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1.
Med Mycol ; 57(Supplement_3): S328-S343, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292663

RESUMO

The high burden and growing prevalence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), the toxicity and interactions associated with current antifungal drugs, as well as the increasing resistance, ask for the development of new antifungal drugs, preferably with a novel mode of action. Also, the availability of oral or once-weekly alternatives would enable ambulatory treatment resulting in an improved patient's comfort and therapy adherence. However, only one new azole and two new posaconazole-formulations were marketed over the last decade. This review focuses on the antifungal drugs in the pipeline undergoing clinical evaluation. First, the newest azole, isavuconazole, with its improved safety profile and reduction in DDIs, will be discussed. Moreover, there are two glucan synthase inhibitors (GSIs) in the antifungal pipeline: rezafungin (CD101), a long-acting echinocandin with an improved stability that enables once weekly administration, and SCY-078, an orally available GSI with efficacy against azole- and echinocandin resistant isolates. A new oral formulation of amphotericin B will also be presented. Moreover, the first representative of a new antifungal class, the orotomides, with a broad spectrum and no cross-resistance with current antifungal classes, will be discussed. Finally, an overview of other antifungals that are still in earlier clinical development phases, is provided.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Micoses/patologia
2.
Mycoses ; 62(10): 860-873, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271676

RESUMO

Experimental alternative ex vivo models that simulate infectious processes in vivo are of fundamental importance for the evaluation of new drugs, since in some cases, their execution does not depend on the approval of an ethics committee in research. Although studies using alternative infectious models to evaluate the efficacy of antifungal molecules have been increasingly described and reported, there is no critical consensus that establishes the most appropriate ones regarding the type of infection. Numerous studies contemplate ex vivo protocols of fungal infections on nails, corneas, dentinal tubules and skin and reveal counterpoints and concordances not yet finely confronted. In this minireview, we propose a critical analysis of the main ex vivo models of fungal infections for the evaluation of new antifungal candidates for both topical and systemic use, as opposed to the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional in vivo models employed in preclinical research.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(16): 1909-1918, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little study has investigated the differences between Talatomyces marneffei (T. marneffei) respiratory infection and tuberculosis and the prognostic factors of such infection. This study investigated the characteristics and prognostic factors of T. marneffei infections with respiratory lesions and the causes of misdiagnosis. METHODS: Clinical characteristics and prognoses of patients with T. marneffei infections with respiratory system lesion were investigated. T. marneffei diagnosis followed isolation from clinical specimens using standard culture, cytology, and histopathology. Survival curves were estimated by using Kaplan-Meier analysis, with log-rank test to compare differences in survival rates between groups. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were also performed to assess significant differences in clinical characteristics of overall survival. RESULTS: Of 126 patients diagnosed with T. marneffei infections, 63 (50.0%) had T. marneffei respiratory system infections; 38.1% (24/63) were misdiagnosed as having tuberculosis. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, CD4/CD8 < 0.5, percentage of CD4 T cells <42.8%, and length of time from onset to confirmation of diagnosis >105 days were potential risk factors for poor prognoses. Length of time from onset to confirmation of diagnosis persisted as an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in multivariate analysis (odds ratio: 0.083, 95.0% confidence interval: 0.021-0.326, P < 0.001). However, the size of the lung lesions, dyspnea, thoracalgia, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion did not significantly predict overall survival. There was no significant difference in prognosis according to the type of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: T. marneffei infections involving the respiratory system are common. The critical determinants of prognosis are HIV infection, CD4/CD8, percentage of CD4 T cells, type of treatment, and the time range from onset to confirmation of diagnosis. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial for improving prognosis.


Assuntos
Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Talaromyces/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Talaromyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Mycoses ; 62(10): 883-892, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166635

