alleviate the negative effect of the salinity stress.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Clorofila/análise , Mentha piperita/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Salinidade , Água do Mar/química , Análise de Variância , Mar Cáspio , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Secas , Eletrólitos/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Mentha piperita/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Fósforo/análise , Processos Fotoquímicos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Potássio/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Teoria Quântica , Estresse Salino , Sódio/análise , Terpenos/análise
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3484, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108462

RESUMO

Ecosystems across the globe receive elevated inputs of nutrients, but the consequences of this for soil fungal guilds that mediate key ecosystem functions remain unclear. We find that nitrogen and phosphorus addition to 25 grasslands distributed across four continents promotes the relative abundance of fungal pathogens, suppresses mutualists, but does not affect saprotrophs. Structural equation models suggest that responses are often indirect and primarily mediated by nutrient-induced shifts in plant communities. Nutrient addition also reduces co-occurrences within and among fungal guilds, which could have important consequences for belowground interactions. Focusing only on plots that received no nutrient addition, soil properties influence pathogen abundance globally, whereas plant community characteristics influence mutualists, and climate influence saprotrophs. We show consistent, guild-level responses that enhance our ability to predict shifts in soil function related to anthropogenic eutrophication, which can have longer-term consequences for plant communities.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Fósforo/farmacologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Fertilizantes/análise , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pradaria , Micorrizas/efeitos dos fármacos , Micorrizas/isolamento & purificação , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Fósforo/análise , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2326: 251-266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097274

RESUMO

In order for nanotechnology to be sustainably applied in agriculture, emphasis should be on comprehensive assessment of multiple endpoints, including biouptake and localization of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), potential effects on food nutrient quality, oxidative stress responses, and crop yield, before ENMs are routinely applied in consumer and agronomic products. This chapter succinctly outlines a protocol for conducting nanophytotoxicity studies focusing on nanoparticle purification and characterization, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)/symbiont inoculation, biouptake and translocation/localization, varied endpoints of oxidative stress responses, and crop yield.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Micorrizas/efeitos dos fármacos , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(7): 4609-4618, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165624

RESUMO

This work aims to characterize the arbuscular mycorrhizal association between maize genotypes and the effects of soil physical-chemical attributes on the symbiosis. A preliminary greenhouse assay evaluated five maize landraces and five conventional modern genotypes in non-sterile, low-P soil. Sixty days after sowing, we measured plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root dry biomass, root colonization structures, and shoot P concentration and total accumulation. In a second stage, a 2-year on-farm study evaluated how soil physical-chemical attributes in fields with three plant genotype groups affected the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbiosis in a maize diversity microcenter in Southern Brazil. We collected soil and plant material in farms growing landrace, conventional modern genotypes, or genetically modified (GM) maize. There were five collection points at each group, and we measured mycorrhizal colonization, soil physicochemical attributes, and shoot phosphorus concentration. The greenhouse study showed that genotypes have different growth strategies for root production and shoot growth. No differences in mycorrhizal colonization rates occurred among landraces and modern maize genotypes in the low-P soil. The field study showed that soil and climate conditions had a more marked effect on mycorrhizal root colonization than plant genotype groups (landrace, conventional modern genotypes, or GM maize).


Assuntos
Genótipo , Micorrizas , Raízes de Plantas , Zea mays , Agricultura , Brasil , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/microbiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13426, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183734

RESUMO

Positive effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-wheat plant symbiosis have been well discussed by research, while the actual role of the single wheat genotype in establishing this type of association is still poorly investigated. In this work, the genetic diversity of Triticum turgidum wheats was exploited to detect roots susceptibility to AMF and to identify genetic markers in linkage with chromosome regions involved in this symbiosis. A tetraploid wheat collection of 127 accessions was genotyped using 35K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and inoculated with the AMF species Funneliformis mosseae (F. mosseae) and Rhizoglomus irregulare (R. irregulare), and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted. Six clusters of genetically related accessions were identified, showing a different mycorrhizal colonization among them. GWAS revealed four significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) involved in mycorrhizal symbiosis, located on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 2B and 6A. The results of this work enrich future breeding activities aimed at developing new grains on the basis of genetic diversity on low or high susceptibility to mycorrhization, and, possibly, maximizing the symbiotic effects.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Simbiose/genética , Triticum/genética , Fungos/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Tetraploidia , Triticum/microbiologia
8.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 62(6): 959-970, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037236

