Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 41.279
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240015, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285624

RESUMO

Abstract Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is required for optimum plant growth. It is present in soil in insoluble forms. Bacterial solubilization of soil unavailable form of Zn into available form, is an emerging approach to alleviate the Zn deficiency for plants and human beings. Zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB) could be a substitute for chemical Zn fertilizer. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize bacterial species from the contaminated soil and evaluate their Zn solubilizing potential. Zn resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Zn. Among the 13 isolated bacterial strains ZSB13 showed maximum MIC value upto 30mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Zn was selected for further analysis. Molecular characterization of ZSB13 was performed by 16S rRNA gene amplification which confirmed it as Pseudomonas oleovorans. Zn solubilization was determined through plate assay and broth medium. Four insoluble salts (zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc carbonate (ZnCO3), zinc sulphite (ZnS) and zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) were used for solubilization assay. Our results shows 11 mm clear halo zone on agar plates amended with ZnO. Likewise, ZSB13 showed significant release of Zn in broth amended with ZnCO3 (17 and 16.8 ppm) and ZnO (18.2 ppm). Furthermore, Zn resistance genes czcD was also enriched in ZSB13. In our study, bacterial strain comprising Zn solubilization potential has been isolated that could be further used for the growth enhancement of crops.


Resumo O zinco é um micronutriente essencial necessário para o crescimento ideal das plantas. Ele está presente no solo em formas insolúveis. A solubilização bacteriana da forma indisponível de Zn no solo para a forma disponível é uma abordagem emergente para aliviar a deficiência de Zn em plantas e seres humanos. Bactérias solubilizadoras de zinco (ZSB) podem ser um substituto para fertilizantes químicos de Zn. O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e caracterizar espécies bacterianas de solo contaminado e avaliar seu potencial de solubilização de Zn. Bactérias resistentes ao Zn foram isoladas e avaliadas quanto ao seu MIC contra o Zn. Entre as 13 cepas bacterianas isoladas, ZSB13 apresentou valor máximo de MIC de até 30 mM/L. A cepa bacteriana com maior resistência ao Zn foi selecionada para análise posterior. A caracterização molecular de ZSB13 foi realizada por amplificação do gene 16S rRNA que o confirmou como Pseudomonas oleovorans. A solubilização do Zn foi determinada através de ensaio em placa e meio caldo. Quatro sais insolúveis (óxido de zinco (ZnO), carbonato de zinco (ZnCO3), sulfito de zinco (ZnS) e fosfato de zinco (Zn3 (PO4) 2) foram usados ​​para o ensaio de solubilização. Nossos resultados mostram uma zona de halo clara de 11 mm em placas de ágar corrigidas com ZnO. Da mesma forma, ZSB13 mostrou liberação significativa de Zn em caldo alterado com ZnCO3 (17 e 16,8 ppm) e ZnO (18,2 ppm). Além disso, os genes de resistência ao Zn czcD também foram enriquecidos em ZSB13. Em nosso estudo, a cepa bacteriana compreendendo potencial de solubilização de Zn foi isolada e poderia ser usada posteriormente para o aumento do crescimento de safras.


Assuntos
Humanos , Poluentes do Solo , Pseudomonas oleovorans , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Zinco , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242676, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278552

RESUMO

Abstract Trees occurring on the margins of agricultural areas can mitigate damage from residual herbicides. Rhizospheric microbial activity associated with trees is one of the main remedial capacity indicators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizospheric microbiological activity in tree species subjected to the herbicides atrazine and sulfentrazone via the rhizosphere. The experiment was designed in four blocks and a 6 × 3 factorial scheme. The first factor consisted of six tree species from Brazil and the second of atrazine, sulfentrazone, and water solutions. Four herbicide applications were performed via irrigation. The total dry mass of the plants, mycorrhizal colonization, number of spores, basal respiration of the rhizospheric soil, and survival rate of bioindicator plants after phytoremediation were determined. Trichilia hirta had higher biomass when treated with atrazine and sulfentrazone. Herbicides decreased the microbial activity in Triplaris americana and did not affect the microbiological indicators of Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba, and Toona ciliata. Fewer bioindicator plants survived in soil with Triplaris americana and sulfentrazone. Microbiological indicators were influenced in different ways between species by the presence of herbicides in the rhizosphere.