RESUMO

The current knowledge of invasive Scopulariopsis/Microascus infection in lung transplantation has been derived from only four case reports. Although these fungi are uncommon compared with Aspergillus, they are highly resistant to the current antifungal agents, and the mortality is extremely high. To explore the risk factors, clinical manifestations, notable diagnostic characteristics and outcomes of positive Scopulariopsis/Microascus isolation in lung transplantation patients. We included all cases with positive Scopulariopsis/Microascus isolation from lower respiratory tracts or bronchial mucosa biopsies in our lung transplantation centre. Proven cases from the literature were added. Positive isolation occurred in 2% (3/157) in our centre. Four cases from the literature were added. The mortality could be considered as high as 80%, once the two cases of colonisation were excluded. The average interval between transplantation and positive isolation was 106 (19-131) days. A total of 57.1% of patients had experienced a combination of infection with Aspergillus or other fungi as well as long-term azole antifungal agent treatment before the positive isolation, which may be possible risk factors. The combination of micafungin, posaconazole and terbinafine may be an effective treatment. The peak time of positive isolation was consistent with that of some opportunistic pathogens, and the possible risk factors were the infection of other fungi as well as prior long-term azole antifungal administration. In addition to its high mortality, Scopulariopsis/Microascus was also highly resistant to common antifungal agents and the combination of two or three drugs for therapy was recommended.


Assuntos
Brônquios/microbiologia , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/patologia , Scopulariopsis/isolamento & purificação , Transplantados , Adulto , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
5.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 48(2): 250-254, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175684

RESUMO

Histoplasmosis is one of the most common systemic fungal diseases in cats from the United States. It commonly causes respiratory or disseminated disease and is often associated with one or more cytopenias. Here, we describe 32 cats in which a Histoplasma-like fungal infection was associated with concurrent hemophagia in at least one sample site, commonly spleen, bone marrow, liver, and/or lymph node. The degree of hemophagia was characterized as moderate or marked in the majority of cases, and in all cases, there was a predominance of phagocytized mature erythrocytes. A few cases also had macrophages with phagocytized erythroid precursors, platelets, and/or neutrophils. Complete blood count results were available for 25 cats, and cytopenias were common (20/25), including solitary anemia (10), anemia and thrombocytopenia (5), solitary neutropenia (2), pancytopenia (2), and anemia and neutropenia (1). Bone marrow samples were only available in a small subset of cases, preventing the further assessment of the causes of the cytopenias. Hemophagocytosis has been previously reported in cats with neoplastic diseases and a cat with calicivirus infection, and likely occurs with other conditions as well, such as hemorrhage or hemolysis. Results of this report suggest that systemic fungal disease is an additional differential to consider when there is hemophagia in a feline cytology sample.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Histoplasmose/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/veterinária , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Medula Óssea/patologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Eritrócitos/patologia , Feminino , Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Histoplasmose/microbiologia , Histoplasmose/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/patologia , Fagocitose , Baço/patologia
6.
Mycopathologia ; 184(3): 423-431, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with eosinophilic mucin is considered rare in Korea. The object of this study was to categorize CRS patients with eosinophilic mucin into several groups and compared the groups based on their clinicopathological and radiological features. METHODS: In total, 105 CRS patients with eosinophilic mucin from four tertiary medical centers which are located at Chungcheong province of Korea were included for this study. The patients were divided into four groups for analysis, based on the presence or absence of an allergy (A) to a fungus or fungal element (F) in the mucin. The following were the four groups: allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS, A+F+), AFRS-like sinusitis (A+F-), eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis (EFRS, A-F+), and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis (EMRS, A-F-). Their clinical manifestation, the presence of associated disease, radiological finding, treatment, and treatment outcome were reviewed and compared. RESULTS: There were no patients in the AFRS-like sinusitis group, 47 patients were assigned to the AFRS group, 27 to the EFRS group, and 41 to the EMRS group. Patients of AFRS group showed a significantly higher association with allergic rhinitis than did the other groups. The mean total serum IgE level in the AFRS patients was significantly higher than in the EFRS and EMRS patients. In the AFRS group and EFRS group, 67.6% and 74.1% had unilateral disease, respectively, in contrast to the EMRS group (4.9%). The mean Hounsfield unit values of the area of high attenuation in the AFRS patients were significantly higher than those in the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Significant clinicopathological differences existed among the subgroups of CRS with eosinophilic mucin. AFRS tends to be an allergic response to colonizing fungi in atopic individuals. In EFRS, local allergies to fungi might play a role in the disease. EMRS is thought to be unconnected with fungal allergies, and it showed different form compared with the AFRS and EFRS groups.


