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1.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 140: 1-11, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618283

RESUMO

Discovered in 2013, the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is an emerging amphibian pathogen that causes ulcerative skin lesions and multifocal erosion. A closely related pathogen, B. dendrobatidis (Bd), has devastated amphibian populations worldwide, suggesting that Bsal poses a significant threat to global salamander biodiversity. To expedite research into this emerging threat, we seek to standardize protocols across the field so that results of laboratory studies are reproducible and comparable. We have collated data and experience from multiple labs to standardize culturing practices of Bsal. Here we outline common culture practices including a medium for standardized Bsal growth, standard culturing protocols, and a method for isolating Bsal from infected tissue.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Micoses/veterinária , Anfíbios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Urodelos
2.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 140: 73-78, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672152

RESUMO

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been detected in wild hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis populations, with rare instances of chytridiomycosis and Bd-induced mortality. To date, Bd surveillance in hellbender populations has been disproportionately focused on adult age classes. A lingering question is whether Bd might contribute to hellbender declines through disproportionate negative effects on immature age classes. The objective of this study was to quantify Bd prevalence and load in immature hellbenders in western North Carolina, USA. We conducted field surveys during 2018 and 2019 and collected 88 skin swabs from 84 hellbenders spanning 3 age classes. Bd was detected on 11% of individuals, including 8 larvae and 1 juvenile. We did not detect symptoms of chytridiomycosis or a decline in body condition in Bd-positive hellbenders. Load varied from approximately 1-153 zoospore equivalents for the 9 Bd-positive hellbenders and was not associated with size class of the individual. While hellbenders appeared to be abundant in each survey reach, more work is needed to determine whether Bd may increase the vulnerability of immature hellbenders to anthropogenic stressors.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , North Carolina , Prevalência , Urodelos
3.
Aust Vet J ; 98(7): 333-337, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a commercially available in-water amphotericin B treatment for Macrorhabdus ornithogaster. DESIGN: Clinical treatment trial. METHODS: Faecal shedding of 16 naturally infected budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) was monitored while they were being treated using in-water amphotericin B, as per the manufacturer's instructions, for 10 days. Any birds that remained positive after 10 days received a further 10 day course of treatment. All birds were rechecked 16 days after the end of the second treatment period. RESULTS: At the conclusion of treatment, 11 birds had stopped shedding M. ornithogaster, and 5 birds were still shedding. Sixteen days after the conclusion of the second treatment period, four birds that were negative after 10 days of treatment were shedding again, and two of the birds that were treated for 20 days were shedding. In addition, one bird from each treatment group died after treatment and before follow-up testing. CONCLUSION: These findings represent a 36% treatment failure, suggesting that treatment with the commercially available, water-soluble amphotericin B has inconsistent efficacy against M. ornithogaster in some budgerigars in Australia and is not effective for eliminating it from budgerigar aviaries.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Melopsittacus , Micoses/veterinária , Anfotericina B , Animais , Austrália , Água
4.
Can Vet J ; 61(2): 142-146, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020931

