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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491893

RESUMO

Cells of bacterial strains G9T and 7MK23T, isolated from forest soil samples collected from the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, Guangdong Province, PR China, were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped. Strain G9T was motile with single polar flagellum and grew at 12-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C), pH 4.5-8.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-3.5 % NaCl (optimum, 1.5%, w/v); while strain 7MK23T was non-motile and grew at 12-42 °C (optimum, 28-33 °C), pH 2.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 4.5-6.5) and NaCl levels of 0-1.0 % (optimum, 0-0.5 %, w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that both isolates fell within the cluster of the genus Dyella. The closely related species (with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity >98.65%) of strain G9T were Dyella terrae JS14-6T (99.0 %), D. kyungheensis THG-B117T (98.8 %) and D. amyloliquefaciens DHC06T (98.7 %) while that of strain 7MK23T were D. mobilis DHON07T (99.2 %) and D. flava DHOC52T (99.1 %), but the average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between strains G9T, 7MK23T and the closely related Dyella species listed above were in the ranges of 77.5-83.8 % and 22.0-27.0 %, much lower than the species demarcation lines of 95.5 and 70 %, respectively. Phylogenomic analyses using UBCG and Phylophlan also supported that these two strains represent two novel species of Dyella. The major fatty acids of strain G9T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 1 ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 while that of strain 7MK23T were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. Ubiquinone-8 was the only respiratory quinone detected in both strains. The polar lipids of strain G9T consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and several unknown phospholipids, aminophospholipids, aminolipids and lipid while strain 7MK23T contained phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and several unknown phospholipids and aminophospholipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains G9T and 7MK23T were 64.7 and 63.4 mol%, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses as well as phenotypic data obtained, we propose that strains G9T and 7MK23T represent two novel species of the genus Dyella, for which the names Dyella telluris sp. nov. (type strain G9T=KACC 21725T=GDMCC 1.2132T) and Dyella acidiphila sp. nov. (type strain 7MK23T=KCTC 62739T=GDMCC 1.1446T) are proposed.


Assuntos
Florestas , Gammaproteobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Gammaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499595

RESUMO

A novel cellulase-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-H7T, was isolated from coconut palm rhizosphere soil collected from Wenchang City, Hainan Province, PR China. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of this strain. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain NEAU-H7T belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, with highest similarity to Actinoplanes hulinensis NEAU-M9T (99.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The diagnostic sugars in cell hydrolysates were determined to be ribose, galactose and mannose. The major fatty acids (>10%) were C16 : 0, C18 : 1 ω9c and C18 : 0. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and two phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The amino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was determined to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 71.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain NEAU-H7T formed a stable phyletic line with A. hulinensis NEAU-M9T. However, whole-genome phylogeny showed strain NEAU-H7T formed a stable phyletic line with A. hulinensis NEAU-M9T (99.2%), Actinoplanes campanulatus DSM 43148T (98.6%), Actinoplanes capillaceus DSM 44859T (98.3%) and Actinoplanes lobatus DSM 43150T (97.6%). The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) results between them were 53.6 (50.9-56.2), 54.1 (51.3-56.9), 53.1 (50.3-55.9) and 52.9 % (50.1-55.6 %), and whole-genome average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between them were 93.7, 93.6, 93.5 and 93.5 %. The low dDDH and ANI values demonstrated that strain NEAU-H7T could be distinguished from its reference strains. Moreover, genomic analysis indicated that the strain NEAU-H7T had the potential to decompose cellulose and produce bioactive compounds. On the basis of morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain NEAU-H7T is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, with the name Actinoplanes flavus sp. nov. The type strain is NEAU-H7T (=CCTCC AA 2020034T=DSM 112042T).


Assuntos
Actinoplanes , Cocos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinoplanes/classificação , Actinoplanes/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Celulase , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499596

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, coccus-shaped, obligately anaerobic, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain JN500902T, was isolated from the mud in a fermentation cellar used continuously over 30 years for Chinese strong-flavour baijiu production. Colonies were white, circular, convex and smooth-edged. Growth was observed at 20-40 °C (optimum, 37 °C), at pH 5.0-10 (optimum, pH 7.5), with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl and with 0-4 % (v/v) ethanol. The Biolog assay demonstrated positive reactions of strain JN500902T in the metabolism of l-fucose and pyruvate. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>10 %) consisted of C16 : 0 and C14 : 0. The major end metabolites of strain JN500902T were acetic acid and ethanol when incubated anaerobically in liquid reinforced clostridial medium. Acetate was the major organic acid end product. The complete genome size of strain JN500902T was 3 420 321 bp with 3327 identified genes. The G+C content was 43.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated strain JN500902T with the family Lachnospiraceae, having low sequence similarity (92.8 %) to the nearest type strain, Syntrophococcus sucromutans DSM 3224T and forming a clearly distinct branch. Core genome phylogenetic analysis of the isolate and 134 strains belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae also revealed that strain JN500902T was well-separated from other genera of this family as a monophyletic clade. The average nucleotide identity and amino acid identity values between strain JN500902T and 134 Lachnospiraceae strains were less than 74 and 65 %, respectively. Considering its polyphasic characteristics, strain JN500902T represents a novel genus and species within the family Lachnospiraceae, for which the name Novisyntrophococcus fermenticellae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN500902T (=CICC 24502T=JCM 33939T).


