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1.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 3242-3252, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622632

RESUMO

L-asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to produce L-aspartic acid and ammonia. It is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants and serum of some rodents, and has important applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries. However, the poor thermal stability, low catalytic efficiency and low yield hampered the further application of L-asparaginase. In this paper, rational design and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) design strategies were used to increase the specific enzyme activity and protein expression of L-asparaginase derived from Rhizomucor miehei (RmAsnase). The results showed that among the six mutants constructed through homology modeling combined with sequence alignment, the specific enzyme activity of the mutant A344E was 1.5 times higher than the wild type. Subsequently, a food-safe strain Bacillus subtilis 168/pMA5-A344E was constructed, and the UTR strategy was used for the construction of recombinant strain B. subtilis 168/pMA5 UTR-A344E. The enzyme activity of B. subtilis 168/pMA5 UTR-A344E was 7.2 times higher than that of B. subtilis 168/pMA5-A344E. The recombinant strain B. subtilis 168/pMA5 UTR-A344E was scaled up in 5 L fermenter, and the final yield of L-asparaginase was 489.1 U/mL, showing great potential for industrial application.


Assuntos
Asparaginase , Rhizomucor , Asparaginase/biossíntese , Asparaginase/genética , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Microbiologia Industrial , Engenharia de Proteínas , Rhizomucor/enzimologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
2.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(19): 7321-7337, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491400

RESUMO

Coenzyme A (CoA) and its derivatives such as acetyl-CoA are essential metabolites for several biosynthetic reactions. In the yeast S. cerevisiae, five enzymes (encoded by essential genes CAB1-CAB5; coenzyme A biosynthesis) are required to perform CoA biosynthesis from pantothenate, cysteine, and ATP. Similar to enzymes from other eukaryotes, yeast pantothenate kinase (PanK, encoded by CAB1) turned out to be inhibited by acetyl-CoA. By genetic selection of intragenic suppressors of a temperature-sensitive cab1 mutant combined with rationale mutagenesis of the presumed acetyl-CoA binding site within PanK, we were able to identify the variant CAB1 W331R, encoding a hyperactive PanK completely insensitive to inhibition by acetyl-CoA. Using a versatile gene integration cassette containing the TPI1 promoter, we constructed strains overexpressing CAB1 W331R in combination with additional genes of CoA biosynthesis (CAB2, CAB3, HAL3, CAB4, and CAB5). In these strains, the level of CoA nucleotides was 15-fold increased, compared to a reference strain without additional CAB genes. Overexpression of wild-type CAB1 instead of CAB1 W331R turned out as substantially less effective (fourfold increase of CoA nucleotides). Supplementation of overproducing strains with additional pantothenate could further elevate the level of CoA (2.3-fold). Minor increases were observed after overexpression of FEN2 (encoding a pantothenate permease) and deletion of PCD1 (CoA-specific phosphatase). We conclude that the strategy described in this work may improve the efficiency of biotechnological applications depending on acetyl-CoA. Key points • A gene encoding a hyperactive yeast pantothenate kinase (PanK) was constructed. • Overexpression of CoA biosynthetic genes elevated CoA nucleotides 15-fold. • Supplementation with pantothenate further increased the level of CoA nucleotides.


Assuntos
Acetilcoenzima A/biossíntese , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Microbiologia Industrial , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502147