RESUMO

A 4-year-old Huacaya hembra was evaluated for acute neurologic signs including recumbency and a left head tilt. Cranial nerve examination revealed a left ear droop, muzzle deviation to the right, mydriasis of the left eye, an absent menace response, bilateral absent pupillary light reflex when light was directed into the left eye, and bilateral horizontal nystagmus with fast phase to the right. Multifocal intracranial lesions were suspected. Computed tomography revealed an intracranial mass. Postmortem examination, histopathology, and sequencing of a polymerase chain reaction product confirmed a diagnosis of phaeohyphomycotic meningoencephalitis caused by Cladophialophora bantiana. Key clinical message: Advanced diagnostic imaging (computed tomography) was useful in achieving a diagnosis of an intracranial mass in an alpaca with acute neurological signs, later confirmed to be central nervous system (CNS) phaeohyphomycosis. Although uncommon, intracranial fungal infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis in camelid patients exhibiting CNS signs, particularly if they do not respond to initial antimicrobial and anthelmintic therapy.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Camelídeos Americanos , Meningoencefalite/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Feoifomicose/veterinária , Animais
5.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 11, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an important microsporidian parasite with zoonotic potential. The present study highlights the impact of encephalitozoonosis on rabbit health in Egypt. Three rabbit farms in Giza, with a total of 16,400 rabbits were investigated due to occurrence of rabbits displaying clinical signs consistent with encephalitozoonosis. RESULTS: Clinical signs observed during a 4 months observation period in 2018 included vestibular disease, paresis, limb paralysis, cataracts, phacoclastic uveitis, frequent urination, marked decrease in body weight and in some pregnant females, also repeated abortions. The total morbidity rates in adult and young rabbits were 76.7% and 81.5%, respectively. The highest mortality rate was recorded in offspring (12.3%), followed by dams (5.6%), and the lowest recorded mortality rate was in males (0.04%). Post-mortem findings included enteritis, pale enlarged kidneys, congested leptomeninges, focal brain necrosis, and endometrial congestion. Histopathological examination revealed nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis and glial nodules with central necrosis in the brain, vacuolation and necrosis of renal tubular epithelium, and corneal ulceration and ruptured lens capsule with fragmentation of lenticular fibres. E. cuniculi were observed in the brain, retinal ganglion cells, kidneys, and liver. Transmission electron microscopy examination revealed the presence of different developmental stages of E. cuniculi in the brain and kidney. Presence of E. cuniculi was confirmed by conventional polymerase chain reaction using a universal 16S gene for Encephalitozoon spp. followed by sequencing and sequence analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of E. cuniculi in rabbits was confirmed at three farms in Egypt. Nervous signs and ocular lesions were the most predominant findings in these farms.


Assuntos
Encephalitozoon cuniculi/isolamento & purificação , Encefalitozoonose/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Egito/epidemiologia , Encephalitozoon cuniculi/genética , Encephalitozoon cuniculi/ultraestrutura , Encefalitozoonose/epidemiologia , Encefalitozoonose/microbiologia , Encefalitozoonose/patologia , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Micoses/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Coelhos
7.
Aust Vet J ; 98(5): 185-189, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disseminated mycoses other than aspergillosis are infrequently reported in dogs. CASE REPORT: A 4-year-old female Labrador retriever was evaluated because of hyperthermia, cough and intermittent lameness. Computed tomography showed a soft tissue mass in the cranioventral mediastinum, severe left and central tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy, and moderate bilateral pleural effusion. Magnetic resonance imaging identified an irregular intra-axial well-defined contrast enhancing mass extending from the right frontal lobe to the right thalamus. Fungal culture yielded growth of Chaetomium globosum. CONCLUSION: In this case, the authors report a systemic mycosis in a Labrador retriever caused by C. globosum. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first report of systemic disease by this species in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Chaetomium , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão , Cães , Feminino
8.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(1): 162-165, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876248

RESUMO

We describe herein the clinical, endoscopic, computed tomography (CT), pathologic, and microbiologic features of an infection caused by an under-recognized fungal pathogen, Flavodon flavus, in a 25-y-old Australian Quarter Horse. The horse had a unilateral obstructive nasal mass, resulting in stertor and dyspnea. On endoscopy, the mass was tan, multinodular, and completely obstructed the nasal passage. CT analysis revealed a large, soft tissue-attenuating and partially mineralized mass in the right nasal passage and dorsal-conchofrontal sinus, expanding into adjacent paranasal sinuses with associated bone lysis and rhinosinusitis. Histopathology of the mass on 2 occasions revealed suppurative inflammation initially, and pyogranulomatous inflammation subsequently. The inflammatory reaction surrounded numerous spherical fungal structures (~60-80 µm diameter) that stained positively on periodic acid-Schiff and Grocott methenamine silver stains. PCR for the fungal internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions followed by Sanger sequencing on a cultured isolate identified the agent as F. flavus, which has only been reported previously as pathogenic in one horse in the United States, to our knowledge. Previous reports described this fungus as a nonpathogenic, environmental commensal fungus associated with insects and plants.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Rinite/veterinária , Sinusite/veterinária , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Micoses/microbiologia , Seios Paranasais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rinite/microbiologia , Sinusite/microbiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(2): 437-457, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866683