Assuntos
Clostridiales/classificação , Fermentação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499597

RESUMO

A Gram-reaction-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-spore-forming rod, aerobic, motile bacterium, designated SJY3T, was isolated from soil samples collected from a Pu-erh tea cellar in Bolian Pu-erh tea estate Co. Ltd. in Pu'er city, Yunnan, south-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Massilia. The closest phylogenetic relative was Massilia arenae CICC 24458T (99.5 %), followed by M. timonae CCUG45783T (97.9 %), M. oculi CCUG43427AT (97.8 %), and M. aurea DSM 18055T (97.8 %). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-8 and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 5.97 M bp and a G+C content of 65.4 mol%. Pairwise determined whole genome average nucleotide identity (gANI) values and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values were all below the threshold. Although the 16S rRNA gene similarity of stain SJY3T and Massilia arenae CICC 24458T was more than 99 %, the gANI, dDDH values and genomic tree clearly indicated that they were not of the same species. In summary, strain SJY3T represents a new species, for which we propose the name Massilia puerhi sp. nov. with the type strain SJY3T (=CGMCC 1.17158T=KCTC 82193T).


Assuntos
Oxalobacteraceae/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Oxalobacteraceae/isolamento & purificação , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Chá , Ubiquinona/química
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515629

RESUMO

An obligately anaerobic bacterial strain (CTTWT) belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae within the class Clostridia was isolated from an anoxic soil sample subjected to biological or reductive soil disinfestation. Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-positive, short rods with peritrichous flagella. The strain was saccharolytic and decomposed polysaccharides, chitin, xylan and ß-1,3-glucan. Strain CTTWT decomposed cell biomass and cell-wall preparations of an ascomycete plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae. The strain produced acetate, ethanol, H2 and CO2 as fermentation products from the utilized substrates. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were C16 : 1 ω7c dimethylacetal (DMA), C16 : 0 DMA and C18 : 1 ω7c DMA. The closely related species of strain CTTWT based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences were species in the genus Anaerocolumna with sequence similarities of 95.2-97.6 %. Results of genome analyses of strain CTTWT indicated that the genome size of the strain was 5.62 Mb and the genomic DNA G+C content was 38.3 mol%. Six 16S rRNA genes with five different sequences from each other were found in the genome. Strain CTTWT had genes encoding chitinase, xylanase, cellulase, ß-glucosidase and nitrogenase as characteristic genes in the genome. Homologous genes encoding these proteins were found in the genomes of the related Anaerocolumna species, but the genomic and phenotypic properties of strain CTTWT were distinct from them. Based on the phylogenetic, genomic and phenotypic analyses, the name Anaerocolumna chitinilytica sp. nov., in the family Lachnospiraceae is proposed for strain CTTWT (=NBRC 112102T=DSM 110036T).


Assuntos
Quitina , Solo , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fusarium , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 333, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cenotes are flooded caves in Mexico's Yucatan peninsula. Many cenotes are interconnected in an underground network of pools and streams forming a vast belowground aquifer across most of the peninsula. Many plants in the peninsula grow roots that reach the cenotes water and live submerged in conditions similar to hydroponics. Our objective was to study the microbial community associated with these submerged roots of the Sac Actun cenote. We accomplished this objective by profiling the root prokaryotic community using 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. RESULTS: We identified plant species by DNA barcoding the total genomic DNA of each root. We found a distinctive composition of the root and water bacterial and archaeal communities. Prokaryotic diversity was higher in all plant roots than in the surrounding freshwater, suggesting that plants in the cenotes may attract and select microorganisms from soil and freshwater, and may also harbor vertically transmitted lineages. The reported data are of interest for studies targeting biodiversity in general and root-microbial ecological interactions specifically.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rizosfera , México , Microbiota/genética , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3644-3655, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480627