Resumo As árvores que ocorrem nas margens das áreas agrícolas podem mitigar os danos dos herbicidas residuais. A atividade microbiana rizosférica associada às árvores é um dos principais indicadores de capacidade corretiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade microbiológica rizosférica em espécies arbóreas submetidas aos herbicidas atrazina e sulfentrazone via rizosfera. O experimento foi estruturado em quatro blocos e esquema fatorial 6 × 3. O primeiro fator consistiu em seis espécies de árvores do Brasil e o segundo em soluções de atrazine, sulfentrazone e água. Quatro aplicações de herbicidas foram realizadas via irrigação. Foram determinados a massa seca total das plantas, colonização micorrízica, número de esporos, respiração basal do solo rizosférico e taxa de sobrevivência de plantas bioindicadoras após fitorremediação. Trichilia hirta apresentou maior biomassa quando tratada com atrazina e sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas diminuíram a atividade microbiana em Triplaris americana e não afetaram os indicadores microbiológicos de Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba e Toona ciliata. Menos plantas bioindicadoras sobreviveram no solo com Triplaris americana e sulfentrazone. Os indicadores microbiológicos foram influenciados de formas distintas entre as espécies pela presença dos herbicidas na rizosfera.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Micorrizas/química , Herbicidas , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Árvores , Brasil , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plântula , Rizosfera
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

RESUMO

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Aspergillus , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Organofosfonatos , Fungos , Glicina/análogos & derivados
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5177, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056025

RESUMO

The soil carbon (C) saturation concept suggests an upper limit to the storage of soil organic carbon (SOC). It is set by the mechanisms that protect soil organic matter from mineralization. Biochar has the capacity to protect new C, including rhizodeposits and microbial necromass. However, the decadal-scale mechanisms by which biochar influences the molecular diversity, spatial heterogeneity, and temporal changes in SOC persistence, remain unresolved. Here we show that the soil C storage ceiling of a Ferralsol under subtropical pasture was raised by a second application of Eucalyptus saligna biochar 8.2 years after the first application-the first application raised the soil C storage ceiling by 9.3 Mg new C ha-1 and the second application raised this by another 2.3 Mg new C ha-1. Linking direct visual evidence from one-, two-, and three-dimensional analyses with SOC quantification, we found high spatial heterogeneity of C functional groups that resulted in the retention of rhizodeposits and microbial necromass in microaggregates (53-250 µm) and the mineral fraction (<53 µm). Microbial C-use efficiency was concomitantly increased by lowering specific enzyme activities, contributing to the decreased mineralization of native SOC by 18%. We suggest that the SOC ceiling can be lifted using biochar in (sub)tropical grasslands globally.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Sequestro de Carbono , Carvão Vegetal/química , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
J Environ Manage ; 320: 115843, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056484

RESUMO

Lignocellulosic crop residues (LCCRs) hold a significant share of the terrestrial biomass, estimated at 5 billion Mg per annum globally. A massive amount of these LCCRs are burnt in many countries resulting in immense environmental pollution; hence, its proper disposal in a cost-effective and eco-friendly manner is a significant challenge. Among the different options for management of LCCRs, the use of lignocellulose degrading microorganisms (LCDMOs), like fungi and bacteria, has emerged as an eco-friendly and effective way for its on-site disposal. LCDMOs achieve degradation through various mechanisms, including multiple supportive enzymes, causing oxidative attacks by which recalcitrance of lignocellulose material is reduced, paving the way to further activity by depolymerizing enzymes. This improves the physical properties of soil, recycles plant nutrients, promotes plant growth and thus helps improve productivity. Rapid and proper microbial degradation may be achieved through the correct combination of the LCDMOs, supplementing nutrients and controlling different factors affecting microbial activity in the field. The review is a critical discussion of previous studies revealing the potential of individuals or a set of LCDMOs, factors controlling the rate of degradation and the key researchable areas for better understanding of the role of these decomposers for future use.