RESUMO

Most land plants entertain a mutualistic symbiosis known as arbuscular mycorrhiza with fungi (Glomeromycota) that provide them with essential mineral nutrients, in particular phosphate (Pi), and protect them from biotic and abiotic stress. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis increases plant productivity and biodiversity and is therefore relevant for both natural plant communities and crop production. However, AM fungal populations suffer from intense farming practices in agricultural soils, in particular Pi fertilization. The dilemma between natural fertilization from AM symbiosis and chemical fertilization has raised major concern and emphasizes the need to better understand the mechanisms by which Pi suppresses AM symbiosis. Here, we test the hypothesis that Pi may interfere with AM symbiosis via the phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) in the Solanaceous model systems Petunia hybrida and Nicotiana tabacum. Indeed, we find that GA is inhibitory to AM symbiosis and that Pi may cause GA levels to increase in mycorrhizal roots. Consistent with a role of endogenous GA as an inhibitor of AM development, GA-defective N. tabacum lines expressing a GA-metabolizing enzyme (GA methyltransferase-GAMT) are colonized more quickly by the AM fungus Rhizoglomus irregulare, and exogenous Pi is less effective in inhibiting AM colonization in these lines. Systematic gene expression analysis of GA-related genes reveals a complex picture, in which GA degradation by GA2 oxidase plays a prominent role. These findings reveal potential targets for crop breeding that could reduce Pi suppression of AM symbiosis, thereby reconciling the advantages of Pi fertilization with the diverse benefits of AM symbiosis.


Assuntos
Giberelinas/metabolismo , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Petunia/fisiologia , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Tabaco/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transdução de Sinais , Simbiose
9.
Food Chem ; 359: 129961, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945985

RESUMO

The effects of different fertilisation treatments with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on AMF root colonisation, fruit yield, nutrient and total phenol contents, volatile compound composition, and sensory attributes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mineral, organic, and mineral + organic fertiliser application positively affected tomato yield (35%-50%) and phosphorus concentration (24%-29%) compared with controls. AMF application had a significant impact on the total nitrogen (+9%), manganese (+12%), and hydrophilic phenol (+8%) contents in the fruit. Volatile compounds were affected by the interactive effects of fertilisation and AMF application. The response of tomato fruit sensory quality indicators was relatively modest, with only a few sensory characteristics affected to a lesser extent. Although tomato showed susceptibility to field-native AMF, particular combinations of fertilisation and AMF inoculation were more effective at improving the quality parameters of tomatoes under field conditions applied in this study.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3137, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035260

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) associations are critical for host-tree performance. However, how mycorrhizal associations correlate with the latitudinal tree beta-diversity remains untested. Using a global dataset of 45 forest plots representing 2,804,270 trees across 3840 species, we test how AM and EcM trees contribute to total beta-diversity and its components (turnover and nestedness) of all trees. We find AM rather than EcM trees predominantly contribute to decreasing total beta-diversity and turnover and increasing nestedness with increasing latitude, probably because wide distributions of EcM trees do not generate strong compositional differences among localities. Environmental variables, especially temperature and precipitation, are strongly correlated with beta-diversity patterns for both AM trees and all trees rather than EcM trees. Results support our hypotheses that latitudinal beta-diversity patterns and environmental effects on these patterns are highly dependent on mycorrhizal types. Our findings highlight the importance of AM-dominated forests for conserving global forest biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Dispersão Vegetal , Microbiologia do Solo , Árvores/microbiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0237551, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901193

RESUMO

The linden tree (Tilia spp.) is a popular tree for landscaping and urban environments in central and northwest European countries, and it is one of the most popular in cities in Poland. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form a symbiosis with many urban tree species and protect the host plant from heavy metals and against salinity. The aim of this study was to characterise the ECM fungal community of urban linden trees along the tree damage gradient. The study was performed on two sites located in the centre of the city of Gdansk, in northern Poland. The vitality assessment of urban linden trees was made according to Roloff's classification. Tree damage classes were related to soil characteristics using principal component analysis. The five ectomycorrhizal fungal species were shared among all four tree damage classes, and Cenococcum geophilum was found to be the most abundant and frequent ectomycorrhizal fungal species in each class. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of trees belonging to the R0 class had significantly lower pH Na, Cl and Pb content than other soils. Our knowledge of ectomycorrhizal communities in urban areas is still limited, and these findings provide new insights into ectomycorrhizal distribution patterns in urban areas.