RESUMO

The growth of aquaculture over the past 50 years has been accompanied by the emergence of aquatic animal diseases, many of which have spread to become pandemic in countries or continents. An analysis of 400 emerging disease events in aquatic animals that were logged by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science between 2002 and 2017 revealed that more than half were caused by viruses. However, in molluscs, most events were parasitic. Categorising these events indicated that the key processes underpinning emergence were the movement of live animals and host switching. Profiles of key pathogens further illustrate the importance of wild aquatic animals as the source of new infections in farmed animals. It is also clear that the spread of new diseases through the largescale movement of aquatic animals for farming, for food and for the ornamental trade has allowed many to achieve pandemic status. Many viral pathogens of fish (e.g. infectious salmon anaemia, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia) and shrimp (e.g. white spot syndrome virus) affect a large proportion of the global production of key susceptible species. Wild aquatic animal populations have also been severely affected by pandemic diseases, best exemplified by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a fungal infection of amphibians, whose emergence and spread were driven by the movement of animals for the ornamental trade. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is now widespread in the tropics and subtropics and has caused local extinctions of susceptible amphibian hosts. Given the rising demand for seafood, aquacultural production will continue to grow and diseases will continue to emerge. Some will inevitably achieve pandemic status, having significant impacts on production and trade, unless there are considerable changes in global monitoring and the response to aquatic animal diseases.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Pandemias/veterinária , Frutos do Mar , Animais , Aquicultura , Quitridiomicetos , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Frutos do Mar/parasitologia , Frutos do Mar/virologia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222718, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618214

RESUMO

Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases are becoming more frequent as climate changes wildlife communities at unprecedented rates, driving population declines and raising concerns for species conservation. One critical disease is the global pandemic of chytridiomycosis in frogs, which can be caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Although there is clear evidence for Bd-induced mortality across high-elevation frog communities, little attention is given to the role of lowlands in Bd's persistence and spread because low elevations are assumed to be too warm to harbor significant levels of Bd. Here, we report widespread Bd infection across 80 frog species from three sites in the lowland Peruvian Amazon, an area with no documented Bd-related amphibian declines. Despite observing no clinical signs of infection in the field, we found that 24-46% of individuals were infected per site (up to ≈105,000 zoospore equivalents per frog) by three Bd strains from the global pandemic lineage (Bd-GPL). We also found collection site and seasonal effects to be only weak predictors of Bd prevalence and load, with lower elevation and drier habitats marginally decreasing both prevalence and load. We found no further effect of host phylogeny, ecotype, or body size. Our results showing high and widespread prevalence across a lowland tropical ecosystem contradict the expectations based on the global pattern of pathogenicity of Bd that is largely restricted to higher elevations and colder temperatures. These findings imply that the lowlands may play a critical role in the spread and persistence of Bd over time and space.


Assuntos
Altitude , Anuros/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos/patogenicidade , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Anuros/genética , Quitridiomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Masculino , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Peru , Filogenia , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 354, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoleptodiscus indicus is a dematiaceous hyphomycete fungus found on plant leaves. It has been rarely reported as a cause of human or animal disease, possibly because it is difficult to culture and identify from clinical specimens. Infections are presumably acquired by traumatic implantation. CASE PRESENTATION: An 8-year-old non-immunosuppressed cat from Georgia, USA, presented with a left front leg swelling without lameness. Cytology from a fine needle aspirate revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation with both cytoplasmic and extracellular fungal elements. There were septate hyphae with irregularly sized segments, non-staining uneven walls, and rounded yeast-like forms from which longer hyphae arose in a hub-and-spoke pattern. A mold was isolated on agar from a fine needle aspirate collected 1 week later and identified as M. indicus by morphology, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The cat recovered completely and uneventfully with antifungal treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We report a previously undescribed presentation of M. indicus causing a subcutaneous infection in a cat with successful antifungal treatment. In this study we highlight the potential of M. indicus to infect immunocompetent animals, and the veterinary medical community should be aware of its unusual but characteristic clinical, microbiological and cytologic presentation.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/veterinária , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/imunologia , Gatos , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Membro Anterior , Imunocompetência , Masculino , Micoses/imunologia , Filogenia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/imunologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Tela Subcutânea , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(11): 1628-1631, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611481