Assuntos
Lignina , Solo , Agricultura , Fungos/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(10): 305, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065025

RESUMO

The identification of an increasing number of drug-resistant pathogens has stimulated the development of new therapeutic agents to combat them. Microbial natural products are among the most important elements when it comes to drug discovery. Today, thiopeptide antibiotics are receiving increasing research attention due to their potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we demonstrated the successful use of a whole-cell microbial biosensor (Streptomyces lividans TK24 pMO16) for the specific detection of thiopeptide antibiotics among the native actinomycete strains isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Juniperus excelsa (Bieb.). Among the native strains, two strains of Streptomyces, namely sp. Je 1-79 and Je 1-613, were identified that were capable of producing thiopeptide antibiotics. A multilocus sequence analysis of five housekeeping genes (gyrB, atpD, recA, rpoB, and trpB) classified them as representatives of two different species of the genus Streptomyces. The thiopeptide antibiotics berninamycin A and B were identified in the extracts of the two strains by means of a dereplication analysis. The berninamycin biosynthetic gene cluster was also detected in the genome of the Streptomyces sp. Je 1-79 strain and showed a high level of similarity (93%) with the ber cluster from S. bernensis. Thus, the use of this whole-cell biosensor during the first stage of the screening process could serve to accelerate the specific detection of thiopeptide antibiotics.


Assuntos
Actinomycetales , Juniperus , Streptomyces , Actinomycetales/genética , Antibacterianos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Juniperus/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048630

RESUMO

Strain RHZ10T was isolated from an oak rhizosphere sampled in Reims, France, and characterized to assess its taxonomy. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain RHZ10T was affiliated to the genus Streptomyces and the closest species were Streptomyces anulatus NRRL B-2000T and Streptomyces pratensis ch24T. Average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values were 77.3-92.4 % and 23.0-50.9 %, respectively, when compared to the type strains of fully sequenced related species having a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity over 98 %. These data suggested that strain RHZ10T represented a novel species within the genus Streptomyces. The genome of RHZ10T was 8.0 Mbp long, had 7  894 predicted coding genes, and a G+C content of 71.7 mol%. Cultures of RHZ10T on ISP 2 medium mostly led to the production a green pigmentation of the core of its colonies in the vegetative mycelium, surrounded by white pigmentation of the aerial mycelium. The main fatty acids of RHZ10T were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and C16 : 0. Polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, unidentified lipids, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified aminolipids and unidentified glycolipids. Its main quinones were MK-9(H6) (69.3 %), MK-9(H4) (17.3 %) and MK-9(H8) (17.0%). Phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic studies clearly supported that strain RHZ10T represents a novel species within the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces durocortorensis sp. nov. is proposed and the type strain is RHZ10T (=DSM 112634T=LMG 32187T=CIP 111907T).


Assuntos
Quercus , Streptomyces , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 439: 129704, 2022 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104920

RESUMO

The effects of different fertilization on microbial communities and resistome in agricultural soils with a history of fresh manure application remains largely unclear. Here, soil antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and microbial communities were deciphered using metagenomics approach from a long-term field experiment with different fertilizer inputs. A total of 541 ARG subtypes were identified, with Multidrug, Macrolides-Lincosamides-Streptogramins (MLS), and Bacitracin resistance genes as the most universal ARG types. The abundance of ARGs detected in manure (2.52 ARGs/16 S rRNA) treated soils was higher than chemical fertilizer (2.42 ARGs/16 S rRNA) or compost (2.37 ARGs/16 S rRNA) amended soils. The higher abundance of MGEs and the enrichment of Proteobacteria were observed in manure treated soils than in chemical fertilizer or compost amended soils. Proteobacter and Actinobacter were recognized as the main potential hosts of ARGs revealed by network analysis. Further soil pH was identified as the key driver in determining the composition of both microbial community and resistome. The present study investigated the mechanisms driving the microbial community, MGEs and ARG profiles of long-term fertilized soils with ARGs contamination, and our findings could support strategies to manage the dissemination of soil ARGs.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Microbiota , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fertilizantes/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco/microbiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1764-1772, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052778