RESUMO

Continuously increasing human population demands increased food production, which needs greater fertilizer's input in agricultural lands to enhance crop yield. In this respect, different fertilization practices gained acceptance among farmers. We reviewed effect of three main fertilization practices (Conventional-, Organic-, and Bio-fertilization) on soil microbial diversity, activity, and community composition. Studies reported that over application of inorganic fertilizers decline soil pH, change soil osmolarity, cause soil degradation, disturb taxonomic diversity and metabolism of soil microbes and cause accumulation of extra nutrients into the soil such as phosphorous (P) accumulation. On the contrary, organic fertilizers increase organic carbon (OC) input in the soil, which strongly encourage growth of heterotrophic microbes. Organic fertilizer vermicompost application provides readily available nutrients to both plants as well as microbes and encourage overall microbial number in the soil. Most recently, role of beneficial bacteria in long-term sustainable agriculture attracted attention of scientists towards their use as biofertilizer in the soil. Studies documented favorable effect of biofertilization on microbial Shannon, Chao and ACE diversity indices in the soil. It is concluded from intensive review of literature that all the three fertilization practices have their own way to benefit the soil with nutrients, but biofertilization provides long-term sustainability to crop lands. When it is used in integration with organic fertilizers, it makes the soil best for microbial growth and activity and increase microbial diversity, providing nutrients to soil for a longer time, thus improving crop productivity.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Agricultura , Fertilização , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148411, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465037

RESUMO

Biodegradation of soil contaminants may be promoted near plant roots due to the "rhizosphere effect" which may enhance microbial growth and activity. However, the effects of different plant cultivars within a single species on degradation remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the removal of soil total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) by ten different cultivars of tall fescue grass (Festuca arundinacea L.) and their associated rhizosphere microbiomes. TPH removal efficiency across the ten different cultivars was not significantly correlated with plant biomass. Rhizing Star and Greenbrooks cultivars showed the maximum (76.6%) and minimum (62.2%) TPH removal efficiencies, respectively, after 120 days. Significant differences were observed between these two cultivars in the composition of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities, especially during the early stages (day 30) of remediation but the differences decreased later (day 90). Putative petroleum-degrading bacterial and fungal guilds were enriched in the presence of tall fescue. Moreover, the complexity of microbial networks declined in treatments with higher TPH removal efficiency. The relative abundances of saprotrophic fungi and putative genes alkB and C12O in bacetria involved in petroleum degradation increased, especially in the presence of Rhizing Star cultivar, and this was consistent with the TPH removal efficiency results. These results indicate the potential of tall fescue grass cultivars and their associated rhizosphere microbiomes to phytoremediate petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Festuca , Microbiota , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148363, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465051

RESUMO

The alpine meadow in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has been seriously degraded due to human activities and climate change in recent decades. Understanding the changes of the soil microbial community in response to the degradation process helps reveal the mechanism underlying the degradation process of alpine meadows. We surveyed and analyzed changes of the vegetation, soil physicochemical properties, and soil microbial community in three degradation levels, namely, non-degradation (ND), moderate degradation (MD), and severe degradation (SD), of the alpine meadows in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that as the level of degradation increased, plant cover, plant density (PD), above-ground biomass (AGB), plant Shannon-Wiener index (PS), soil water content (SWC), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) decreased significantly, while the soil pH increased from 7.20 to 8.57. Alpine meadow degradation significantly changed the composition of soil bacterial and fungal communities but had no significant impact on the diversity of the microbial communities. Functional predictions indicated that meadow degradation increased the relative abundances of aerobic_chemoheterotrophy, undefined_saprotroph, and plant_pathogen, likely increasing the risk of plant diseases. Redundancy analysis revealed that in ND, the soil microbial community was mainly regulated by PS, PH, PD, SWC, and soil pH. In MD, the soil microbial community was regulated by the soil's available nutrients and SOC. In SD, the soil microbial community was not only regulated by the soil's available nutrients but also influenced by plant characteristics. These results indicate that during alpine meadow degradation, while the changes in the plants and soil environmental factors both affect the composition of the soil microbial community, the influence of soil factors is greater. The soil's available nutrients are the main driving factors regulating the change in the soil microbial community's composition alongside degradation levels.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Carbono/análise , Pradaria , Humanos , Nutrientes , Microbiologia do Solo , Tibet
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148486, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465064