RESUMO

Pulmonary mycosis is a fungal disease that commonly affects bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and is generally treated by the oral administration of azoles, such as itraconazole (ITZ) and voriconazole (VRZ). However, antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates has not been well performed as a routine clinical examination in aquaria. In this study, we collected fungal species from the blowholes of 14 bottlenose dolphins, of which 12 were treated with ITZ or VRZ. All dolphins were housed in the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium. The fungal species Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus, and A. niger were isolated. E-tests were performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ITZ and VRZ on these isolates. VRZ-resistant C. tropicalis (MIC: >32 µg/ml) and A. niger (MIC: >32 µg/ml) were isolated from three dolphins treated with ITZ or VRZ. Additionally, azole-resistant isolates of C. albicans and C. glabrata were collected from two dolphins that had never received azole therapy. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to report the isolation of VRZ-resistant C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and A. niger from the blowholes of bottlenose dolphins. Thus, antifungal susceptibility testing is a crucial strategy for selecting antifungal agents to treat respiratory fungal infections in bottlenose dolphins in aquaria.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/microbiologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida tropicalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida tropicalis/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Japão , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/veterinária , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
14.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0219981, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536501

RESUMO

Amphibians, the most threatened group of vertebrates, are seen as indicators of the sixth mass extinction on earth. Thousands of species are threatened with extinction and many have been affected by an emerging infectious disease, chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). However, amphibians exhibit different responses to the pathogen, such as survival and population persistence with infection, or mortality of individuals and complete population collapse after pathogen invasion. Multiple factors can affect host pathogen dynamics, yet few studies have provided a temporal view that encompasses both the epizootic phase (i.e. pathogen invasion and host collapse), and the transition to a more stable co-existence (i.e. recovery of infected host populations). In the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA, conspecific populations of frogs currently exhibit dramatically different host/ Bd-pathogen dynamics. To provide a temporal context by which present day dynamics may be better understood, we use a Bd qPCR assay to test 1165 amphibian specimens collected between 1900 and 2005. Our historical analyses reveal a pattern of pathogen invasion and eventual spread across the Sierra Nevada over the last century. Although we found a small number of Bd-infections prior to 1970, these showed no sign of spread or increase in infection prevalence over multiple decades. After the late 1970s, when mass die offs were first noted, our data show Bd as much more prevalent and more spatially spread out, suggesting epizootic spread. However, across the ~400km2 area, we found no evidence of a wave-like pattern, but instead discovered multiple, nearly-simultaneous invasions within regions. We found that Bd invaded and spread in the central Sierra Nevada (Yosemite National Park area) about four decades before it invaded and spread in the southern Sierra Nevada (Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks area), and suggest that the temporal pattern of pathogen invasion may help explain divergent contemporary host pathogen dynamics.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Micoses/veterinária , Anfíbios/microbiologia , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Quitridiomicetos/fisiologia , Museus , Nevada
15.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222237, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536533

RESUMO

Many climate change models predict increases in frequency and magnitude of temperature fluctuations that might impact how ectotherms are affected by disease. Shifts in temperature might especially affect amphibians, a group with populations that have been challenged by several pathogens. Because amphibian hosts invest more in immunity at warmer than cooler temperatures and parasites might acclimate to temperature shifts faster than hosts (creating lags in optimal host immunity), researchers have hypothesized that a temperature shift from cold-to-warm might result in increased amphibian sensitivity to pathogens, whereas a shift from warm-to-cold might result in decreased sensitivity. Support for components of this climate-variability based hypothesis have been provided by prior studies of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) that causes the disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians. We experimentally tested whether temperature shifts before exposure to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) alters susceptibility to the disease chytridiomycosis in the larval stage of two amphibian species-western toads (Anaxyrus boreas) and northern red legged frogs (Rana aurora). Both host species harbored elevated Bd infection intensities under constant cold (15° C) temperature in comparison to constant warm (20° C) temperature. Additionally, both species experienced an increase in Bd infection abundance after shifted from 15° C to 20° C, compared to a constant 20° C but they experienced a decrease in Bd after shifted from 20° C to 15° C, compared to a constant 15° C. These results are in contrast to prior studies of adult amphibians highlighting the potential for species and stage differences in the temperature-dependence of chytridiomycosis.


