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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 314: 108360, 2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678600

RESUMO

Due to a higher probability for violation of hygiene measures, reconstruction work is a substantial food safety challenge for food business operators (FBOs). Here, we monitored a Listeria monocytogenes contamination scenario during a timely enduring reconstruction period that aimed at an expansion of the main building of a leading meat processing facility. Reconstruction took place while food production was ongoing. We used a longitudinal sampling scheme targeting 40 floor water drains distributed over the food processing environment (FPE) over a five year period. The population structure of L. monocytogenes was determined by PCR-serogrouping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). While the first sampling deciphered a baseline of contamination (45%), intensified sanitation measures decreased L. monocytogenes prevalence before commencement of work (5%). The reconstruction activities increased the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the FPE (20.5%) and changed the population structure to a higher proportion of disease-associated genotypes (61%). During the first sampling ST121 was prevalent throughout the FPE, even in the packaging area. After the second and third sampling, following increased application of hypochlorite during sanitation, ST121 was only present in the raw material preparation area. A resilient flora was detected during three sampling events (ST8, ST9 and ST37) which might have not been exposed to daily cleaning in the floor drains. After the accomplishment of reconstruction work, the L. monocytogenes population structure shifted to the condition initially found (45% and 20.5% during the first and sixth sampling event). This paper indicates that reconstruction phases are high risk episodes for food safety in FPEs. Special precautions must be taken to avoid cross-contamination of products since reconstruction is usually ongoing for extended periods of time.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Genótipo , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/genética
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 314: 108392, 2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698282

RESUMO

Strawberry production and exports have been increasing in Spain in recent decades. However, little information is available about their microbiological quality. Due to the growing concern about the microbial safety of these fruits, the objective of this investigation was to study the microbiological quality and the prevalence of the main foodborne pathogens on strawberries sold in Spain. Fresh (n = 152) and frozen (n = 31) samples were obtained from marketplaces and fields in 2017 and 2018. The samples were assayed for total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms (TAM), moulds and yeasts (M&Y), total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes as well as Norovirus (NoV) GI and GII. The microbiological counts ranged from <1.70 (detection limit, dl) - 5.89 log10 CFU/g (mean 3.78 log10 CFU/g) for TAM; 2.10-5.86 log10 CFU/g (mean 3.80 log10 CFU/g) for M&Y; and <0.70 (dl) - 4.91 log10 CFU/g (mean 2.15 log10 CFU/g) for TC in fresh strawberries. In frozen strawberries, the counts were <1.70 (dl) - 3.66 log10 CFU/g (mean 2.30 log10 CFU/g) for TAM; <1.70 (dl) - 2.76 log10 CFU/g (mean 1.82 log10 CFU/g) for M&Y; and <0.70(dl) - 1.74 log10 CFU/g (mean 0.77 log10 CFU/g) for TC. All the samples in this study tested negative for Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes. E. coli and NoV GI and GII genome. A global overview of all the data was executed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and the results showed that the scores and loadings according to principal components 1 (PC1) and 2 (PC2) accounted for 75.9% of the total variance, allowing a distinction between fresh and frozen samples. The presence of moulds was significantly higher in the supermarket samples whereas the presence of total coliforms was significantly higher in the field samples (p < 0.05). Although pathogenic microorganisms were not found, preventative measures and prerequisites in the strawberry production chain must be considered in order to avoid possible foodborne diseases related to the microbiological quality of the fruit.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Fragaria/virologia , Alimentos Congelados , Frutas , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Congelados/microbiologia , Alimentos Congelados/virologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Frutas/virologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Espanha
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 314: 108380, 2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707174