RESUMO

Tetramethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide that is commonly used worldwide. The toxicity of this insecticide into the living system is an important concern. In this study, a novel tetramethrin-degrading bacterial strain named A16 was isolated from the activated sludge and identified as Gordonia cholesterolivorans. Strain A16 exhibited superior tetramethrin degradation activity, and utilized tetramethrin as the sole carbon source for growth in a mineral salt medium (MSM). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the A16 strain was able to completely degrade 25 mg·L-1 of tetramethrin after 9 days of incubation. Strain A16 effectively degraded tetramethrin at temperature 20-40 °C, pH 5-9, and initial tetramethrin 25-800 mg·L-1. The maximum specific degradation rate (qmax), half-saturation constant (Ks), and inhibition constant (Ki) were determined to be 0.4561 day-1, 7.3 mg·L-1, and 75.2 mg·L-1, respectively. The Box-Behnken design was used to optimize degradation conditions, and maximum degradation was observed at pH 8.5 and a temperature of 38 °C. Five intermediate metabolites were identified after analyzing the degradation products through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which suggested that tetramethrin could be degraded first by cleavage of its carboxylester bond, followed by degradation of the five-carbon ring and its subsequent metabolism. This is the first report of a metabolic pathway of tetramethrin in a microorganism. Furthermore, bioaugmentation of tetramethrin-contaminated soils (50 mg·kg-1) with strain A16 (1.0 × 107 cells g-1 of soil) significantly accelerated the degradation rate of tetramethrin, and 74.1% and 82.9% of tetramethrin was removed from sterile and non-sterile soils within 11 days, respectively. The strain A16 was also capable of efficiently degrading a broad spectrum of synthetic pyrethroids including D-cyphenothrin, chlorempenthrin, prallethrin, and allethrin, with a degradation efficiency of 68.3%, 60.7%, 91.6%, and 94.7%, respectively, after being cultured under the same conditions for 11 days. The results of the present study confirmed the bioremediation potential of strain A16 from a contaminated environment.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biotransformação , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(20): 7769-7783, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581845

RESUMO

Rasamsonia emersonii (previously Talaromyces emersonii) is a thermophilic filamentous fungus displaying optimum growth at 45 °C. It has a history of use in commercial food enzyme production. Its unfractionated chitinolytic secretome was partially characterised in the early 1990s; however, no individual chitinase from this source has been described in literature previously. This study describes two GH18 chitinases originating from the R. emersonii genome, expressed in the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris. Chit1 comprises of a GH18 catalytic domain and Chit2 comprises of a GH18 catalytic domain and a chitin-binding motif at the C-terminal. The chitinases were expressed as glycoproteins. The apparent molecular weight of Chit1 was 35.8-42.1 kDa with a smearing tail associated with glyco-sidechains visible up to 72.2 kDa. This became two bands of 30.8 and 29.0 kDa upon de-glycosylation. The apparent molecular weight of Chit2 was 50.4 kDa, reducing to 48.2 kDa upon de-glycosylation. Both chitinases displayed endo-chitinase and chitobiosidase activity, temperature optima of 50-55 °C and low pH optima (pH 4.5 or lower); Chit1 displayed a pH optimum of 3.5, retaining > 60% maximum activity at pH 2.2, a pH range lower than most enzymes of fungal origin. Chit2 displayed the highest chitin-degrading ability at 3456 µmol/mg on 4-NP-triacetylchitotriose, but lost activity faster than Chit1, which displayed 403 µmol/mg on the same substrate. The predicted D values (time required to reduce the enzyme activity to 10% of its original value at 50 °C) were 19.2 and 2.3 days for Chit1 and Chit2, respectively. Thus, Chit1 can be considered one of few hyperthermostable chitinase enzymes described in literature to date. Their physicochemical properties render these chitinases likely suitable for shrimp chitin processing including one-step chitin hydrolysis and alternative sustainable protein processing and the attractive emerging application of mushroom food waste valorisation.Key points• Two GH18 chitinases originating from the industrially relevant thermophilic fungus R. emersonii were cloned and expressed in P. pastoris.• The purified recombinant chitinases showed low pH and high temperature optima and appreciable thermostability at industrially relevant temperatures.• The chitinases displayed characteristics that indicate their likely suitability to several industrial applications including sustainable alternative protein processing, food waste valorisation of commercial mushroom production and one-step shrimp chitin processing.


Assuntos
Quitinases , Eurotiales/enzimologia , Eliminação de Resíduos , Quitina , Quitinases/biossíntese , Quitinases/genética , Alimentos , Microbiologia Industrial , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360993