RESUMO

Biological crusts (Biocrusts) are important surface active coverings in arid and semi-arid regions, which affect the content of soil organic carbon (SOC), SOC labile fractions and stability of SOC through photosynthetic carbon fixation. At present, studies on the variation characteristics of SOC, SOC labile fractions and the stability of SOC in biocrusts are rather limited. In this study, two types of typical biocrusts (moss crusts and algae crusts) were selected along a precipitation gradient from northwest to southeast in the Mu Us Sandland (straight line distance 188 km) by measuring soil organic carbon (SOC), soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water soluble carbon (DOC), particulate carbon (POC), easily oxidizable carbon (ROC). We aimed to explore the effects of biocrusts on the stability of SOC and carbon decomposition across the precipitation gradient. Results showed that:1) Two types of biocrusts significantly increased the contents of SOC, MBC, DOC, POC, ROC and stability of SOC. Moss crusts increased SOC contents by 1.6 to 2.6 times as that of algae crusts. 2) The lowest SOC contents of the two types of biocrusts were 6.43 g·kg-1 and 14.50 g·kg-1 respectively, which showed an increasing trend with increasing precipitation along the gradient. 3) With the increases of precipitation, the decomposition time of moss litters gradually decreased. The decomposition coefficient of moss litters during the study period (From July to Feb-ruary of the next year) ranged from 0.010 to 0.014, which was significantly lower than that of vascular plants. The carbon release of moss litters from northwest to southeast was 8.09, 10.89, 12.88 g·kg-1, respectively. 4) Results of canonical correspondence analysis showed that water vapor partial pressure, actual evapotranspiration, annual average temperature, subsurface short-wave radiation, potential evapotranspiration and vapor pressure difference were the key climate factors affecting the content of SOC and its active components. Silt content was the main soil factor affecting the content of SOC and its active components.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Solo , Carbono/análise , China , Clima Desértico , Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1773-1782, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052779

RESUMO

We selected typical croplands in the black soil region of Northeast China to analyze the characteristics of biocrusts during the growing season, including species composition, thickness, coverage, and biomass (chlorophyll content). We collected bareground soil and biocrusts samples with chlorophyll content of 5-15, 15-25, 25-35, and 35-50 mg·g-1, and measured the soil disintegration rate and soil maximum disintegration ratio of each sample using a force gauge in the laboratory. The results showed that: 1) biocrusts dominated by algae and moss were frequently developed in the croplands, with Stigeoclonium and Bryum capillare as the most common species, respectively. The thickness and biomass of algal crusts were significantly lower than moss crusts, with a successional trend from algal crusts to moss crusts. 2) The coverage, thickness, and biomass of biocrusts in croplands were negatively correlated with the frequency and intensity of tillage disturbance. For instance, the values of those characterisitics were only 27.8%, 1.52 mm, and 6.49 mg·g-1 on average, respectively, in traditional tillage croplands, and increased to 83.5%, 2.74 mm, and 34.16 mg·g-1, respectively, in the croplands with conservational tillage. 3) Biocrusts considerably reduced the disintegration of surface soil, particularly in the layer of biocrusts. Compared to the bareground soil, the soil disintegration rate of biocrusts, with four levels of biomass (with chlorophyll content of 5-15, 15-25, 25-35, and 35-50 mg·g-1), was reduced by 43.1%, 50.1%, 55.5%, and 59.8%, respectively, while the soil maximum disintegration ratios were reduced by 11.4%, 17.7%, 33.2%, and 36.6%, respectively. 4) Soil disintegration rate and maximum disintegration ratio were significantly and negatively correlated with the biomass and thickness of biocrusts, indicating that the impacts of biocrusts on soil disintegration were primarily caused by the improvements in physical properties of surface soil. In conclusion, biocrusts were frequently deve-loped in croplands in the black soil region of Northeast China, owing to less disturbance following the conversion from traditional tillage to conservational tillage. They had the potential to protect surface soil against disintegration and improve soil anti-scourability, which was critical for soil conservation in croplands in this region.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Solo , Biomassa , China , Clorofila , Produtos Agrícolas , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1783-1790, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052780