RESUMO

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect all warm-blooded animals and it causes the disease toxoplasmosis. Meat containing viable T. gondii tissue cysts is considered one of the main sources of human infection. The relative importance of the different types of meat depends, not only on the prevalence of T. gondii infection in the different livestock species, but also on consumed volumes and preparation habits. To take these factors into account and to estimate the relative contribution of different meat products to human infection, a quantitative risk assessment model for meat-borne T. gondii infection was previously developed. However, at the time, the effect of salting on parasite viability was estimated based on a single experiment. In recent years, data using salting methods that are more in line with processing of meat products have come available. Literature data on the effect of salting on T. gondii viability were collected and used to fit a predictive model. In addition to the new salting model, a lower concentration of bradyzoites in cattle, more specific heating profiles, and more recent consumption data were implemented in the QMRA model for meat-borne T. gondii infection in the Netherlands. Results show that beef remains the most important source, as it contributed 84% of the total number of predicted infections in the Dutch population, followed by pork (12%), mutton (3.7%), lamb (0.2%) pork/beef mixed products (0.1%), and veal (0.01%). The predicted number of T. gondii infections is reasonably in line with epidemiological data. At the product level, filet americain (a raw beef spread) alone contributed 80% of the total predicted infections in the base model, but scenario analyses demonstrate that its contribution is highly dependent on the salting parameters. A clear identification of the most risky meat products is important, as interventions focussing on these products could have a great impact on reducing T. gondii disease burden in the Netherlands. For that reason, it is important that the effects of salting and other processing methods are evaluated in line with industrial processing and incorporated in quantitative risk assessment models for meat-borne toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos da Carne/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Medição de Risco , Carneiro Doméstico , Suínos , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121814

RESUMO

Foodborne pathogens cause thousands of illnesses across the US each year. However, these pathogens gain resistance to the antimicrobials that are commonly used to treat them. Typically, antimicrobial resistance is caused by mechanisms encoded by multiple antimicrobial-resistance genes. These are carried through pathogens found in foods such as meats. It is, thus, important to study the genes that are most related to antimicrobial resistance, the pathogens, and the meats carrying antimicrobial-resistance genes. This information can be further used to correlate the antimicrobial-resistance genes found in humans for improving human health. Therefore, we perform the first multivariate statistical analysis of the antimicrobial-resistance gene data provided in the NCBI Pathogen Detection Isolates Browser database, covering six states that are geographically either in close proximity to one another (i.e., Pennsylvania (PA), Maryland (MD), and New York (NY)) or far (i.e., New Mexico (NM), Minnesota (MN), and California (CA)). Hundreds of multidimensional data points were projected onto a two-dimensional space that was specified by the first and second principal components, which were then categorized with a hierarchical clustering approach. It turns out that aadA, aph(3''), aph(3'')-Ib, aph(6)-I, aph(6)-Id, bla, blaCMY, tet, tet(A), and sul2 constructed the assembly of ten genes that were most commonly involved in antimicrobial resistance in these six states. While geographically close states like PA, MD and NY share more similar antimicrobial-resistance genes, geographically far states like NM, MN, and CA also contain most of these common antimicrobial-resistance genes. One potential reason for this spread of antimicrobial-resistance genes beyond the geographic limitation is that animal meats like chicken and turkey act as the carriers for the nationwide spread of these genes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Análise Multivariada , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214620, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934002