Assuntos
Eosinófilos/imunologia , Mucinas/análise , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/patologia , Sinusite/microbiologia , Sinusite/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Coreia (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sinusite/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6076571, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080825

RESUMO

Cerebral involvement especially brain abscess is life-threatening complication and major cause of death during Scedosporium apiospermum infection. However, little is known about pathogenesis of brain oedema associated with abscess in scedosporiosis. Experimental scedosporiosis was conducted in BALB/cMlac mice to characterize the presence of brain oedema, its type, and its related mechanisms focusing on aquaporin (AQP)-4, nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor (Nrf-2), and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α. The results revealed that S. apiospermum infection induced severe inflammatory environment relevant to TNF-α expression and cytogenic oedema-associated brain abscess predominately in cerebrum of immunocompromised mice without voriconazole treatment reflecting to downregulation of AQP-4 in neighboring abscess areas and oedematous blood vessels. Downregulation of Nrf-2 in neuronal cells and myelin degeneration were significantly observed in nontreated mice. In summary, oxidative stress, severe inflammatory response, and space-occupying mass from abscess formation inducing tissue hypoxia might be the postulate causes of oedema induced by scedosporiosis.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4/metabolismo , Abscesso Encefálico/imunologia , Abscesso Encefálico/metabolismo , Edema Encefálico/metabolismo , Micoses/imunologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Scedosporium/patogenicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/patologia , Abscesso Encefálico/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Hipóxia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Micoses/patologia , Bainha de Mielina , Estresse Oxidativo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Voriconazol/farmacologia
10.
Semin Diagn Pathol ; 36(3): 177-181, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010605

RESUMO

Fungal infections throughout the world appear to be increasing. This may in part be due to the increase in the population of patients that are susceptible to otherwise rare fungal infections resulting from the use of immune modulating procedures such as hematopoietic stem cell transplants and drugs like tissue necrosis factor antagonists. Histoplasma capsulatum, an endemic fungus throughout North and South America, is reemerging among HIV+ patients in Central and South America and among patients taking tissue necrosis factor antagonists and other biologics in North America. Fusarium species, a relatively rare fungal infection, is reemerging worldwide in the immunocompromised populations, especially those who are neutropenic like hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. A new yeast species is currently emerging worldwide: Candida auris, unknown just a decade ago. It is causing large healthcare-associated outbreaks on four continents and is spreading throughout the world through patient travel. In this review the epidemiology, pathology, detection and treatment of these three emerging and reemerging fungi will be discussed.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Micoses/epidemiologia , Humanos , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/patologia , Micoses/terapia
11.
Mycopathologia ; 184(3): 441-453, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949880

RESUMO

Colletotrichum species are known as important pathogens of plants with an impact on crop production. Some of these species are also known as a cause of rare ophthalmic infections in humans. A case of keratitis caused by Colletotrichum dematium after corneal trauma in a 56-year-old woman is presented. Infection was diagnosed based on positive microscopy and culture. The fungal isolate was identified by morphological characteristics and DNA sequencing of the ITS rDNA region, ß-tubulin (tub2) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) genes. The patient responded well to topical therapy with amphotericin B combined with intravenous amphotericin B but improvement was associated with the corneal collagen cross-linking. The review of the literature revealed another 13 cases of C. dematium keratitis, all but one patient having at least one keratitis risk factor in their history. Almost all patients (n = 12) were treated with topical polyene antibiotics (natamycin or amphotericin B), improvement and cure were achieved in eight of them.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum/isolamento & purificação , Traumatismos Oculares/complicações , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/patologia , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/patologia , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Colletotrichum/classificação , Colletotrichum/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenase (Fosforiladora)/genética , Humanos , Ceratite/microbiologia , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Micoses/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Resultado do Tratamento , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(2): e2018070, Abr.-Jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-994653

RESUMO

Esophageal infection by Candida spp. is a common opportunistic entity in immunocompromised hosts; however, systemic fungal dissemination due to perforation or transmural necrosis, also known as necrotizing Candida esophagitis (NCE), is rare. We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient with diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis, severe arteriosclerosis, and vasculitis under immunosuppressive therapy who presented NCE with fungal and bacterial septicemia diagnosed at autopsy. Necrotizing esophagitis is a rare manifestation of Candida infection, which may be a final complication in severely ill patients. Unfortunately, it may be underdiagnosed, and we call attention to this devastating complication in patients with leukocytoclastic cutaneous vasculitis and ankylosing spondylitis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esofagite/patologia , Candidíase Invasiva/patologia , Micoses/patologia , Necrose , Autopsia , Espondilite Anquilosante/complicações , Evolução Fatal , Vasculite Leucocitoclástica Cutânea/complicações , Sepse/complicações
14.
Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung ; 66(1): 31-55, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816806