RESUMO

The changes in soil properties caused by grazing and trampling are important reasons for the changes in soil respiration rates, carbon fixation, and emission. However, the effects of different intensities of grazing and trampling on biocrusts respiration rate are unclear. In this study, we simulated grazing and trampling disturbances of 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% intensity on moss biocrusts developed in aeolian sandy soil on Loess Plateau, with undisturbed moss biocrusts serving as a control. The changes in respiration rate of moss biocrusts were monitored continuously, and its responses to different disturbance intensities were analyzed. The results showed that: 1) moderate disturbance stimulated moss biocrusts respiration, while heavy disturbance inhibited that. The respiration rate of moss biocrusts was increased by 41.1% and 22.2% at disturbance intensities of 10% and 30%, but was decreased by 8.9% and 15.3% at disturbance intensities of 50% and 70%, respectively. 2) The trampling disturbance significantly changed soil temperature but did not affect soil water content. In comparison to the control, soil temperature of biocrusts was decreased by 0.4 and 1.2 ℃ at disturbance intensities of 10% and 30%, but it was increased by 1.1 and 1.0 ℃ at disturbance intensities of 50% and 70%, respectively. 3) The respiration rate of moss biocrusts showed a significant exponential relationship with soil temperature and a linear positive relationship with soil water content under different disturbance intensities. However, the correlation between respiration rate of moss biocrust and the characteristics of moss biocrust was not significant. Soil temperature and water content could explain 70.6%-96.3% and 49.1%-70.0% of the total variation of respiration rate of moss biocrusts, respectively. In conclusion, grazing and trampling affected the respiration rate of moss biocrusts, with short-term moderate grazing and trampling would have positive effects. On the other hand, excessive grazing and trampling would reduce the rate of moss biocrust respiration. As a result, future studies on soil carbon balance of the Loess Plateau should consider the effects of grazing and trampling on biocrust respiration.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Microbiologia do Solo , China , Ecossistema , Florestas , Respiração , Solo , Água
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1791-1800, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052781

RESUMO

The formation and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) potentially affect the cycles and stoichiometric characteristics of soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). However, it is still unclear how soil microbes adapt to such changes. In this study, we examined the effects of moss-dominated biocrusts coverage (0, 1%-20%, 20%-40%, 40%-60%, 60%-80%, and 80%-100%) on soil physicochemical properties, soil microbial biomass, and ectoenzyme activities [ß-1, 4-glucosidase (BG), ß-1, 4-N-acetyl glucosidase (NAG), acid phosphatase (AP)] in two soil layers (0-5 and 5-10 cm) in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, as well as the covariations of soil-microbe-ectoenzyme C:N:P stoichiometry. The results showed that biocrust development significantly increased soil clay content, water stable aggregates, soil C, N, P contents, and significantly decreased soil bulk density and sand content. Microbial biomass C, N, P and ectoenzyme activities were significantly increased with increasing biocrust coverage. Soil depth did not affect soil physicochemical properties and C:N:P, but significantly affected microbial biomass, ectoenzyme activities, BG:AP and NAG:AP. Soil C, N and P contents were significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass and ectoenzyme activities, negatively correlated with BG:NAG, while positively correlated with NAG:AP, but had no significant correlation with microbial biomass C:N:P. There was no significant correlation between soil-microbe and microbial-ectoenzyme C:N:P. BG:NAG:AP decreased gradually with the increase of C:N:P stoichiometric imbalance between microbe and soil. This study indicated that the microbial metabolism was co-limited by N and P and with stronger P limitation. Microbes could maintain homeostasis by adjusting their own biomass and ectoenzyme C:N:P to adapt to changes in soil ecological stoichiometry driven by biocrust development.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Solo , Fosfatase Ácida , Carbono/química , China , Ecossistema , Glucosidases , Nitrogênio , Fósforo/química , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1801-1809, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052782