RESUMO

The ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (CP) plays a crucial role in iron homeostasis in vertebrates together with the iron exporter ferroportin. Mutations in the CP gene give rise to aceruloplasminemia, a rare neurodegenerative disease for which no cure is available. Many aspects of the (patho)physiology of CP are still unclear and would benefit from the availability of recombinant protein for structural and functional studies. Furthermore, recombinant CP could be evaluated for enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of aceruloplasminemia. We report the production and preliminary characterization of high-quality recombinant human CP in glycoengineered Pichia pastoris SuperMan5. A modified yeast strain lacking the endogenous ferroxidase has been generated and employed as host for heterologous expression of the secreted isoform of human CP. Highly pure biologically active protein has been obtained by an improved two-step purification procedure. Glycan analysis indicates that predominant glycoforms HexNAc2Hex8 and HexNAc2Hex11 are found at Asn119, Asn378, and Asn743, three of the canonical four N-glycosylation sites of human CP. The availability of high-quality recombinant human CP represents a significant advancement in the field of CP biology. However, productivity needs to be increased and further careful glycoengineering of the SM5 strain is mandatory in order to evaluate the possible therapeutic use of the recombinant protein for enzyme replacement therapy of aceruloplasminemia patients.


Assuntos
Ceruloplasmina/genética , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Saccharomycetales/genética , Ceruloplasmina/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo
6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 871, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267314

RESUMO

Fungal biotechnology is set to play a keystone role in the emerging bioeconomy, notably to address pollution issues arising from human activities. Because they preserve biological diversity, Biological Resource Centres are considered as critical infrastructures to support the development of biotechnological solutions. Here, we report the first large-scale phenotyping of more than 1,000 fungal strains with evaluation of their growth and degradation potential towards five industrial, human-designed and recalcitrant compounds, including two synthetic dyes, two lignocellulose-derived compounds and a synthetic plastic polymer. We draw a functional map over the phylogenetic diversity of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, to guide the selection of fungal taxa to be tested for dedicated biotechnological applications. We evidence a functional diversity at all taxonomic ranks, including between strains of a same species. Beyond demonstrating the tremendous potential of filamentous fungi, our results pave the avenue for further functional exploration to solve the ever-growing issue of ecosystems pollution.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Corantes/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Lignina/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Variação Genética , Geografia , Humanos , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(18): e0112321, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232062

RESUMO

Cell chaining in Bacillus subtilis is naturally observed in a subset of cells during exponential growth and during biofilm formation. However, the recently constructed large-scale genome-minimized B. subtilis strain PG10 displays a severe and permanent defect in cell separation, as it exclusively grows in the form of long filaments of nonseparated cells. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms responsible for the incomplete cell division of PG10 by genomic and transcriptomic analyses. Repression of the SigD regulon, including the major autolysin gene lytF, was identified as the cause for the cell separation problem of PG10. It appeared that SigD-regulated genes are downregulated in PG10 due to the absence of the flagellar export apparatus, which normally is responsible for secretion of FlgM, the anti-sigma factor of SigD. Although mild negative effects on growth and cell morphology were observed, deletion of flgM could revert the aberrant cell-chaining phenotype and increased transformation efficiency. Interestingly, our work also demonstrates the occurrence of increased antisense transcription of slrR, a transcriptional repressor of autolysin genes, in PG10 and provides further understanding for this observation. In addition to revealing the molecular basis of the cell separation defect in PG10, our work provides novel targets for subsequent genome reduction efforts and future directions for further optimization of miniBacillus PG10. IMPORTANCE Reduction of the size of bacterial genomes is relevant for understanding the minimal requirements for cellular life as well as from a biotechnological point of view. Although the genome-minimized Bacillus subtilis strain PG10 displays several beneficial traits as a microbial cell factory compared to its parental strain, a defect at the final stage of cell division was introduced during the genome reduction process. By genetic and transcriptomic analyses, we identified the underlying reasons for the cell separation problem of PG10. In addition to enabling PG10 to grow in a way similar to that of B. subtilis wild-type strains, our work points toward subsequent targets for fine-tuning and further reduction of the genome of PG10. Moreover, solving the cell separation defect facilitates laboratory handling of PG10 by increasing the transformation efficiency, among other means. Overall, our work contributes to understanding and improving biotechnologically attractive minimal bacterial cell factories.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/citologia , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Divisão Celular , N-Acetil-Muramil-L-Alanina Amidase/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Microbiologia Industrial
8.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067973