RESUMO

Murine models are suggested as the gold standard for scientific research, but they have many limitations of ethical and logistical concern. Then, the alternative host models have been developed to use in many aspects especially in invertebrate animals. These models are selected for many areas of research including genetics, physiology, biochemistry, evolution, disease, neurobiology, and behavior. During the past decade, Galleria mellonella has been used for several medical and scientific researches focusing on human pathogens. This model commonly used their larvae stage due to their easy to use, non-essential special tools or special technique, inexpensive, short life span, and no specific ethical requirement. Moreover, their innate immune response close similarly to mammals, which correlate with murine immunity. In this review, not only the current knowledge of characteristics and immune response of G. mellonella, and the practical use of these larvae in medical mycology research have been presented, but also the better understanding of their limitations has been provided.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lepidópteros/imunologia , Lepidópteros/microbiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Larva/imunologia , Larva/microbiologia
15.
Med Mycol ; 57(8): 1018-1023, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759240

RESUMO

Fonsecaea monophora has been the predominant pathogen of chromoblastomycosis in Southern China, but its pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. New models are needed to study this infection. In the current study, we examined the role of melanin on the pathogenicity of F. monophora in Galleria mellonella model using melanin and albino strain. Interestingly, the albino mutant strain displayed higher pathogenicity compared to the melanin stain and restoration of melanin of albino mutant could reverse the pathogenicity. Histopathology showed that inflammatory nodules were bigger than that infected with albino cells, which suggested that melanized cells could trigger a robust cellular immune response of G. mellonella than albino cells. The activated immune response in G. mellonella induced by melanized cells might explain the decreased virulence of melanized cells in larvae model. While further study was needed to gain full insights into the molecular immunological mechanism in G. mellonella activated by melanin.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Lepidópteros/microbiologia , Melaninas/deficiência , Mutação , Micoses/microbiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Histocitoquímica , Micoses/patologia , Virulência
17.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 33(3): 310-316, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is characterized by higher revision endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) rates and unique radiographic features when compared to chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) or chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP). OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that an increased frequency of concha bullosa in AFRS or other radiographic nuances might allow for accumulation of allergic mucin and contribute to increased ESS revision rates. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Patient diagnosis (AFRS, CRSwNP, and CRSsNP), basic demographics, and prior ESS rates were collected. RESULTS: A total of 210 consecutive patients were included (AFRS = 70, CRSwNP = 70, and CRSsNP = 70). Pediatric AFRS patients had more unilateral disease (38.1% vs 4.4%; P = .007) and anterior ethmoid skull base erosion (23.8% vs 6.7%; P = .047) than adult AFRS patients. AFRS patients were more likely to be younger (24.9 ± 10.1 years vs 45.6 ± 14.4 years vs 48.7 ± 18.2 years; P < .001), African American (70% vs 14.3% vs 11.4%; P < .001), and have undergone prior ESS (54.3% vs 45.7% vs 31.4%; P = .02) than CRSwNP or CRSsNP patients. Concha bullosa were more prevalent in AFRS patients than CRSwNP or CRSsNP patients across the population (42.9%, 18.6%, and 14.3%; P < .001) and in the setting of no previous surgery (53.1%, 31.6%, and 16.7%; P < .001). CONCLUSION: In this cohort, pediatric AFRS patients had more unilateral disease and anterior ethmoid skull base erosion. Concha bullosa prevalence was significantly higher in AFRS as compared to those with CRSwNP or CRSsNP, despite prior ESS. Surgeons should consider concha bullosa as a potential anatomical subsite to harbor recurrent or residual disease.