Assuntos
Micobioma/fisiologia , Micorrizas/classificação , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Tilia/microbiologia , Árvores/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Florestas , Polônia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose/fisiologia
12.
Plant Signal Behav ; 16(5): 1884782, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793381

RESUMO

Banana as an important economic crop worldwide, often suffers from serious damage caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been considered as one of the promising plant biocontrol agents in preventing from root pathogens. This study examined the effect of AM fungal inoculation on plant growth and differential expressions of growth- and defense-related genes in banana seedlings. Tissue-cultured seedlings of Brazilian banana (Musa acuminate Cavendish cv. Brail) were inoculated with AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis, Ri), and developed good mycorrhizal symbiosis from 4 to 11 weeks after inoculation with an infection rate up to 71.7% of the roots system. Microbial abundance revealed that Ri abundance in banana roots was 1.85×106 copies/ml at 11 weeks after inoculaiton. Inoculation improved plant dry weights by 47.5, 124, and 129% for stem, leaf, and the whole plant, respectively, during phosphate depletion. Among a total of 1411 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) obtained from the transcriptome data analysis, genes related to plant resistance (e.g. POD, PAL, PYR, and HBP-1b) and those related to plant growth (e.g. IAA, GH3, SAUR, and ARR8) were up-regulated in AM plants. This study demonstrates that AM fungus effectively promoted the growth of banana plants and induced defense-related genes which could help suppress wilt disease. The outcomes of this study form a basis for further study on the mechanism of banana disease resistance induced by AM fungi.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Musa/imunologia , Musa/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/microbiologia , Biomassa , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Ontologia Genética , Musa/genética , Musa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 165, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To decipher the root and microbial interaction, secondary metabolite accumulation in roots and the microbial community's succession model during the plant's growth period demands an in-depth investigation. However, till now, no comprehensive study is available on the succession of endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) with roots of medicinal licorice plants and the effects of endophytic fungi and AMF on the secondary metabolite accumulation in licorice plant's root. RESULTS: In the current study, interaction between root and microbes in 1-3 years old medicinal licorice plant's root and rhizospheric soil was investigated. Secondary metabolites content in licorice root was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composition and diversity of endophytic and AMF in the root and soil were deciphered using high-throughput sequencing technology. During the plant's growth period, as compared to AMF, time and species significantly affected the diversity and richness of endophytic fungi, such as Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Sarocladium. The growth period also influenced the AMF diversity, evident by the significant increase in the relative abundance of Glomus and the significant decrease in the relative abundance of Diversispora. It indicated a different succession pattern between the endophytic fungal and AMF communities. Meanwhile, distance-based redundancy analysis and Mantel tests revealed root's water content and secondary metabolites (glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, and total flavonoids), which conferred endophytic fungi and AMF diversity. Additionally, plant growth significantly altered soil's physicochemical properties, which influenced the distribution of endophytic fungal and AMF communities. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated a different succession pattern between the endophytic fungal and AMF communities. During the plant's growth period, the contents of three secondary metabolites in roots increased per year, which contributed to the overall differences in composition and distribution of endophytic fungal and AMF communities. The endophytic fungal communities were more sensitive to secondary metabolites than AMF communities. The current study provides novel insights into the interaction between rhizospheric microbes and root exudates.


Assuntos
Fungos/fisiologia , Glycyrrhiza/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Endófitos/fisiologia , Glycyrrhiza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 171, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics in trees under drought stress is critical to elucidate the mechanisms underlying forest decline and tree mortality from extended periods of drought. This study aimed to assess the contribution of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus (Suillus variegatus) to hydraulic function and NSC in roots, stems, and leaves of Pinus tabulaeformis subjected to different water deficit intensity. We performed a continuous controlled drought pot experiment from July 10 to September 10, 2019 using P. tabulaeformis seedlings under 80, 40, and 20% of the field moisture capacity that represented the absence of non-drought, moderate drought, and severe drought stress, respectively. RESULTS: Results indicated that S. variegatus decreased the mortality rate and increased height, root biomass, and leaf biomass of P. tabulaeformis seedlings under moderate and severe drought stress. Meanwhile, the photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rates of P. tabulaeformis were significantly increased after S. variegatus inoculation. Moreover, the inoculation of S. variegatus also significantly increased the NSC concentrations of all seedling tissues, enhanced the soluble sugars content, and increased the ratios of soluble sugars to starch on all tissues under severe drought. Overall, the inoculation of S. variegatus has great potential for improving the hydraulic function, increasing the NSC storage, and improving the growth of P. tabulaeformis under severe drought. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the S. variegatus can be used as a potential application strain for ecological restoration on arid regions of the Loess Plateau, especially in the P. tabulaeformis woodlands.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Secas , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Pinus/fisiologia , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pinus/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 217: 112154, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901784