RESUMO

Exopolysaccharides (EPS), an important substance of cyanobacteria in resisting stresses, are the main form of carbon storage in biocrusts and play an important role in material cycling and stability of biocrusts. In this study, the biocrusts in different seasons (January, April, July, October) were collected from Gurbantunggut Desert, and the dynamics of EPS content, composition, morphological characteristics and microbial community structures were analyzed. The results showed that: 1) The excretion of EPS showed obvious seasonal dynamics. The EPS contents in January, April, July and October were 81.72, 52.46, 76.77, 70.54 µg·cm-2, and the chlorophyll a contents were 2.7, 4.94, 4.2 and 5.98 µg·cm-2, respectively. Cyanobacteria allocated more fixed organic carbon to EPS in winter and summer, and more to their own biomass accumulation in spring and autumn. 2) EPS in biocrusts of each season was composed of seven kinds of monosaccharides. The sum of relative mole percentages of glucose and galactose was 46%-56%, much higher than the other five monosaccharides. The monosaccharide compositions of EPS were significantly affected by temperature and precipitation. There was no significant difference in the Fourier infrared spectra of EPS in biocrusts across different seasons. 3) The observation results of atomic force microscope showed that more filamentous and thick rope-like structures occurred in EPS in July and October, while the EPS showed block-like morphology in January and April. 4) The results of 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing showed that Cyanobacteria and Microcoleus were the dominant bacterial phyla and genus in biocrusts in all the four seasons, with significantly higher relative abundance than other bacterial phyla and genera. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was significantly positively correlated with the relative mole percentages of fucose and galactose, indicating that the composition of monosaccharides affected heterotrophic bacteria in crusts. In deserts, environmental factors such as temperature and moisture changed significantly across seasons. The physicochemical properties of biocrust exopolysaccharides and the seasonal dynamics of bacterial communities were controlled by multiple factors, such as temperature, moisture, and light.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microbiota , Carbono , Clorofila A , Clima Desértico , Galactose , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1810-1818, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052783

RESUMO

We investigated the decomposition characteristics of Eragrostis minor, mosses, and leaves of Artemisia ordosica with litterbag method in the sand-binding revegetation area, southeastern edge of the Tengger Desert, and further examined their effects on soil microbial communities using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing method. The results showed that the decomposition duration and litter types significantly affected litter decomposition rate. Mosses had the lowest decomposition rate, with a mass loss ratio of only 15.4% after decomposition for 13 months. The average decomposition rates of E. minor and leaves of A. ordosica were 4.9 and 3.4-fold of that of mosses, respectively. During decomposition for 11 months, the dominant bacterial phyla were Actinomycota and Proteobacteria, while that of the fungal community was Ascomycota. Moss decomposition significantly increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi, but remarkedly decreased the abundance of Basidiomycetes. The diversity and richness of bacterial and fungal communities significantly increased after litter decomposition. The compositional changes of fungal community were significant among litters, but that of bacterial community was not. There was a negative correlation between decomposition rate and the diversity and richness of bacterial and fungal communities. Plant polysaccharides, total phosphorus, soil pH, microbial biomass nitrogen, and soil ammonium content were the main factors affecting microbial community structure. Litter decomposition changed the composition and interspecific similarity within microbial communities, as well as increased the diversity and richness of soil microbial communities, and thus would promote the restoration of soil habitat.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Bactérias , China , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1819-1826, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052784

RESUMO

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are the mixed community composed of different ratios of cyanobacteria, mosses, and lichens at the slope scale in the Hilly Loess Plateau region. Biocrusts significantly affect water infiltration in this area. The relationship between infiltration rate and community structure of mixed biocrusts is unknown, which would hinder the assessment of soil permeability of biocrusts at the slope scale. We measured the stable infiltration rate of cyanobacteria, moss, and mixed biocrusts with different proportions of cyanobacteria and moss including moss coverage of <15%, 15%-30%, 30%-45%, 45%-60% and >60%, respectively. The principal component analysis and path analysis were used to understand the influencing factors of stable infiltration rate of mixed biocrusts, and to clarify the relationship between the stable infiltration rate and the community structure of mixed biocrusts. The results showed that the saturated hydraulic conductivity of cyanobacteria and moss crusts was 0.66 mm·min-1 and 2.40 mm·min-1, respectively. The stable infiltration rates of mixed biocrusts with moss coverage <15% to >60% were 0.80-2.30 mm·min-1. The stable infiltration rate of mixed biocrusts at the slope scale depended on moss coverage and its improvement on soil pore structure, with the correlation coefficients being 0.636 (P=0.011) and 0.835 (P=0.000) respectively. Herein, the saturated hydraulic conductivity and coverage of cyanobacteria and moss confirmed the weighted prediction of water infiltration volume (y) i.e., a significant correlation (r=0.945) with the measured water infiltration volume (x) of mixed biocrusts. The linear fitting of measured and predicted water infiltration volume of mixed biocrusts was y=0.85x (R2=0.98, P<0.05). This study clarified the relationship between water infiltration of mixed biocrust community composition and individual biocrust composition, which provided a scientific basis for accurately evaluating the hydrological process of biocrusts in this area.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Cianobactérias , China , Ecossistema , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Água/análise
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1827-1834, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052785