Assuntos
Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico por imagem , Sinusite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Doença Crônica , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Micoses/patologia , Micoses/cirurgia , Pólipos Nasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Pólipos Nasais/patologia , Pólipos Nasais/cirurgia , Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Seios Paranasais/patologia , Seios Paranasais/cirurgia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite Alérgica/microbiologia , Rinite Alérgica/patologia , Rinite Alérgica/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco , Sinusite/microbiologia , Sinusite/patologia , Sinusite/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 44(4): e133-e139, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of onychomycosis is mainly based on clinical diagnosis with auxiliary diagnostic methods such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy, periodic acid-Schiff staining or fungal culture. However, each method is limited by its sensitivity and specificity. AIM: To develop a new test method using the common fungal end product, ergosterol, and investigate if it can be used as a new diagnostic tool. METHODS: We collected consecutive data from 20 participants with nail problems. Following clinical diagnosis, samples were taken for KOH microscopy and for mass spectrometry (MS) to check for the presence of ergosterol. RESULTS: Of the 20 cases collected, 7 were positive for fungal infection by MS. Four of these were already suspected to have onychomycosis, whereas one of the remaining three subjects was presumed to have dry nail and the other two to have onycholysis. The MS test seemed to be better at detecting combinations of nail conditions. Conversely, of the five patients clinically diagnosed as having onychomycosis, four had a positive MS result, whereas the fifth had negative results on both KOH and MS. Two other participants had a positive KOH test and were also found to have positive MS results. CONCLUSION: Detection of the presence of ergosterol by MS seems to be a useful tool for confirming onychomycosis. However, further studies are needed to verify the sensitivity and specificity of this MS method.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Micoses/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Humanos , Hidróxidos/metabolismo , Microscopia/métodos , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/patologia , Doenças da Unha/microbiologia , Doenças da Unha/patologia , Unhas/metabolismo , Unhas/microbiologia , Unhas/patologia , Unhas/ultraestrutura , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/metabolismo , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Reação do Ácido Periódico de Schiff/métodos , Compostos de Potássio/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Vet Pathol ; 56(3): 486-493, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651051

RESUMO

Proventricular infection with the anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast Macrorhabdus ornithogaster and disease associated with infection (macrorhabdiosis) have been widely reported in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus). Proventricular adenocarcinoma has also been previously reported in this species. In a retrospective archival search of clinical cases submitted to a zoo animal and exotic pet pathology service between 1998 and 2013, a total of 28 128 avian submissions were identified, which included 1006 budgerigars kept in zoos or aviaries or as pets. Of these budgerigars, 177 were identified histologically as infected with M. orthithogaster at the time of necropsy. Histologic examination of tissues from budgerigars infected with M. orthithogaster identified an apparent continuum in the development of proventricular isthmus lesions associated with M. ornithogaster that included inflammation, mucosal hyperplasia, glandular dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma. Proventricular adenocarcinoma was identified histologically in 21 budgerigars. Budgerigars with proventricular adenocarcinoma were significantly more likely to have macrorhabdiosis than budgerigars without proventricular adenocarcinoma. Based on odds ratios for archival data, budgerigars were 41 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 33-52) more likely to have macrorhabdiosis than other avian species and 19 times (95% CI, 11-33) more likely to have proventricular adenocarcinoma than other birds. Budgerigars were 323 times (95% CI, 42-2490) more likely to be affected by both diseases simultaneously compared with other avian species. These findings suggest that macrorhabdiosis may be an associated factor for proventricular adenocarcinoma, although the explanation for this statistically significant correlation remains unknown and further investigation is warranted.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Melopsittacus/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Proventrículo , Saccharomycetales , Gastropatias/veterinária , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adenocarcinoma/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Micoses/complicações , Micoses/patologia , Proventrículo/microbiologia , Proventrículo/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gastropatias/microbiologia , Gastropatias/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/veterinária
20.
Microb Pathog ; 128: 317-322, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660735

RESUMO

Fusariosis is an infection that is caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus. It is the second most common fungus that is associated with human fungal infections, usually in immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of such infections has been increasing, including in immunocompetent hosts. Studies of host-pathogen interactions are scarce, and the pathophysiology of the disease is unknown. One limitation of such studies is the lack of adequate techniques for mammalian infection, in which no standardized protocols have been established with fungi with a focus on the respiratory tract. The aim of the present study was to assess the first 24 h of infection after the intratracheal inoculation of F. solani microconidia in immunocompetent mice. Colony-forming units (CFU) were counted, and histopathological analysis was performed. Under conditions of high fungal burden, F. solani caused lethal tissue damage in the lungs. Under conditions of low fungal burden, the infection was not lethal, but several alterations of pulmonary tissue and the presence of the fungus in the lungs were observed. No evidence of fungal dissemination was found in the kidneys, spleen, liver, or heart 24 h after infection. The present intratracheal model effectively established fungal infection and appears to be suitable for studies of Fusarium spp.


Assuntos
Fusariose/microbiologia , Fusariose/patologia , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Traqueia/microbiologia , Traqueia/patologia , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Micoses/imunologia , Micoses/patologia , Esporos Fúngicos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos
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