RESUMO

Illnesses caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) can be life threatening, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The STECs most frequently identified by USDA's Microbiological Data Program (MDP) carried toxin gene subtypes stx1a and/or stx2a. Here we described the genome sequences of 331 STECs isolated from foods regulated by the FDA 2010-2017, and determined their genomic identity, serotype, sequence type, virulence potential, and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. Isolates were selected from the MDP archive, routine food testing by FDA field labs (ORA), and food testing by a contract company. Only 276 (83%) strains were confirmed as STECs by in silico analysis. Foods from which STECs were recovered included cilantro (6%), spinach (25%), lettuce (11%), and flour (9%). Phylogenetic analysis using core genome MLST revealed these STEC genomes were highly variable, with some clustering associated with ST types and serotypes. We detected 95 different sequence types (ST); several ST were previously associated with HUS: ST21 and ST29 (O26:H11), ST11 (O157:H7), ST33 (O91:H14), ST17 (O103:H2), and ST16 (O111:H-). in silico virulome analyses showed ~ 51% of these strains were potentially pathogenic [besides stx gene they also carried eae (25%) or 26% saa (26%)]. Virulence gene prevalence was also determined: stx1 only (19%); stx2 only (66%); and stx1/sxt2 (15%). Our data form a new WGS dataset that can be used to support food safety investigations and monitor the recurrence/emergence of E. coli in foods.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Toxina Shiga/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Virulência/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Alimentos/classificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Regulamentação Governamental , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/microbiologia , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Toxina Shiga/classificação , Transcriptoma , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislação & jurisprudência
6.
Int Marit Health ; 70(1): 68-75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbiological monitoring of surfaces used for food preparation, as required by the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan, is important in risky conditions as those observed in the kitchens of ships. Limits to introduce a classification of risk levels and methods to adopt in conditions as those occurring in tankers have not been investigated. This paper presents the results of the "Healthy Ship" project on HACCP monitoring of surfaces used in food preparation on Italian flag tankers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microbiological monitoring was carried out on 19 tankers between 2013 and 2017. Food handlers were also trained on board ship according to HACCP standards. Contact plates (ISO 18593:2004 compliant) were used to determine the colonies and bacterial charge according to the Wirtanen and Salo's method. RESULTS: A total of 1074 samples, 108 before the first course, 168 after the first course, 390 during the period of refresher (2015-2016), and 408 after the refresher training, were obtained from the three main kitchen surfaces: the worktop, cutting board, and kitchen sink. A good level of hygiene was observed in 56.9% of all samples, 0.1% were classified as adequate, and the remaining 43% as poor. The highest contamination was observed on the cutting board and kitchen sink and involved the total aerobic count. The only surface with inadequate levels of hygiene was the worktop. A reduction of contaminated samples was noted after training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that continuous training should be provided for personnel responsible for handling foodstuffs on board ships.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Navios , Carga Bacteriana/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Higiene/educação , Itália , Medicina Naval/métodos
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(16): 369-373, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022166

RESUMO

Foodborne diseases represent a major health problem in the United States. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors cases of laboratory-diagnosed infection caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites.* This report summarizes preliminary 2018 data and changes since 2015. During 2018, FoodNet identified 25,606 infections, 5,893 hospitalizations, and 120 deaths. The incidence of most infections is increasing, including those caused by Campylobacter and Salmonella, which might be partially attributable to the increased use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs). The incidence of Cyclospora infections increased markedly compared with 2015-2017, in part related to large outbreaks associated with produce (1). More targeted prevention measures are needed on produce farms, food animal farms, and in meat and poultry processing establishments to make food safer and decrease human illness.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(3): 298-302, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841671

RESUMO

Objective: To study the contamination, serotype, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and drug resistance of listeria monocytogenes (L.monocytogenes) in the process of restaurant kitchens in Heilongjiang Province. Methods: Seventeen typical restaurants were selected from three cities in Heilongjiang Province in 2016, and 590 kitchen samples were collected and tested according to the national standard method. The serotype, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and drug resistance of isolated strains were analyzed. Results: L. monocytogenes was found in 104 of 590 of the samples analysed (17.63%). The isolates belong to six serotypes (1/2 a, 1/2 b, 1/2c, 3a, 3 b, 4 b) and self-condensing bacteria, and 57.38% (70 strains) of the strains belong to serotype 1/2b. Two highly pathogenic serotype 4b was detected for human listeria disease. The results of PFGE analysis show that the bacteria have cross-contamination in the environment, tools, equipment, food and personnel. The drug resistance results showed that 2 strains were resistant to tetracycline, 1 strain was resistant to erythromycin, 13 strains were intermediate to tetracycline, and 2 strains were resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin. Conclusion: There is a certain degree of L. monocytogenes cross-contamination in the catering kitchen in Heilongjiang Province. And an important serotype 4b that can cause human Listeria disease was detected.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Restaurantes , China , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Sorotipagem , Virulência
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736316