RESUMO

Water is the key factor for vegetation restoration in the Loess Plateau region. Biological soil crust (biocrust), a widely distributed soil surface cover, significantly affects soil infiltration. Disturbance would affect soil water infiltration of biocrust. The effects of different intensities of disturbance on soil water infiltration of biocrust are still unclear. By simulating the trampling disturbance of sheep, we examined the effects of disturbance intensity (10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) estimated by the coverage of broken biocrust on the surface cover of biocrust slope in the Hegou catchment of Wuqi County, Shaanxi Province. Soil water infiltration under different intensities were measured by the linear source infiltration method. The influence mechanisms of disturbance on soil water infiltration of biocrust slope were investigated with a structural equation model and correlation analysis. Results showed that compared to that without disturbance, the coverage of cyanobacterial crust was increased by 33.6% at 10% of disturbance intensity, no difference at 20% of disturbance intensity, and decreased by 36.1% and 75.0% at 30% and 40% of disturbance intensities, respectively. Litter coverage was increased by 34.3% under 40% of disturbance intensity, while that of other treatments were not changed. Surface roughness was decreased by 22.3%, 11.1%, and 5.6% at 10%, 20%, and 30% of disturbance intensities, respectively, but increased by 8.2% at the 40% of disturbance intensity. The initial infiltration rate at 40% of disturbance intensity was 77.1% higher than that without disturbance, while other treatments had no significant difference at the initial infiltration rate. Furthermore, distur-bance did not affect the stable and average infiltration rate. Our results confirmed that disturbance mainly promoted the initial infiltration by reducing the coverage of cyanobacterial crust, increasing the coverage of litter, and changing soil roughness. This study would provide scientific basis for the management of biocrust of rehabilitated lands in the Loess Plateau region.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Solo , Animais , China , Ovinos , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Água
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1843-1852, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052787

RESUMO

Soil crust is a normal natural phenomenon with different water hydrophilicity and repellency due to different formation mechanism, thus affecting soil hydraulic characteristics and hydrological cycle. In this study, we measured water repellent characteristics of physical and biological crusts under different vegetations in the field using water drop penetration time (WDPT). The surface morphology of crusts was observed using scanning electron microscopy, and the infiltration characteristics of crusts and their non-crust soils (control) was evaluated with micro-infiltration device. The results showed that: 1) The average WDPT of physical crusts and the control soils was 3.3 s and 0.9 s, respectively, indicating that both were hydrophilic. The average WDPT of biological crusts ranged from 20.9 s to 140.9 s, which was 2.8 to 19 times that of control, and that under Diospyros lotus and Robinia pseudoacacia was 134.5 s and 140.9 s, respectively. 2) Compared with the control, the cumulative infiltration amount, average infiltration rate and moisture absorption force of physical crusts decreased by 0-4.3%, 3.5%-5.1%, and 27.2%-90.1%, respectively, while those of biological crusts decreased by 0-25%, 1.4%-28.2% and 36.0%-84.9%, respectively. 3) Regardless of the presence of crusts or not, there were "hockey-stick-like" curves by using Philip model to fit infiltration data. Before the WRCT point in the "hockey-stick-like" curve, the point source infiltration was mainly horizontal diffusion. After the WRCT point, the infiltration was mainly vertical diffusion. The presence of soil crust prolonged the formation time of the turning point. In all, physical crusts formed by inorganic mineral particles blocking the surface soil did not affect water repellency, while biological crusts that reflected the effects of hydrophobic organic compounds on soil structure enhanced its water repellency. Both physical crusts and biological crusts decreased the cumulative infiltration amount and average infiltration rate of soil. Compared with the control, physical crusts mainly affected soil hygroscopicity, but with limited effects on the steady infiltration rate. Biological crust decreased soil hygroscopicity and increased steady infiltration rate.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Água , Ecossistema , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Água/análise
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1861-1870, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052789