RESUMO

Agaricus bisporus secretes siderophore to uptake environmental iron. Siderophore secretion in A. bisporus was enabled only in the iron-free minimal medium due to iron repression of hapX, a transcriptional activator of siderophore biosynthetic genes. Aiming to produce siderophore using conventional iron-containing complex media, we constructed a recombinant strain of A. bisporus that escapes hapX gene repression. For this, the A. bisporushapX gene was inserted next to the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (pGPD) in a binary vector, pBGgHg, for the constitutive expression of hapX. Transformants of A. bisporus were generated using the binary vector through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR and Northern blot analyses of the chromosomal DNA of the transformants confirmed the successful integration of pGPD-hapX at different locations with different copy numbers. The stable integration of pGPD-hapX was supported by PCR analysis of chromosomal DNA obtained from the 20 passages of the transformant. The transformants constitutively over-expressed hapX by 3- to 5-fold and sidD, a key gene in the siderophore biosynthetic pathway, by 1.5- to 4-fold in mRNA levels compared to the wild-type strain (without Fe3+), regardless of the presence of iron. Lastly, HPLC analysis of the culture supernatants grown in minimal medium with or without Fe3+ ions presented a peak corresponding to iron-chelating siderophore at a retention time of 5.12 min. The siderophore concentrations of the transformant T2 in the culture supernatant were 9.3-fold (-Fe3+) and 8-fold (+Fe3+) higher than that of the wild-type A. bisporus grown without Fe3+ ions, while no siderophore was detected in the wild-type supernatant grown with Fe3+. The results described here demonstrate the iron-independent production of siderophore by a recombinant strain of A. bisporus, suggesting a new application for mushrooms through molecular biological manipulation.


Assuntos
Agaricus/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Ferro/metabolismo , Sideróforos/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Agaricus/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sideróforos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 48(5-6)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124750

RESUMO

Alkyl glycosides are well-characterized nonionic surfactants, and can be prepared by transglycosylation reactions with retaining GH1 glycosidases being normally used for this purpose. The produced alkyl glycosides can also be hydrolyzed by the glycosidase, and hence, the yields of alkyl glycosides can be too low for industrial use. To improve the transglycosylation-to-hydrolysis ratio for a ß-glucosidase from Thermotoga maritima (TmBglA) for the synthesis of alkyl glycoside, six mutants (N222F, N223C, N223Q, G224A, Y295F, and F414S) were produced. N222F, N223C, N223Q, G224A improved catalytic activity, F295Y and F414S are hydrolytically crippled with p-nitrophenol-ß-d-glucopyranoside (pNPG) as substrate with an 85 and 70-fold decrease in apparent kcat, respectively; N222F shows the highest kcat/km value for pNPG. The substrate selectivity altered from pNPG to pNP-ß-d-fucoside for N222F, F295Y, and F414S and from cellubiose to gentiobiose for N222F and F414S. Using pNPG (34 mM) and hexanol 80% (vol/vol), N222F, Y295F, and F414S synthesized hexyl-ß-glycoside (HG) yields of 84.7%, 50.9%, and 54.1%, respectively, HG increased from 14.49 (TmBglA) to 22.8 mM (N222F) at 2 hr by 57.42%. However, this higher transglycosylation effect depended on that three mutants creates an environment more suited for hexanol in the active site pocket, and consequently suppressed its HG hydrolysis.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/biossíntese , Thermotoga maritima/enzimologia , Thermotoga maritima/genética , beta-Glucosidase/genética , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Alquilação , Dissacarídeos/biossíntese , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Microbiologia Industrial , Cinética , Engenharia Metabólica , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Conformação Proteica , Especificidade por Substrato
10.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 48(5-6)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124759