RESUMO

The most frequently notified pathogenic microorganisms in the RASFF in 1980⁻2017 were Salmonella sp., Listeria, Escherichia and Vibrio, whereas, among the notified non-pathogenic microorganisms were unspecified microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella sp. and Coliforms. Microorganisms were reported mainly in poultry meat, meat, fish, molluscs, crustaceans, fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, nuts, milk, cereals (in food) and in feed materials and pet food (in feed). The number of notifications decreased at the turn of 2005 and 2006, but has steadily increased since then. The notification basis were official controls, border controls and company's checks. Products were notified mainly by Italy, France, United Kingdom, Germany and Netherlands. The reported products originated from Brazil, European Union countries and India, Thailand and Vietnam. The notification types were alerts, information and border rejections. The distribution status was often not specified or distribution on the market was possible. The risk decision was usually not made. Products were re-dispatched, import was not authorised or products were withdrawn from the market, destroyed and recalled from the market. Proper cooperation within the framework of the RASFF can contribute to shaping public health law and reducing outbreaks associated with microorganisms.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Ásia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , América do Sul , Verduras/microbiologia
10.
Food Microbiol ; 79: 85-89, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621879

RESUMO

To acquire data on contamination with Norovirus in berry fruit and salad vegetables in the United Kingdom, one thousand one hundred and fifty two samples of fresh produce sold at retail in the UK were analysed for Norovirus. Of 568 samples of lettuce, 30 (5.3%) were Norovirus-positive. Most (24/30) lettuce samples which tested positive for Norovirus were grown in the UK and 19 of those 24 samples contained NoV GI. Seven/310 (2.3%) samples of fresh raspberries were Norovirus-positive. Most (6/7) of the positively-testing fresh raspberry samples were imported, but no predominance of a genogroup, or any seasonality, was observed. Ten/274 (3.6%) samples of frozen raspberries were Norovirus-positive. The country of origin of the positively-testing frozen raspberry samples was not identified in most (7/10) instances. The collected data add to the currently limited body of prevalence information on Norovirus in fresh produce, and indicate the need for implementation of effective food safety management of foodborne viruses.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas/virologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/virologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos Congelados/virologia , Alface/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rubus/virologia , Reino Unido
11.
Food Microbiol ; 79: 90-95, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621880

RESUMO

Cronobacter are opportunistic bacterial pathogens of both infants and adults. We investigated the incidence and distribution of Cronobacter in 1245 samples of cereal and related environments. 39.1% (101/258) rice-related and 46.9% (98/209) wheat-related samples tested positive for Cronobacter, and the positive rate differed notably according to processing method. Cronobacter was found in rice and wheat plants at the tillering, filling and mature stages. Soil, water and swab samples from nearby milling plants were assayed, and results revealed that 6.3% (7/122) of water from paddy fields, 49.1% (28/57) and 62.1% (41/67) of swab samples from rice and wheat flour milling plants were Cronobacter positive. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping indicated that some strains had a common profile, which suggested their persistence in the environment, potential transmission routes and cross-contamination in processing. Finally, we surveyed 18 families to evaluate potential risks. None of the families who primarily ate rice cooked with water tested positive for Cronobacter, though of 66.7% families (6/9) whose food staples were produced from wheat flour tested positive. Taken together, our results are important for understanding Cronobacter transmission and will aid in the development of additional control measures to reduce the risk of infection by these opportunistic pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Cronobacter/isolamento & purificação , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Análise por Conglomerados , Cronobacter/classificação , Cronobacter/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Microbiologia Ambiental , Comportamento Alimentar , Farinha/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 162: 126-130, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621891

RESUMO

A number of animal diseases can be transmitted to pigs via pork meat and pork products imported from infected areas. Therefore, feeding of swill to pigs is regulated or prohibited in many swine-rearing countries. African swine fever is one of the major porcine diseases recognized as significant in this transmission pathway. Assessment of disease risks associated with pork products requires knowledge about the viral load in the original material and for how long infectious virus can be recovered from the resulting product. In this work, we present the effect of the dry curing process on the inactivation of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in three different Italian dry-cured meat products prepared from experimentally infected pigs slaughtered at the peak of viremia. The meat products were processed using commercial methods and industrial procedures currently being followed in Italy. Samples collected at predetermined intervals during processing were analyzed for virus survival by virus isolation and animal inoculation. ASFV was detected by in vivo experiments for up to 18, 60, and 83 days of curing in Italian salami, pork belly, and loin, respectively. These data provide valuable information for the pork processing industry when planning the export of these products.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália , Suínos/virologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 290: 159-169, 2019 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340114