Assuntos
Bufonidae/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos/patogenicidade , Micoses/veterinária , Ranidae/microbiologia , Animais , Larva/microbiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Temperatura
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(41): 20382-20387, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548391

RESUMO

Biodiversity loss is one major outcome of human-mediated ecosystem disturbance. One way that humans have triggered wildlife declines is by transporting disease-causing agents to remote areas of the world. Amphibians have been hit particularly hard by disease due in part to a globally distributed pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]). Prior research has revealed important insights into the biology and distribution of Bd; however, there are still many outstanding questions in this system. Although we know that there are multiple divergent lineages of Bd that differ in pathogenicity, we know little about how these lineages are distributed around the world and where lineages may be coming into contact. Here, we implement a custom genotyping method for a global set of Bd samples. This method is optimized to amplify and sequence degraded DNA from noninvasive skin swab samples. We describe a divergent lineage of Bd, which we call BdASIA3, that appears to be widespread in Southeast Asia. This lineage co-occurs with the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) in multiple localities. Additionally, we shed light on the global distribution of BdGPL and highlight the expanded range of another lineage, BdCAPE. Finally, we argue that more monitoring needs to take place where Bd lineages are coming into contact and where we know little about Bd lineage diversity. Monitoring need not use expensive or difficult field techniques but can use archived swab samples to further explore the history-and predict the future impacts-of this devastating pathogen.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Quitridiomicetos/genética , Saúde Global , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/microbiologia
17.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 48(3): 449-454, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512276

RESUMO

An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador Retriever presented with acute forelimb lameness. Clinical signs progressed over one week. On physical examination, right cubital joint effusion and bilateral axillary lymphadenomegaly were noted, and severe internal lymphadenomegaly was observed ultrasonographically. Granulomatous lymphadenitis with intralesional fungi was noted cytologically, and the dog was ultimately diagnosed with disseminated Talaromyces helicus infection via PCR of a pure isolate. Extensive medical therapy was pursued, and months later, an arthrocentesis was performed due to continued lameness and severe cubital joint effusion. The synovial fluid contained increased numbers of neutrophils, macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. Frequent fungal hyphae were found both intracellularly and extracellularly. These basophilic organisms were 2-4 µm in width with internal eosinophilic granules, roughly parallel walls, and occasional to frequent septa. Round to oval yeast-like forms with thin, clear halos were also occasionally identified. Due to the severity of clinical signs, the right thoracic limb was amputated. Histologic examination of the cubital joint revealed marked granulomatous synovitis, fasciitis, panniculitis, and osteomyelitis, all with intralesional fungi. Talaromyces helicus is a very rare cause of disease, reported only in one other dog. Granulomatous lymphadenitis appears to be a feature of this disease, but this report is the first to describe a significant synovial component.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Talaromyces , Animais , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Artrite Infecciosa/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Masculino , Micoses/patologia
18.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0223020, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560707