RESUMO

Ammonium hydroxide is conventionally used as an alkaline reagent and cost-effective nitrogen source in enzyme manufacturing processes. However, few ammonia-inducible enzyme expression systems have been described thus far. In this study, genomic-wide transcriptional changes in Bacillus licheniformis CBBD302 cultivated in media supplemented with ammonia were analyzed, resulting in identification of 1443 differently expressed genes, of which 859 genes were upregulated and 584 downregulated. Subsequently, the nucleotide sequences of ammonia-inducible promoters were analyzed and their functionally-mediated expression of amyL, encoding an α-amylase, was shown. TRNA_RS39005 (copA), TRNA_RS41250 (sacA), TRNA_RS23130 (pdpX), TRNA_RS42535 (ald), TRNA_RS31535 (plp), and TRNA_RS23240 (dfp) were selected out of the 859 upregulated genes and each showed higher transcription levels (FPKM values) in the presence of ammonia and glucose than that of the control. The promoters, PcopA from copA, PsacA from sacA, PpdpX from pdpX, Pald from ald, and Pplp from plp, except Pdfp from dfp, were able to mediate amyL expression and were significantly induced by ammonia. The highest enzyme expression level was mediated by Pplp and represented 23% more α-amylase activity after induction by ammonia in a 5-L fermenter. In conclusion, B. licheniformis possesses glucose-independent ammonia-inducible promoters, which can be used to mediate enzyme expression and therefore enhance the enzyme yield in fermentations conventionally fed with ammonia for pH adjustment and nitrogen supply.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , DNA Bacteriano , Fermentação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microbiologia Industrial , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , alfa-Amilases/genética
11.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 48(5-6)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137896

RESUMO

Fructooligosaccharides (FOSs)-fructose-based oligosaccharides-are typical prebiotics with health-promoting effects in humans and animals. The trisaccharide 1-kestotriose is the most attractive inulin-type FOS. We previously reported a recombinant sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST, EC 2.4.1.99) from Schedonorus arundinaceus (Sa) that efficiently converts sucrose into 1-kestotriose. In this study, Pichia pastoris PGFT6x-308 constitutively expressing nine copies of the Sa1-SST gene displayed fructosyltransferase activity in undisrupted biomass (49.8 U/ml) and culture supernatant (120.7 U/ml) in fed-batch fermentation (72 hr) with sugarcane molasses. Toluene permeabilization increased 2.3-fold the Sa1-SSTrec activity of whole cells entrapped in calcium-alginate beads. The reaction with refined or raw sugar (600 g/l) yielded 1-kestotriose and 1,1-kestotetraose in a ratio of 8:2 with their sum representing above 55% (wt/wt) of total carbohydrates. The FOSs yield decreased to 45% (wt/wt) when sugarcane syrup and molasses were used as cheaper sucrose sources. The beads retained 80% residual Sa1-SSTrec activity after a 30-day batchwise operation with refined cane sugar at 30°C and pH 5.5. The immobilized biocatalyst is attractive for the continuous production of short-chain FOSs, most particularly 1-kestotriose.


Assuntos
Hexosiltransferases/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Alginatos/química , Carboidratos/análise , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Imobilizadas , Fermentação , Hexosiltransferases/genética , Humanos , Microbiologia Industrial , Inulina/metabolismo , Melaço , Pichia/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales , Sacarose , Tolueno/farmacologia , Trissacarídeos/biossíntese
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3912, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162838

RESUMO

Biological lignin valorization has emerged as a major solution for sustainable and cost-effective biorefineries. However, current biorefineries yield lignin with inadequate fractionation for bioconversion, yet substantial changes of these biorefinery designs to focus on lignin could jeopardize carbohydrate efficiency and increase capital costs. We resolve the dilemma by designing 'plug-in processes of lignin' with the integration of leading pretreatment technologies. Substantial improvement of lignin bioconversion and synergistic enhancement of carbohydrate processing are achieved by solubilizing lignin via lowering molecular weight and increasing hydrophilic groups, addressing the dilemma of lignin- or carbohydrate-first scenarios. The plug-in processes of lignin could enable minimum polyhydroxyalkanoate selling price at as low as $6.18/kg. The results highlight the potential to achieve commercial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates as a co-product of cellulosic ethanol. Here, we show that the plug-in processes of lignin could transform biorefinery design toward sustainability by promoting carbon efficiency and optimizing the total capital cost.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/metabolismo , Bioengenharia/economia , Bioengenharia/métodos , Carboidratos/química , Hidrólise , Microbiologia Industrial/economia , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(16): e0077921, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105983