RESUMO

Human noroviruses (NoV) are recognized worldwide as important pathogens and the primary cause of foodborne disease outbreaks from contaminated food in the U.S. They are often transmitted by infected food handlers manipulating foods during preparation, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. This paper provides a study to model the transfer of NoV between food handlers and vegetables during salad preparation in school food services based on direct observation data. Three transfer pathways were modeled by considering different initial contamination sources (environment, handlers and contaminated produce). The probability of infection by NoV was also estimated based on the NoV levels at consumption obtained from each simulated transfer pathway. A scenario analysis ranging a wide concentration from 102 to 107 NoV infective particles was performed to represent different levels of NoV in the initial contamination sources. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was applied to identify the most important model inputs and determine the safest handling practices to be implemented in school food service operations. The pathway describing transfer from contaminated surfaces or handlers to foods indicated that initial levels of ≤104 NoV particles/fomite resulted in <0.5% cases per serving of NoV infection. When initial levels were higher, % cases of NoV infection was estimated to be ca. 3%. This rise in % cases of infection was linked to higher doses (5% serving with ≥15 NoV particles/serving) and prevalence levels at consumption (>0.2). In the pathway modeling cross contamination from contaminated vegetables to non-contaminated vegetables, all scenarios could lead to infected individuals, although number of cases of infection were lower (<1.3%), despite concentration levels were higher. On the contrary, for this pathway, prevalence was 2-fold lower than that observed in the pathways describing transfer from contaminated surfaces and hands. Based on the sensitivity analysis, NoV transfers to fresh produce may be minimized by improving hand washing, and therefore effective training programs need to be carried out specifically addressing hand washing. Moreover, the produce's washing step showed to be an effective control measure, depending on the desinfectant efficacy, by reducing % cases of NoV infection from 6 to 1%. The model in this study might be used, in the future, to evaluate the impact on the risk associated with NoV transmission of specific and effective training programs, aimed at food chain operators.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Verduras/virologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Frutas/virologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Norovirus/fisiologia , Risco
14.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226828, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891609

RESUMO

Retail chicken meat is a potential source of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E). In the past decade, vast national efforts were undertaken to decrease the antibiotic use in the veterinary sector, resulting in a 58% decrease in antibiotic sales in the sector between 2009 and 2014. This decrease in antibiotic use was followed by a decrease in ESBL-E prevalence in broilers. The current study investigates the prevalence of contamination with ESBL-E in retail chicken meat purchased in the Netherlands between December 2013 and August 2015. It looks at associations between the prevalence of contamination with ESBL-E and sample characteristics such as method of farming (free-range or conventional), supermarket chain of purchase and year of purchase. In the current study, 352 chicken meat samples were investigated for the presence of ESBL-E using selective culture methods. Six samples were excluded due to missing isolates or problems obtaining a good quality sequence leaving 346 samples for further analyses. Of these 346 samples, 188 (54.3%) were positive for ESBL-E, yielding 216 ESBL-E isolates (Escherichia coli (n = 204), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 11) and Escherichia fergusonii (n = 1)). All ESBL-E isolates were analysed using whole-genome sequencing. The prevalence of contamination with ESBL-E in retail chicken meat decreased from 68.3% in 2014 to 44.6% in 2015, absolute risk difference 23.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 12.6% - 34.1%). The ESBL-E prevalence was lower in free-range chicken meat (36.4%) compared with conventional chicken meat (61.5%), absolute risk difference 25.2% (95% CI: 12.9% - 36.5%). The prevalence of contamination with ESBL-E varied between supermarket chains, the highest prevalence of contamination was found in supermarket chain 4 (76.5%) and the lowest in supermarket chain 1 (37.8%). Pairwise isolate comparisons using whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) showed that clustering of isolates occurs more frequently within supermarket chains than between supermarket chains. In conclusion, the prevalence of contamination with ESBL-E in retail chicken in the Netherlands decreased over time; nevertheless, it remains substantial and as such a potential source for ESBL-E in humans.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Países Baixos
15.
Vet Ital ; 54(3): 185-188, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574994