RESUMO

We assessed Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) growth, nutrients and Cd uptake in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), biochar (BC) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications in experimental pot studies. Mycorrhizal colonization was improved by BC addition but not N addition. However, in the presence of AMF, BC and N had positive effects on shoot biomass and plants grown in the presence of all 3 components yielded the highest levels of shoot biomass compared to pair-wise combinations or individual components singly added. AMF inoculation also increased root biomass and this effect was apparent in the combinations that included AMF without BC. Fungal inoculation also led to increased contents of phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and copper (Cu) in both chicory shoots and roots and potassium (K) and manganese (Mn) in roots. Moreover, in the presence of BC, AMF inoculation evidently enhanced the shoot Ca content. In contrast, the presence of AMF inhibited plant Cd absorption and BC addition further inhibited root Cd concentration following the AMF inoculation. Applying N fertilizer alone increased Cd transfering from soil to plants. However, when combined with use of AMF and BC, Cd toxicity to plants was reduced. This study demonstrated that AMF inoculation combined with BC and N fertilizer could improve chicory growth, nutrient absorption and reduction of Cd uptake in Cd-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Fertilizantes , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Nitrogênio , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Chicória/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 217: 112252, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930772

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous mutualistic plant symbionts that promote plant growth and protect them from abiotic stresses. Studies on AMF-assisted phytoremediation have shown that AMF can increase plant tolerance to the presence of hydrocarbon contaminants by improving plant nutrition status and mitigating oxidative stress. This work aimed to evaluate the impact of single and mixed-species AMF inocula (Funneliformis caledonium, Diversispora varaderana, Claroideoglomus walkeri), obtained from a contaminated environment, on the growth, oxidative stress (DNA oxidation and lipid peroxidation), and activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase) in Lolium perenne growing on a substrate contaminated with 0/0-30/120 mg phenol/polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) kg-1. The assessment of AMF tolerance to the presence of contaminants was based on mycorrhizal root colonization, spore production, the level of oxidative stress, and antioxidative activity in AMF spores. In contrast to the mixed-species AMF inoculum, single AMF species significantly enhanced the growth of host plants cultured on the contaminated substrate. The effect of inoculation on the level of oxidative stress and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in plant tissues differed between the AMF species. Changes in the level of oxidative stress and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in AMF spores in response to contamination also depended on AMF species. Although the concentration of phenol and PAHs had a negative effect on the production of AMF spores, low (5/20 mg phenol/PAHs kg-1) and medium (15/60 mg phenol/PAHs kg-1) substrate contamination stimulated the mycorrhizal colonization of roots. Among the studied AMF species, F. caledonium was the most tolerant to phenol and PAHs and showed the highest potential in plant growth promotion. The results presented in this study might contribute to the development of functionally customized AMF-assisted phytoremediation strategies with indigenous AMF, more effective than commercial AMF inocula, as a result of their selection by the presence of contaminants.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Lolium/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fungos , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Simbiose
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 183, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A (PP2A) expression is crucial for the symbiotic association between plants and various microbes, and knowledge on these symbiotic processes is important for sustainable agriculture. Here we tested the hypothesis that PP2A regulatory subunits, especially B'φ and B'θ, are involved in signalling between plants and mycorrhizal fungi or plant-growth promoting bacteria. RESULTS: Treatment of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas simiae indicated a role for the PP2A B'θ subunit in responses to PGPR. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influenced B'θ transcript levels in soil-grown plants with canonical arbuscular mycorrhizae. In plant roots, transcripts of B'φ were scarce under all conditions tested and at a lower level than all other PP2A subunit transcripts. In transformed tomato plants with 10-fold enhanced B'φ expression, mycorrhization frequency was decreased in vermiculite-grown plants. Furthermore, the high B'φ expression was related to abscisic acid and gibberellic acid responses known to be involved in plant growth and mycorrhization. B'φ overexpressor plants showed less vigorous growth, and although fruits were normal size, the number of seeds per fruit was reduced by 60% compared to the original cultivar. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of the B'θ gene in tomato roots is strongly influenced by beneficial microbes. Analysis of B'φ overexpressor tomato plants and established tomato cultivars substantiated a function of B'φ in growth and development in addition to a role in mycorrhization.