RESUMO

Lactococcus lactis has great potential for high-yield production of mannitol, which has not yet been fully realized. In this study, we characterize how the mannitol genes in L. lactis are organized and regulated and use this information to establish efficient mannitol production. Although the organization of the mannitol genes in L. lactis was similar to that in other Gram-positive bacteria, mtlF and mtlD, encoding the enzyme IIA component (EIIAmtl) of the mannitol phosphotransferase system (PTS) and the mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, respectively, were separated by a transcriptional terminator, and the mannitol genes were found to be organized in two transcriptional units: an operon comprising mtlA, encoding the enzyme IIBC component (EIIBCmtl) of the mannitol PTS, mtlR, encoding a transcriptional activator, and mtlF, as well as a separately expressed mtlD gene. The promoters driving expression of the two transcriptional units were somewhat similar, and both contained predicted catabolite responsive element (cre) genes. The presence of carbon catabolite repression was demonstrated and was shown to be relieved in stationary-phase cells. The transcriptional activator MtlR (mtlR), in some Gram-positive bacteria, is repressed by phosphorylation by EIIAmtl, and when we knocked out mtlF, we indeed observed enhanced expression from the two promoters, which indicated that this mechanism was in place. Finally, by overexpressing the mtlD gene and using stationary-phase cells as biocatalysts, we attained 10.1 g/liter mannitol with a 55% yield, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest titer ever reported for L. lactis. Summing up, the results of our study should be useful for improving the mannitol-producing capacity of this important industrial organism. IMPORTANCE Lactococcus lactis is the most studied species of the lactic acid bacteria, and it is widely used in various food fermentations. To date, there have been several attempts to persuade L. lactis to produce mannitol, a sugar alcohol with important therapeutic and food applications. Until now, to achieve mannitol production in L. lactis with significant titer and yield, it has been necessary to introduce and express foreign genes, which precludes the use of such strains in foods, due to their recombinant status. In this study, we systematically characterize how the mannitol genes in L. lactis are regulated and demonstrate how this impacts mannitol production capability. We harnessed this information and managed to establish efficient mannitol production without introducing foreign genes.


Assuntos
Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Manitol/metabolismo , Óperon , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Microbiologia Industrial , Lactococcus lactis/genética
14.
Microb Cell Fact ; 20(1): 111, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pamamycins are macrodiolides of polyketide origin which form a family of differently large homologues with molecular weights between 579 and 663. They offer promising biological activity against pathogenic fungi and gram-positive bacteria. Admittedly, production titers are very low, and pamamycins are typically formed as crude mixture of mainly smaller derivatives, leaving larger derivatives rather unexplored so far. Therefore, strategies that enable a more efficient production of pamamycins and provide increased fractions of the rare large derivatives are highly desired. Here we took a systems biology approach, integrating transcription profiling by RNA sequencing and intracellular metabolite analysis, to enhance pamamycin production in the heterologous host S. albus J1074/R2. RESULTS: Supplemented with L-valine, the recombinant producer S. albus J1074/R2 achieved a threefold increased pamamycin titer of 3.5 mg L-1 and elevated fractions of larger derivatives: Pam 649 was strongly increased, and Pam 663 was newly formed. These beneficial effects were driven by increased availability of intracellular CoA thioesters, the building blocks for the polyketide, resulting from L-valine catabolism. Unfavorably, L-valine impaired growth of the strain, repressed genes of mannitol uptake and glycolysis, and suppressed pamamycin formation, despite the biosynthetic gene cluster was transcriptionally activated, restricting production to the post L-valine phase. A deletion mutant of the transcriptional regulator bkdR, controlling a branched-chain amino acid dehydrogenase complex, revealed decoupled pamamycin biosynthesis. The regulator mutant accumulated the polyketide independent of the nutrient status. Supplemented with L-valine, the novel strain enabled the biosynthesis of pamamycin mixtures with up to 55% of the heavy derivatives Pam 635, Pam 649, and Pam 663: almost 20-fold more than the wild type. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings open the door to provide rare heavy pamamycins at markedly increased efficiency and facilitate studies to assess their specific biological activities and explore this important polyketide further.


