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1.
Future Microbiol ; 15: 1405-1413, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085538

RESUMO

As the global COVID-19 pandemic spreads worldwide, new challenges arise in the clinical landscape. The need for reliable diagnostic methods, treatments and vaccines for COVID-19 is the major worldwide urgency. While these goals are especially important, the growing risk of co-infections is a major threat not only to the health systems but also to patients' lives. Although there is still not enough published statistical data, co-infections in COVID-19 patients found that a significant number of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 developed secondary systemic mycoses that led to serious complications and even death. This review will discuss some of these important findings with the major aim to warn the population about the high risk of concomitant systemic mycoses in individuals weakened by COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Micoses/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/complicações , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/microbiologia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/complicações , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/microbiologia , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Risco
2.
Top Antivir Med ; 28(2): 455-458, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886465

RESUMO

Due to COVID-19, this year marked the first virtual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in the conference's 27-year history. There were important studies presented that provided new insights into the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and other HIV coinfections. Highlights related to TB and HIV coinfections from this year's meeting are reviewed below.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Congressos como Assunto , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 56(3): 359-364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959802

RESUMO

Current literature shows that secondary bacterial infections, although less frequent than in previous influenza pandemics, affect COVID-19 patients. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Legionella pneumophila, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus and Klebsiella spp. are the main species isolated. Of note, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-COVID-19 coinfections are also reported. However, bacterial coinfection rates increase in patients admitted in the intensive care units, and those diseases can be due to super-infections by nosocomial antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This highlights the urgency to revise frequent and empiric prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics in COVID-19 patients, with more attention to evidence-based studies and respect for the antimicrobial stewardship principles.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(18): 7777-7785, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780290

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel ß-coronavirus, is the main pathogenic agent of the rapidly spreading pneumonia called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 infects much more people, especially the elder population, around the world than other coronavirus, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which is challenging current global public health system. Beyond the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, microbial coinfection plays an important role in the occurrence and development of SARS-CoV-2 infection by raising the difficulties of diagnosis, treatment, prognosis of COVID-19, and even increasing the disease symptom and mortality. We summarize the coinfection of virus, bacteria and fungi with SARS-CoV-2, their effects on COVID-19, the reasons of coinfection, and the diagnosis to emphasize the importance of microbial coinfection in COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • Microbial coinfection is a nonnegligible factor in COVID-19. • Microbial coinfection exacerbates the processes of the occurrence, development and prognosis of COVID-19, and the difficulties of clinical diagnosis and treatment. • Different virus, bacteria, and fungi contributed to the coinfection with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/epidemiologia , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/microbiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Progressão da Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/microbiologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Linfopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Linfopenia/microbiologia , Linfopenia/virologia , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/microbiologia , Viroses/virologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 599, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungal bloodstream infections (FBI) among intensive care unit (ICU) patients are increasing. Our objective was to characterize the fungal pathogens that cause bloodstream infections and determine the epidemiology and risk factors for patient mortality among ICU patients in Meizhou, China. METHODS: Eighty-one ICU patients with FBI during their stays were included in the study conducted from January 2008 to December 2017. Blood cultures were performed and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the resulting isolates were determined. Logistic multiple regression and ROC curve analysis were used to assess the risk factors for mortality among the cases. RESULTS: The prevalence of FBI in ICU patients was 0.38% (81/21,098) with a mortality rate of 36% (29/81). Ninety-eight strains of bloodstream-infecting fungi, mainly Candida spp., were identified from these patients. Candida albicans was most common (43%). Two strains of C. parapsilosis were no-sensitive to caspofungin, C. glabrata were less than 80% sensitive to azole drugs. Logistic multiple regression showed that age, serum albumin, APACHE II score, three or more underlying diseases, and length of stay in ICU were independent risk factors for mortality in FBI. ROC curve analysis showed that APACHE II scores > 19 and serum albumin ≤25 g/L were the best predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Candida spp. predominated with high mortality rates among cases of FBI in ICU. Thus, clinical staff should enhance overall patient monitoring and concurrently monitor fungal susceptibility to reduce mortality rates.