RESUMO

Large game animals play an important role as carriers and transmitters of O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in nature. Fresh meat obtained from game animals has been identified as an important source of food-borne STEC infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of the top 6 non-O157 STEC strains (serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in Namibian game meat based on testing for stx, eae, and O-group-specific genes. Meat samples from gemsboks (Oryx gazella) (n = 75), springboks (Antidorcas marsupialis) (n = 41), greater kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) (n = 5), and wildebeests (Connochaetes taurinus) (n = 5) were collected from 2 Namibian abattoirs and tested for STEC using real-time PCR techniques. Both Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae) virulence genes were detected in 94 out of 126 samples (74.6%). Five of the top 6 STEC serogroup-specific genes were also detected in samples that were positive for both the stx and eae genes. The results of this study show a high incidence of non-O157 STEC O-group genes in Namibian game meat, which suggests that further scrutiny and testing may be necessary to avoid foodborne outbreaks.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Genes Bacterianos , Namíbia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 623, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella is an important human pathogen in Australia and annual case rates continue to increase. In addition to foodborne exposures, cases have been associated with animal and contaminated environment contact. However, routine surveillance in Australia has tended to focus on humans and food, with no reported attempts to collate and compare Salmonella data from a wider range of potential sources of exposure. METHODS: Salmonella data from humans, food, animals and environments were collated from a range of surveillance and diagnostic sources in New South Wales (NSW). Data were categorised to reflect one of 29 sample origins. Serotype diversity was described for each category, and the distribution of serotypes commonly isolated from humans was examined for each sample origin. The distribution of serotypes along the livestock-food-human continuum and at the companion animal-wildlife interface was also examined. RESULTS: In total, 49,872 Salmonella isolates were included in this analysis, comprising 325 serotypes. The vast majority of these isolates were from humans (n = 38,106). Overall S. Typhimurium was the most frequently isolated serotype and was isolated from all sample categories except natural environment and game meat. S. Enteriditis was not isolated from any livestock animal, however sporadic cases were documented in food, companion animals and a reptile. Many serotypes that were frequently isolated from livestock animals and associated food products were only rarely isolated from humans. In addition, a number of key human serotypes were only sporadically isolated from livestock and food products, suggesting alternative sources of infection. In particular, S. Paratyphi B Java and S. Wangata were more often isolated from wild animals. Finally, there was some overlap between serotypes in companion animals and wildlife, with cats in particular having a large number of serotypes in common with wild birds. CONCLUSIONS: This is the most comprehensive description of Salmonella data from humans, food, livestock, wildlife, companion animals and various environments in Australia reported to date. Results confirm that livestock and food are important sources of salmonellosis in humans but that alternative sources - such as contact with wildlife and environments - warrant further investigation. Surveillance in NSW is largely human-focussed: major knowledge gaps exist regarding the diversity and frequency of serotypes in animals. More systematic surveillance of domestic animals and wildlife is needed to inform targeted control strategies and quantitative source attribution modelling in this state.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem
17.
Math Biosci Eng ; 15(4): 1011-1032, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380319