Assuntos
Macrolídeos/metabolismo , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Valina/metabolismo , 3-Metil-2-Oxobutanoato Desidrogenase (Lipoamida)/genética , 3-Metil-2-Oxobutanoato Desidrogenase (Lipoamida)/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Microbiologia Industrial , Metaboloma , Família Multigênica , Mutação
15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(6): e1009093, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129600

RESUMO

Microbial communities have become a major research focus due to their importance for biogeochemical cycles, biomedicine and biotechnological applications. While some biotechnological applications, such as anaerobic digestion, make use of naturally arising microbial communities, the rational design of microbial consortia for bio-based production processes has recently gained much interest. One class of synthetic microbial consortia is based on specifically designed strains of one species. A common design principle for these consortia is based on division of labor, where the entire production pathway is divided between the different strains to reduce the metabolic burden caused by product synthesis. We first show that classical division of labor does not automatically reduce the metabolic burden when metabolic flux per biomass is analyzed. We then present ASTHERISC (Algorithmic Search of THERmodynamic advantages in Single-species Communities), a new computational approach for designing multi-strain communities of a single-species with the aim to divide a production pathway between different strains such that the thermodynamic driving force for product synthesis is maximized. ASTHERISC exploits the fact that compartmentalization of segments of a product pathway in different strains can circumvent thermodynamic bottlenecks arising when operation of one reaction requires a metabolite with high and operation of another reaction the same metabolite with low concentration. We implemented the ASTHERISC algorithm in a dedicated program package and applied it on E. coli core and genome-scale models with different settings, for example, regarding number of strains or demanded product yield. These calculations showed that, for each scenario, many target metabolites (products) exist where a multi-strain community can provide a thermodynamic advantage compared to a single strain solution. In some cases, a production with sufficiently high yield is thermodynamically only feasible with a community. In summary, the developed ASTHERISC approach provides a promising new principle for designing microbial communities for the bio-based production of chemicals.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biotecnologia/métodos , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Biomassa , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Biologia Computacional , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Modelos Biológicos , Software , Especificidade da Espécie , Fosfatos Açúcares/biossíntese , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Termodinâmica
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3254, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059668

RESUMO

The capability to design microbiomes with predictable functions would enable new technologies for applications in health, agriculture, and bioprocessing. Towards this goal, we develop a model-guided approach to design synthetic human gut microbiomes for production of the health-relevant metabolite butyrate. Our data-driven model quantifies microbial interactions impacting growth and butyrate production separately, providing key insights into ecological mechanisms driving butyrate production. We use our model to explore a vast community design space using a design-test-learn cycle to identify high butyrate-producing communities. Our model can accurately predict community assembly and butyrate production across a wide range of species richness. Guided by the model, we identify constraints on butyrate production by high species richness and key molecular factors driving butyrate production, including hydrogen sulfide, environmental pH, and resource competition. In sum, our model-guided approach provides a flexible and generalizable framework for understanding and accurately predicting community assembly and metabolic functions.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Butiratos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biologia Computacional , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Engenharia Metabólica , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Gene ; 793: 145745, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077774

RESUMO

Microbial lipid production of oleaginous strains involves in a complex cellular metabolism controlling lipid biosynthesis, accumulation and degradation. Particular storage lipid, triacylglycerol (TAG), contributes to dynamic traits of intracellular lipids and cell growth. To explore a basis of TAG degradation in the oleaginous strain of Aspergillus oryzae, the functional role of two intracellular triacylglycerol lipases, AoTgla and AoTglb, were investigated by targeted gene disruption using CRISPR/Cas9 system. Comparative lipid profiling of different cultivation stages between the control, single and double disruptant strains (ΔAotgla, ΔAotglb and ΔAotglaΔAotglb strains) showed that the inactivation of either AoTgla or AoTglb led to the increase of total lipid contents, particularly in the TAG fraction. Moreover, the prolonged lipid-accumulating stage of all disruptant strains was obtained as indicated by a reduction in specific rate of lipid turnover, in which a holding capacity in maximal lipid and TAG levels was achieved. The involvement of AoTgls in spore production of A. oryzae was also discovered. In addition to the significance in lipid physiology of the oleaginous fungi, this study provides an impact on industrial practice by overcoming the limitation in short lipid-accumulating stage of the fungal strain, which facilitate the cell harvesting step at the maximum lipid production yield.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/enzimologia , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Lipase/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/enzimologia , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Aspergillus oryzae/classificação , Aspergillus oryzae/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Microbiologia Industrial , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Cinética , Lipase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Micélio/enzimologia , Micélio/genética , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/genética , Triglicerídeos/genética
18.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 48(5-6)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956122