Assuntos
Micoses/patologia , APACHE , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida parapsilosis/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Prevalência , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco
6.
Mycopathologia ; 185(4): 607-611, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737746

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2109, and has rapidly spread around the world. Until May 25, 2020, there were 133,521 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 7359 deaths in Iran. The role of opportunistic fungal infections in the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 patients remains less defined. Based on our multicenter experiences, we categorized the risks of opportunistic fungal infections in COVID-19 patients in Iran. The COVID-19 patients at high risk included those with acute respiratory distress syndrome, in intensive care units, receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressants or corticosteroid, and supported by invasive or noninvasive ventilation. The patients were most likely to develop pulmonary aspergillosis, oral candidiasis, or pneumocystis pneumonia. Most diagnoses were probable as the accurate diagnosis of opportunistic fungal infections remains challenging in resource-poor settings. We summarize the clinical signs and laboratory tests needed to confirm candidiasis, aspergillosis, or pneumocystosis in our COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Micoses/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/diagnóstico , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Doenças Faríngeas/complicações , Doenças Faríngeas/diagnóstico , Doenças Faríngeas/epidemiologia , Doenças Faríngeas/microbiologia , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
7.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(10): 1395-1399, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of bacterial and fungal coinfection of hospitalized patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in this retrospective observational study across two London hospitals during the first UK wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A retrospective case series of hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by PCR was analysed across two acute NHS hospitals (20 February-20 April 2020; each isolate reviewed independently in parallel). This was contrasted to a control group of influenza-positive patients admitted during the 2019-2020 flu season. Patient demographics, microbiology and clinical outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 836 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were included; 27 (3.2%) of 836 had early confirmed bacterial isolates identified (0-5 days after admission), rising to 51 (6.1%) of 836 throughout admission. Blood cultures, respiratory samples, pneumococcal or Legionella urinary antigens and respiratory viral PCR panels were obtained from 643 (77%), 110 (13%), 249 (30%), 246 (29%) and 250 (30%) COVID-19 patients, respectively. A positive blood culture was identified in 60 patients (7.1%), of which 39 were classified as contaminants. Bacteraemia resulting from respiratory infection was confirmed in two cases (one each community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae and ventilator-associated Enterobacter cloacae). Line-related bacteraemia was identified in six patients (three Candida, two Enterococcus spp. and one Pseudomonas aeruginosa). All other community-acquired bacteraemias (n = 16) were attributed to nonrespiratory infection. Zero concomitant pneumococcal, Legionella or influenza infection was detected. A low yield of positive respiratory cultures was identified; Staphylococcus aureus was the most common respiratory pathogen isolated in community-acquired coinfection (4/24; 16.7%), with pseudomonas and yeast identified in late-onset infection. Invasive fungal infections (n = 3) were attributed to line-related infections. Comparable rates of positive coinfection were identified in the control group of confirmed influenza infection; clinically relevant bacteraemias (2/141; 1.4%), respiratory cultures (10/38; 26.3%) and pneumococcal-positive antigens (1/19; 5.3%) were low. CONCLUSIONS: We found a low frequency of bacterial coinfection in early COVID-19 hospital presentation, and no evidence of concomitant fungal infection, at least in the early phase of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Coinfecção , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 551, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei (TM) is a dimorphic fungus mainly prevalent in Southeast Asian countries, which often causes disseminated life-threatening infection. TM infection often occurs in HIV/AIDS patients even in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. However, there has as yet, not been a systematic analysis of the prevalence of TM infection in HIV-infected populations in Asia. METHODS: In this study, we searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and WanFang from inception to 21 November 2018 for studies reporting TM infection in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Our meta-analysis included studies investigating the prevalence of TM infection in PLWHA. Reviews, duplicate studies, and animal studies were excluded. A random effects model was used to estimate pooled prevalence, and meta-regression analysis was conducted to explore potential factors for heterogeneity. RESULTS: 159,064 patients with HIV infection in 33 eligible studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of TM infection in PLWHA was 3.6%. Vietnam had the highest prevalence (6.4%), followed by Thailand (3.9%), China (3.3%), India (3.2%) and Malaysia (2.1%). In China, TM infection was most prevalent in South China (15.0%), while the burden in Southwest China was not very heavy (0.3%). CD4+ T-cell counts below 200 cells/mm3 contributed to the increased risk of TM infection in PLWHA (OR 12.68, 95%CI: 9.58-16.77). However, access to ART did not significantly decrease the risk of TM infection in PLWHA. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of TM infection in Asia is heavy, and varies from region to region. PLWHA in lower latitude areas are more likely to suffer from TM infection. Optimization of diagnostic tools and universal screening for TM in vulnerable people to ensure early case detection and prompt antifungal treatment should be considered.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV , Micoses/epidemiologia , Talaromyces/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Micoses/microbiologia , Prevalência
9.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 29-36, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532935