RESUMO

The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis and has been a key driver in the catastrophic decline of amphibians globally. While many strategies have been proposed to mitigate Bd outbreaks, few have been successful. In recent years, the use of probiotic formulations that protect an amphibian host by killing or inhibiting Bd have shown promise as an effective chytridiomycosis control strategy. The North American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is a common carrier of Bd and harbours a diverse skin microbiota that includes lactic acid bacteria (LAB), a microbial group containing species classified as safe and conferring host benefits. We investigated beneficial/probiotic properties: anti-Bd activity, and adhesion and colonisation characteristics (hydrophobicity, biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide-EPS production) in two confirmed LAB (cLAB-Enterococcus gallinarum CRL 1826, Lactococcus garvieae CRL 1828) and 60 presumptive LAB (pLAB) [together named as LABs] isolated from bullfrog skin.We challenged LABs against eight genetically diverse Bd isolates and found that 32% of the LABs inhibited at least one Bd isolate with varying rates of inhibition. Thus, we established a score of sensitivity from highest (BdGPL AVS7) to lowest (BdGPL C2A) for the studied Bd isolates. We further reveal key factors underlying host adhesion and colonisation of LABs. Specifically, 90.3% of LABs exhibited hydrophilic properties that may promote adhesion to the cutaneous mucus, with the remaining isolates (9.7%) being hydrophobic in nature with a surface polarity compatible with colonisation of acidic, basic or both substrate types. We also found that 59.7% of LABs showed EPS synthesis and 66.1% produced biofilm at different levels: 21% weak, 29% moderate, and 16.1% strong. Together all these properties enhance colonisation of the host surface (mucus or epithelial cells) and may confer protective benefits against Bd through competitive exclusion. Correspondence analysis indicated that biofilm synthesis was LABs specific with high aggregating bacteria correlating with strong biofilm producers, and EPS producers being correlated to negative biofilm producing LABs. We performed Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis and demonstrated a higher degree of genetic diversity among rod-shaped pLAB than cocci. Based on the LAB genetic analysis and specific probiotic selection criteria that involve beneficial properties, we sequenced 16 pLAB which were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus, Enterococcus thailandicus, Lactobacillus pentosus/L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. curvatus. Compatibility assays performed with cLAB and the 16 species described above indicate that all tested LAB can be included in a mixed probiotic formula. Based on our analyses, we suggest that E. gallinarum CRL 1826, L. garvieae CRL 1828, and P. pentosaceus 15 and 18B represent optimal probiotic candidates for Bd control and mitigation.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos/patogenicidade , Lactobacillales/imunologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Micoses/veterinária , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Rana catesbeiana/microbiologia , Animais , Quitridiomicetos/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Micoses/imunologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Rana catesbeiana/imunologia , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia
19.
Mycopathologia ; 184(5): 637-644, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414314

RESUMO

White-nose disease, caused by the dermatophyte Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is a devastating pathology that has caused a massive decline in the US bat populations. In Europe, this fungus and the related infection in bats have been recorded in several countries and for many bat species, although no mass mortality has been detected. This study reports for the first time the presence of P. destructans in Italy. The fungus was isolated in the Rio Martino cave, a site located in the Western Alps and included in the Natura 2000 network. Twenty bats, belonging to five different species, were analysed. The fungus was retrieved on eight individuals of Myotis emarginatus. The allied keratolytic species P. pannorum was observed on two other individuals, also belonging to M. emarginatus. Strains were isolated in pure culture and characterized morphologically. Results were validated through molecular analyses. Future work should be dedicated to understand the distribution and the effects of the two Pseudogymnoascus species on Italian bats.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Doenças Nasais/veterinária , Animais , Itália , Micoses/microbiologia , Doenças Nasais/microbiologia
20.
Mycopathologia ; 184(5): 701-706, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376041

RESUMO

Mycelial basidiomycetes rarely produce mycoses in animals including humans. We report a case of a 9-year-old female mongrel dog with lesions in the prescapular lymph nodes. The histopathology of a lymph node sample showed flexuous septate hyphae, and a sterile mold grew in culture from that specimen. DNA sequencing of the ITS region allowed us to identify the fungus as Tropicoporus tropicalis. The dog was treated with itraconazole, but it was euthanized six months later due to an unfavorable clinical outcome. Tropicoporus tropicalis is an infrequent pathogen of pets, and the use of molecular tools is needed for its identification. Animal infections due to T. tropicalis were not previously been reported in Argentina.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Micoses/patologia , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Argentina , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Feminino , Histocitoquímica , Itraconazol/administração & dosagem , Linfonodos/patologia , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Falha de Tratamento
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