RESUMO

Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is the most thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium known and has the native ability to utilize unpretreated plant biomass. Cellulase A (CelA) is the most abundant enzyme in the exoproteome of C. bescii and is primarily responsible for its cellulolytic ability. CelA contains a family 9 glycoside hydrolase and a family 48 glycoside hydrolase connected by linker regions and three carbohydrate-binding domains. A truncated version of the enzyme (TM1) containing only the endoglucanase domain is thermostable and actively degrades crystalline cellulose. A catalytically active TM1 was successfully produced via the attachment of the PelB signal peptide (P-TM1), which mediates post-translational secretion via the SecB-dependent translocation pathway. We sought to enhance the extracellular secretion of TM1 using an alternative pathway, the signal recognition particle (SRP)-dependent translocation pathway. The co-translational extracellular secretion of TM1 via the SRP pathway (D-TM1) resulted in a specific activity that was 4.9 times higher than that associated with P-TM1 overexpression. In batch fermentations, the recombinant Escherichia coli overexpressing D-TM1 produced 1.86 ± 0.06 U/ml of TM1 in the culture medium, showing a specific activity of 1.25 ± 0.05 U/mg cell, 2.7- and 3.7-fold higher than the corresponding values of the strain overexpressing P-TM1. We suggest that the TM1 secretion system developed in this study can be applied to enhance the capacity of E. coli as a microbial cell factory for the extracellular secretion of this as well as a variety proteins important for commercial production.


Assuntos
Celulase/biossíntese , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Via Secretória , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Caldicellulosiruptor/enzimologia , Caldicellulosiruptor/genética , Carboxipeptidases/genética , Celulase/genética , Celulose/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano , Escherichia coli/genética , Fermentação , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Microbiologia Industrial , Mutação , Peptidoglicano/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2290: 3-21, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009579

RESUMO

Renewable biobutanol production is receiving more attention toward substituting fossil-based nonrenewable fuels. Biobutanol is recognized as the top most biofuel with extraordinary properties as compared with gasoline. The demand for biobutanol production is increasing enormously due to application in various industries as chemical substituent. Biobutanol production technology has attracted many researchers toward implementation of replacing cost-effective substrate and easy method to recover from the fermentation broth. Sugarcane bagasse, algal biomass, crude glycerol, and lignocellulosic biomass are potential cost-effective substrates which could replace consistent glucose-based substrates. The advantages and limitations of these substrates have been discussed in this chapter. Moreover, finding the integrated biobutanol recovery methods is an important factor parameter in production of biobutanol. This chapter also concentrated on possibilities and drawbacks of obtainable integrated biobutanol recovery methods. Thus, successful process involving cost-effective substrate and biobutanol recovery methods could help to implementation of biobutanol production industry. Overall, this chapter has endeavored to increase the viability of industrial production of biobutanol.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Butanóis/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Butanóis/síntese química , Butanóis/química , Celulose , Fermentação , Glicerol/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Lignina/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Saccharum
20.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(7): 4091-4100, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052891

RESUMO

This work aimed to investigate the production of prodigiosin by S. marcescens UCP 1549 in solid-state fermentation (SSF), as a sustainable alternative for reducing the production costs and environmental impact. Thus, different agro-industrial substrates were used in the formulation of the prodigiosin production medium, obtaining the maximum yield of pigment (119.8 g/kg dry substrate) in medium consisting of 5 g wheat bran, 5% waste soybean oil and saline solution. The pigment was confirmed as prodigiosin by the maximum absorbance peak at 535 nm, Rf 0.9 in TLC, and the functional groups by infrared spectrum (FTIR). Prodigiosin demonstrated stability at different values of temperature, pH and NaCl concentrations and antimicrobial properties, as well as not show any toxicity. These results confirm the applicability of SSF as a sustainable and promising technology and wheat bran as potential agrosubstrate to produce prodigiosin, making the bioprocess economic and competitive for industrial purposes.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Industrial , Prodigiosina , Serratia marcescens , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Meios de Cultura/química , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Prodigiosina/biossíntese , Serratia marcescens/metabolismo
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