RESUMO

Human illness due to contamination of food by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli is a serious public health concern and can cause significant economic losses in the food industry. Recent outbreaks of such illness sourced from ground beef production motivates the work in this paper. Most ground beef is produced in large facilities where many carcasses are butchered and various pieces of them are ground together in sequential batches. Assuming that the source of contamination is a single carcass and that downstream from the production facility ground beef from a particular batch has been identified as contaminated by E. coli, the probability that previous and subsequent batches are also contaminated is modelled. This model may help the beef industry to identify the likelihood of contamination in other batches and potentially save money by not needing to cook or recall unaffected batches of ground beef.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Conceitos Matemáticos , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne , Probabilidade , Recall e Retirada de Produto
18.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1057, 2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes as the main causative agent of human listeriosis is an intracellular bacterium that has the capability to infect a wide range of cell types. Human listeriosis is a sporadic foodborne disease, which is epidemiologically linked with consumption of contaminated food products. Listeriosis may range from mild and self-limiting diseases in healthy people to severe systemic infections in susceptible populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in food resources and human samples from Iran. METHODS: A systematic search was performed by using electronic databases from papers that were published by Iranian authors Since January of 2000 to the end of April 2017. Then, 47 publications which met our inclusion criteria were selected for data extraction and analysis by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of L. monocytogenes in human origin was 10% (95% CI: 7-12%) ranging from 0 to 28%. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in animals was estimated at 7% (95% CI: 4-10%) ranging from 1 to 18%. Moreover, the pooled prevalence of L. monocytogenes in Iranian food samples was estimated at 4% (95% CI: 3-5%) ranging from 0 to 50%. From those 12 studies which reported the distribution of L. monocytogenes serotypes, it was concluded that 4b, 1/2a, and 1/2b were the most prevalent serotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of L. monocytogenes and prevalent serotypes in Iran are comparable with other parts of the world. Although the overall prevalence of human cross-contamination origin was low, awareness about the source of contamination is very important because of the higher incidence of infections in susceptible groups.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Prevalência , Sorogrupo
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 217: 7-12, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615260

RESUMO

Antibiotic use in animal husbandry has raised concerns on the spread of resistant bacteria. Currently animal products are traded globally with unprecedented ease, which has been challenging the control of antimicrobial resistance. This study aims to detect and characterize extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from imported and locally produced poultry products sold in Ghana. Local and imported chicken meat was collected from 94 stores and markets throughout Kumasi (Ghana) and cultured on selective ESBL screening agar. Phenotypic ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were confirmed by combined disc test and further characterized by antibiotic susceptibility testing, amplification of the blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV genes as well as multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and linked to the country of origin. Out of 200 meat samples, 71 (36%) samples revealed 81 ESBL-producing isolates (46 E. coli and 35 K. pneumoniae), with 44% (30/68) of local poultry and 31% (41/132) of imported products being contaminated. Most ESBL-producing isolates harboured the blaCTX-M-15 gene (61/81, 75%) and the dominant Sequence Types (ST) were ST2570 (7/35, 20%) among K. pneumoniae and ST10 (5/46, 11%) among E. coli. High numbers of ESBL-producing bacteria, particularly on local but also imported poultry meat, represent a potential source for human colonization and infection as well as spread within the community. Surveillance along the poultry production-food-consumer chain would be a valuable tool to identify sources of emerging multidrug resistant pathogens in Ghana.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/veterinária , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(7): 2809-2815, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29134651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study determined the heavy metal contamination (mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and nickel) of nori, restaurant-served sushi and ready-to-eat sushi meals available via retail chains. Moreover, both microbiological load and biogenic amine content in ready-to-eat sushi meals were analysed. RESULTS: All of the nori samples contained high levels of Cd (2.122 mg kg-1 ), Ni (0.715 mg kg-1 ), As (34.56 mg kg-1 ) and Pb (0.659 mg kg-1 ). The studied sushi samples contained high levels of Ni and Pb, reaching 0.194 and 0.142 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively, being potentially hazardous to women during pregnancy and lactation and small children. None of the studied samples contained high levels of Hg. Overall, 37% of ready-to-eat sushi meals exceeded a microbiological load of 106 cfu g-1 . However, biogenic amine content in all of the samples was low, with a highest histamine content of 2.05 mg kg-1 . CONCLUSION: Sushi is not the source of high levels of biogenic amines even with high microbiological loads. Nevertheless, the high microbiological loads at the end of the shelf-life indicate that some processors might have problems with the distribution chain or implement a poor hygienic regime. Moreover as a result of possible risk associated with heavy metal contamination, the present study highlights the need to establish new regulations regarding the contamination of nori and sushi. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/análise , Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Polônia
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