RESUMO

We reviewed studies reporting bacterial and fungal co-infections in patients with COVID-19. The majority were retrospective studies with poor quality data biased with short follow-up and selection of patients. Septic shock was reported in 4% to 33.1% of patients. Seventy-one to 100% of patients received antibacterial treatments. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis seems to be an increasingly observed complication in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection as previously reported in patients hospitalized in ICU with severe influenza. High quality prospective studies are urgently needed to verify the incidence of bacterial and fungal infections and their role on the outcome of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Séptico/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234966, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prolonged maintenance of central venous catheters, including peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), is a major risk factor for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). This study was conducted to evaluate the appropriate duration of PICC maintenance to prevent CLABSI. METHODS: A single-center retrospective study was conducted at an 824-bed tertiary hospital in Korea between January 2010 and December 2017. All hospitalized patients who underwent ultrasound-guided PICC insertion were enrolled. CLABSI was diagnosed according to the definitions of the National Health Safety Network. CLABSI caused by PICC was defined as PICC-associated bloodstream infection (PABSI). To identifying statistical correlations between catheter days and PABSI, the odds ratio for PABSI on the basis of the continuous value of catheter days was analyzed using restricted cubic spline splits with five knots. The optimal cut-off value for catheter days was identified by maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). RESULTS: A total of 1,053 patients underwent ultrasound-guided PICC insertion during the study period. Among them, 36 were confirmed as having a PABSI (3.5%, 36/1014; 1.14 per 1000 catheter days). In the restricted cubic spline regression, catheter days showed a dose-dependent relationship with the risk of PABSI. The AUC of the ROC curve for developing a PABSI according to the duration of catheter maintenance was 0.715 (95% CI, 0.639-0.790); the calculated optimal cut-off value was 25 days. CONCLUSION: The incidence of PABSI was 1.14 per 1000 catheter days and the optimal cut-off value of catheter days to avoid a PABSI was 25 days.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/epidemiologia , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária
12.
J Infect ; 81(2): 266-275, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In previous influenza pandemics, bacterial co-infections have been a major cause of mortality. We aimed to evaluate the burden of co-infections in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library, LILACS and CINAHL for eligible studies published from 1 January 2020 to 17 April 2020. We included patients of all ages, in all settings. The main outcome was the proportion of patients with a bacterial, fungal or viral co-infection. . RESULTS: Thirty studies including 3834 patients were included. Overall, 7% of hospitalised COVID-19 patients had a bacterial co-infection (95% CI 3-12%, n=2183, I2=92·2%). A higher proportion of ICU patients had bacterial co-infections than patients in mixed ward/ICU settings (14%, 95% CI 5-26, I2=74·7% versus 4%, 95% CI 1-9, I2= 91·7%). The commonest bacteria were Mycoplasma pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Haemophilus influenzae. The pooled proportion with a viral co-infection was 3% (95% CI 1-6, n=1014, I2=62·3%), with Respiratory Syncytial Virus and influenza A the commonest. Three studies reported fungal co-infections. CONCLUSIONS: A low proportion of COVID-19 patients have a bacterial co-infection; less than in previous influenza pandemics. These findings do not support the routine use of antibiotics in the management of confirmed COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Micoses/complicações , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/microbiologia
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD007137, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin, a normal component of human colostrum and milk, can enhance host defenses and may be effective for prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and effectiveness of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds for prevention of sepsis and NEC in preterm neonates. Secondarily, we assessed the effects of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds on the duration of positive-pressure ventilation, development of chronic lung disease (CLD) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), length of hospital stay to discharge among survivors, and adverse neurological outcomes at two years of age or later. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to update our search. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2019, Issue 9), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 20 January 2020), PREMEDLINE (1996 to 20 January 2020), Embase (1980 to 20 January 2020), and CINAHL (1982 to 20 January 2020). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: In our search, we included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating enteral lactoferrin supplementation at any dose or duration to prevent sepsis or NEC in preterm neonates. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal and the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Meta-analysis of data from twelve randomized controlled trials showed that lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds decreased late-onset sepsis (typical RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.91; typical RD -0.04, 95% CI, -0.06, -0.02; NNTB 25, 95% CI 17 to 50; 12 studies, 5425 participants, low-certainty evidence) and decreased length of hospital stay (MD -2.38, 95% CI, -4.67, -0.09; 3 studies, 1079 participants, low-certainty evidence). Sensitivity analysis including only good methodological certainty studies suggested a decrease in late-onset sepsis with enteral lactoferrin supplementation (typical RR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.78, 0.97; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI, -0.05, -0.0; 9 studies, 4702 participants, low-certainty evidence). There were no differences in NEC stage II or III (typical RR 1.10, 95% CI, 0.86, 1.41; typical RD -0.00, 95% CI, -0.02, 0.01; 7 studies, 4874 participants; low-certainty evidence) or 'all-cause mortality' (typical RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.69, 1.17; typical RD -0.00, 95% CI, -0.01, 0.01; 11 studies, 5510 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). One study reported no differences in neurodevelopmental testing by Mullen's or Bayley III at 24 months of age after enteral lactoferrin supplementation (one study, 292 participants, low-certainty evidence). Lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds with probiotics decreased late-onset sepsis (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.46; RD -0.13, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.08; NNTB 8, 95% CI 6 to 13; 3 studies, 564 participants; low-certainty evidence) and NEC stage II or III (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.62; RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.08 to -0.03; NNTB 20, 95% CI 12.5 to 33.3; 1 study, 496 participants; very low-certainty evidence), but not 'all-cause mortality' (very low-certainty evidence). Lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds with or without probiotics had no effect on CLD, duration of mechanical ventilation or threshold retinopathy of prematurity (low-certainty evidence). Investigators reported no adverse effects in the included studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low-certainty evidence from studies of good methodological quality that lactoferrin supplementation of enteral feeds decreases late-onset sepsis but not NEC ≥ stage II or 'all cause mortality' or neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months of age in preterm infants without adverse effects. Low- to very low-certainty evidence suggests that lactoferrin supplementation of enteral feeds in combination with probiotics decreases late-onset sepsis and NEC ≥ stage II in preterm infants without adverse effects, however, there were few included studies of poor methodological quality. The presence of publication bias and small studies of poor methodology that may inflate the effect size make recommendations for clinical practice difficult.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Lactoferrina/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Números Necessários para Tratar , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia
15.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(5): 911-916, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical benefit of pre-hematopoietic cell transplantation sinus CT screening remains uncertain, while the risks of CT radiation and anesthesia are increasingly evident. We sought to re-assess the impact of screening sinus CT on pretransplantation patient management and prediction of posttransplantation invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pretransplantation noncontrast screening sinus CTs for 100 consecutive patients (mean age, 11.9 ± 5.5 years) were graded for mucosal thickening (Lund-Mackay score) and for signs of noninvasive or invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (sinus calcification, hyperattenuation, bone destruction, extrasinus inflammation, and nasal mucosal ulceration). Posttransplantation sinus CTs performed for sinus-related symptoms were similarly graded. Associations of Lund-Mackay scores, clinical assessments, changes in pretransplantation clinical management (additional antibiotic or fungal therapy, sinonasal surgery, delayed transplantation), and subsequent development of sinus-related symptoms or invasive fungal rhinosinusitis were tested (exact Wilcoxon rank sums, Fisher exact test, significance P < .05). RESULTS: Mean pretransplantation screening Lund-Mackay scores (n = 100) were greater in patients with clinical symptoms (8.07 ± 6.00 versus 2.48 ± 3.51, P < .001) but were not associated with pretransplantation management changes and did not predict posttransplantation sinus symptoms (n = 21, P = .47) or invasive fungal rhinosinusitis symptoms (n = 2, P = .59). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-hematopoietic cell transplantation sinus CT does not meaningfully contribute to pretransplantation patient management or prediction of posttransplantation sinus disease, including invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, in children. The risks associated with CT radiation and possible anesthesia are not warranted in this setting.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/imunologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(15): e19735, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282732