RESUMO

Exploring and quantifying the impacts of biological soil crusts on soil hydrological processes and soil water budget in semi-arid ecosystems can provide a theoretical basis for vegetation restoration and reconstruction in deserts. Based on continuous observation of soil water content in different types of areas covered by biological soil crusts (e.g., algae, moss) and bare sand in the Mu Us sandy land during the growing season (May to October) from 2018 to 2020, we examined the effects of biological soil crusts on soil water budget at a depth of 0-40 cm. Results showed that algae and moss crusts significantly reduced soil water supplement below 40 cm by rainfall and increased soil water evaporation loss, compared with that under bare sand. In the relatively wet year (2018), the amount of soil water expenditure (seepage+evaporation) covered by bare sand and the various types of biological soil crusts was less than that of rainfall, resulting in net soil water income. In the relative dry years (2019 and 2020), the amount of soil water expenditure covered by dominant algae and moss crusts was higher than that of rainfall, causing net soil water deficit, but opposite for bare sand. Biological soil crusts led to the imbalance of soil water budget of 0-40 cm depth and even soil water deficit in relatively dry years, which may lead to the succession of plant communities to be dominated by shallow-rooted plants in this area.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Solo , China , Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , Plantas , Areia , Microbiologia do Solo , Água/análise
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1871-1877, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052790

RESUMO

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are the common cover in arid and semiarid areas. Together with plants, biocrusts affect runoff and flow velocity. However, few studies have focused on the effects of the co-covering of plant and biocrust (plant+biocrust) on the flow velocity, with a knowledge gap in the study of driving factors for slope erosion in arid and semiarid areas. In this study, simulated rainfall experiments were used to investigate the effects of biocrust and three types of biocrusts (more cyanobacteria less moss, more moss less cyanobacteria, and moss) on the flow velocity of revegetated grassland in the hilly Loess Plateau. The results showed that plant and plant+biocrust significantly reduced flow velocity, with that of plants and plant+biocrust being 70.7% and 83.1% lower than bare soil. The reduction benefits of plant and biocrust on flow velocity were 70.7% and 12.4%, respectively, when they were co-covered. Biocrust composition under plant cover affected flow velocity. The reduction benefits of more cyanobacteria less moss, more moss less cyanobacteria, and moss crust on flow velocity were 11.5%, 12.4%, and 19.4%, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between flow velocity and moss coverage and a significant positive correlation between flow velocity and cyanobacteria coverage. The relationship between moss cove-rage (x) and flow velocity (y) was y=-2.081x+0.03 (R2=0.469). The moss coverage was a key factor affecting the flow velocity of co-covering of plant and biocrust slope with similar plant coverage (40%±10%). In conclusion, biocrusts under plant cover significantly slowed flow velocity, and the effect magnitude was related to its composition, implying that the role of biocrusts should be considered in understanding the mechanism underlying slope erosion in revegetated grassland.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Cianobactérias , China , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1878-1884, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052791

RESUMO

Landscape indices can quantitatively describe the distribution characteristics of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). However, there are too many landscape indices, with high redundancy. We investigated 58 plots of biocrusts with different distribution patterns in the Hegou watershed of Wuqi County, Shaanxi Province, located in the hilly Loess Plateau. First, we calculated 15 common landscape indices, and selected representative landscape indices that could describe the biocrust landscape pattern and had specific ecological significance, based on correlation analysis, factor analysis, and sensitivity analysis. The reliability and rationality of the representative landscape indices were verified with data of the different biocrusts coverage in the Yingwoshanjian watershed of Yangjing Town, Dingbian County, Shaanxi Province. The results showed that 10 of the 15 landscape indices had significant correlations. Total edge (TE) and edge density (ED) were not significantly correlated with number of patches (NP), patch density (PD), clumpiness (CLUMPY), and interspersion juxtaposition index (IJI), respectively. The percentage of landscape (PLAND), ED, patch cohesion index (COHESION), and splitting index (SPLIT) described the spatial distribution characteristics of biocrust from coverage, length, connectivity, and fragmentation, respectively. The cumulative contribution of the three common factors represented in describing the spatial distribution of biocrusts was 91.6%. The study identified the representative landscape indices that could quantify the complexity of biocrusts distribution and thus would provide a theoretical basis for studying the pattern evolution of biocrusts and their relationship with ecological processes.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , China , Ecossistema , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...