Assuntos
Azospirillum brasilense/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Simbiose/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
18.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(6): 1946-1960, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675052

RESUMO

Plants rely on their microbiota for improving the nutritional status and environmental stress tolerance. Previous studies mainly focused on bipartite interactions (a plant challenged by a single microbe), while plant responses to multiple microbes have received limited attention. Here, we investigated local and systemic changes induced in wheat by two plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), Azospirillum brasilense and Paraburkholderia graminis, either alone or together with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF). We conducted phenotypic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses to investigate bipartite (wheat-PGPB) and tripartite (wheat-PGPB-AMF) interactions, also upon a leaf pathogen infection. Results revealed that only AMF and A. brasilense promoted plant growth by activating photosynthesis and N assimilation which led to increased glucose and amino acid content. The bioprotective effect of the PGPB-AMF interactions on infected wheat plants depended on the PGPB-AMF combinations, which caused specific phenotypic and proteomic responses (elicitation of defense related proteins, immune response and jasmonic acid biosynthesis). In the whole, wheat responses strongly depended on the inoculum composition (single vs. multiple microbes) and the investigated organs (roots vs. leaf). Our findings showed that AMF is the best-performing microbe, suggesting its presence as the crucial one for synthetic microbial community development.


Assuntos
Fungos/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia , Inoculantes Agrícolas/fisiologia , Azospirillum brasilense , Burkholderiaceae , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Proteômica/métodos , Triticum/metabolismo , Xanthomonas/patogenicidade
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112072, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691243

RESUMO

The Green Revolution faced a great cost to meet ever-increasing demands for food, where indiscriminate use of agrochemicals resulted in non-friendly habitats. Therefore, the development of a sustainable approach to better crop production of onion seeds (Allium cepa L.) is very crucial. It is time to use organic waste as a replacement for agrochemicals by using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Trichoderma. Fish waste as representative of food waste acts as a leading cause of contamination of the environment. The interaction of AMF and Trichoderma viride on biomass, total soluble protein, mycorrhizal colonization, amino acids, phosphatases and phosphorus and nitrogen contents of onion plants grown in fish waste amended soil was studied. Fish waste has caused a slight increase in onions biomass, total free amino acids, and soluble protein content while with AMF and T. viride dual inoculation more increments were recorded; such increases were related to an increase in mycorrhizal colonization. T. viride application significantly increased the mycorrhizal colonization levels, but these were significantly reduced with waste addition. Analysis of amino acids in plants showed that their concentrations had changed as a result of waste addition combined with AMF and/or T. viride. The effectiveness of fish waste combined with low cost and health/environmental safety leads to a prediction that the introduction of fish waste coupled with fungi will become a more popular feature of agriculture in the future.


Assuntos
Micorrizas/fisiologia , Cebolas/fisiologia , Trichoderma/fisiologia , Agricultura , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Biomassa , Alimentos , Fungos/metabolismo , Hypocreales , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Cebolas/química , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos , Solo , Trichoderma/metabolismo
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112170, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773154

RESUMO

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) shows an excellent degradation effect on chlorinated contaminants in soil, but poses a threat to plants in combination with phytoremediation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus can reduce the phyototoxicity of nZVI, but their combined impacts on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) degradation and plant growth remain unclear. Here, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of nZVI and/or Funneliformis caledonium on soil PCB degradation and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) antioxidative responses. The amendment of nZVI significantly reduced not only the total and homolog concentrations of PCBs in the soil, but also the ryegrass biomass as well as soil available P and root P concentrations. Moreover, nZVI significantly decreased leaf superoxide disutase (SOD) activity, while tended to decrease the protein content. In contrast, the additional inoculation of F. caledonium significantly increased leaf SOD activity and protein content, while tended to increase the catalase activity and tended to decrease the malondialdehyde content. The additional inoculation of F. caledonium also significantly increased soil alkaline phosphatase activity, and tended to increase root P concentration, but had no significantly effects on soil available P concentration, the biomass and P acquisition of ryegrass, which could be attributed to the fixation of soil available nutrients by nZVI. Additionally, F. caledonium facilitated PCB degradation in the nZVI-applied soil. Thus, AM fungus can alleviate the nZVI-induced phytotoxicity, showing great application potentials in accompany with nZVI for soil remediation.


Assuntos
Lolium/fisiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Fungos , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Lolium/metabolismo , Lolium/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...