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The increase in the number of patients with prosthetic joints will entail a rise in the absolute number of infections associated with these procedures. Although less frequent, infections by Candida species are also expected to increase, and the clinical and surgical management of these cases is based on case reports and opinion of specialists. The objective of the present study was to review the available literature and describe the cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by Candida species in patients of the Institute of Orthopedics and Trauma of the University of São Paulo Faculty of Medicine Clinics Hospital (IOT-HCFMUSP) between 2007 and 2014. PATIENT CONCERNS: Eleven patients were diagnosed with prosthetic joint infection due to Candida with mean age of 65 years. The most frequent comorbidities were heart disease and diabetes mellitus, and the main personal antecedent was previous bacterial infection in the prosthetic joint. At least one risk factor for fungal infection was present in 73% of the patients. There was no difference between the prevalence of infections caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species, and there was bacterial co-infection in 55% of the cases. DIAGNOSIS: For building up the case series, patients with cultures of bone and joint specimens that were positive for Candida species and had a clinical diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection were included in the case series. INTERVENTIONS: Surgical debridement with removal of the prosthesis was the most frequently used surgical approach (45%). All patients were treated with monotherapy, and the most frequently used antifungal agent was fluconazole. The total duration of antifungal therapy was 6 months in 73% of the cases. OUTCOMES: After the initial management, 73% of the patients achieved clinical remission. CONCLUSION: The most indicated initial management was debridement with removal of the prosthesis, and the most used treatment regimen was fluconazole monotherapy. The most prevalent treatment duration was 6 months. The initial management led to a favorable outcome in 73% of the cases. DESCRIPTORS: Prosthetic joint infection, Candida, treatment, and diagnosis.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Prótese Articular/microbiologia , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/cirurgia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Desbridamento/métodos , Feminino , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Prótese Articular/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/cirurgia , Osteoartrite/complicações , Prevalência , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(2): 263-283, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327035

RESUMO

Chelonians are increasingly challenged by anthropogenic threats and disease. This article summarizes recent literature and clinical experiences regarding 4 emerging infectious diseases in turtles and tortoises: ranaviruses, cryptosporidiosis, intranuclear coccodiosis of Testudines, and Emydomyces testavorans.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Répteis/microbiologia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Onygenales/fisiologia , Ranavirus/fisiologia , Répteis/parasitologia , Tartarugas/microbiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4343, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152398

RESUMO

Esophageal malignancy is a disease with poor prognosis. Curative therapy incorporates surgery and is burdensome with high rates of infection morbidity and mortality. The role of yeast as causative organisms of post-esophagectomy infections is poorly defined. Consequently, the benefits of specific antifungal prophylactic therapy in improving patient outcome are unclear. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the incidence of yeast infections at the University Medical Center Groningen among 565 post-esophagectomy patients between 1991 and 2017. The results show that 7.3% of the patients developed a yeast infection after esophageal resection with significantly increased incidence among patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. For patients with yeast infections, higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores, more frequent intensive care unit readmissions, prolonged hospital stays and higher mortality rates were observed. One-year survival was significantly lower for patients with a yeast infection, as well as diabetes mellitus and yeast-positive pleural effusion. We conclude that the incidence of yeast infections following esophagectomy is considerable, and that patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk. Furthermore, yeast infections are associated with higher complication rates and mortality. These observations encourage further prospective investigations on the possible benefits of antifungal prophylactic therapy for esophagectomy patients.


Assuntos
Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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