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely distributed in littoral zones and may cause adverse impacts on mangrove ecosystem. Biodegradation and phytoremediation are two primary processes for BPA dissipation in mangrove soils. However, the rhizosphere effects of different mangrove species on BPA elimination are still unresolved. In this study, three typical mangrove seedlings, namely Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) and Aegiceras corniculatum, were cultivated in soil microcosms for four months and then subjected to 28-day continuous BPA amendment. Un-planted soil microcosms (as control) were also set up. The BPA residual rates and root exudates were monitored, and the metabolic pathways as well as functional microbial communities were also investigated to decipher the rhizosphere effects based on metagenomic analysis. The BPA residual rates in all planted soils were significantly lower than that in un-planted soil on day 7. Both plantation and BPA dosage had significant effects on bacterial abundance. A distinct separation of microbial structure was found between planted and un-planted soil microcosms. Genera Pseudomonas and Lutibacter got enriched with BPA addition and may play important roles in BPA biodegradation. The shifts in bacterial community structure upon BPA addition were different among the microcosms with different mangrove species. Genus Novosphingobium increased in Avicennia marina and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) rhizosphere soils but decreased in Aegiceras corniculatum rhizosphere soil. Based on KEGG annotation and binning analysis, the proposal of BPA degradation pathways and the quantification of relevant functional genes were achieved. The roles of Pseudomonas and Novosphingobium may differ in lower BPA degradation pathways. The quantity variation patterns of functional genes during the 28-day BPA amendment were different among soil microcosms and bacterial genera.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rizosfera , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fenóis , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3106-3115, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467702

RESUMO

To obtain the difference of the fungal and bacterial community diversity between wild Cordyceps sinensis, artificial C. sinensis and their habitat soil, Illmina Hiseq high-throughput sequencing technology was applied. The results show that Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in C. sinensis, Actinobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in soil microhabitat, Ophiocordyceps sinensis was the predominant dominant fungus of C. sinensis. The α diversity analysis showed that the fungal diversity of stroma was lower than other parts, and the fungal diversity of wild C. sinensis was lower than that of artificial C. sinensis. The ß diversity analysis showed that the fungal and bacterial community diversity of soil microhabitat samples was significantly different from that of C. sinensis. The fungal community diversity was less different between wild and artificial C. sinensis, especially in sclerotia. LEfSe analysis showed a lot of species diversity between wild and artificial C. sinensis. Those different species between wild C. sinensis, artificial C. sinensis and their habitat soil provide ideas for further research on breed and components of C. sinensis.


Assuntos
Cordyceps , Microbiota , Cordyceps/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4103-4110, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467720

RESUMO

In this study, the colonization, diversity and relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AMF) in the roots of Panax quinquefolius in different habitats of Shandong province were analyzed by staining-microscopy and high-throughput sequencing. The data were analyzed by bioinformatics tools and statistical software. The results showed that the roots of P. quinquefolius in different habitats were colonized by AMF with different rates and intensities. The AMF in roots of P. quinquefolius belong to three genera, three families, three orders, one class and one phylum. At the level of order, the AMF mainly included Paraglomerales(52.48%), Glomerales(25.60%) and Archaeosporales(3.08%). At the level of family, the AMF were dominated by Paraglomeraceae(52.48%), Glomeraceae(18.94%) and Claroideoglomeraceae(3.05%). At the level of genus, Paraglomus(51.46%), Glomus(20.01%) and Claroideoglomus(3.52%) accounted for a large proportion, of which Paraglomus and Glomus were dominant. Cluster analysis showed that the AMF in roots of P. quinquefolius with close geographical locations could be clustered together. In this study, the diversity and dominant germplasm resources of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolius cultivated in the main producing areas were identified, which provi-ded basic data for revealing the quality formation mechanism of P. quinquefolius medicinal materials from the perspective of environment.


Assuntos
Glomeromycota , Micorrizas , Panax , Fungos , Humanos , Micorrizas/genética , Raízes de Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2765-2778, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472294

RESUMO

Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are difficult to be degraded, and bioremediation has received increasing attention for remediating the hydrocarbon polluted area. This review started by introducing the interphase adaptation and transport process of hydrocarbon by microbes. Subsequently, the advances made in the identification of hydrocarbon-degrading strains and genes as well as elucidation of metabolic pathways and underpinning mechanisms in the biodegradation of typical petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants were summarized. The capability of wild-type hydrocarbon degrading bacteria can be enhanced through genetic engineering and metabolic engineering. With the rapid development of synthetic biology, the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted area can be further improved by engineering the metabolic pathways of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes, or through design and construction of synthetic microbial consortia.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 7035-7050, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477939

RESUMO

Soil microorganisms are essential for the long-term sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. However, continuous grapevine replanting can disrupt the stability of soil microbial communities. We investigated the bacterial and fungal abundance, diversity, and community composition in rhizosphere soils with continuous grapevine replanting for 5, 6, 7 (Y5, Y6, and Y7; short-term), and 20 (Y20; long-term) years with high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that diversities and abundances of bacterial and fungal communities in Y20 were significantly lower than in other samples. The bacterial and fungal community compositions were markedly affected by the replanting time and planting year. After short-term grapevine replanting, relative abundances of potential beneficial bacteria and harmful fungi in rhizosphere soils were higher compared to long-term planting. Bacterial and fungal communities were significantly correlated with available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus, available potassium (AK), and pH. AK and AN were the primary soil factors related to the shift of bacterial and fungal communities. Bacterial and fungal co-occurrence patterns were remarkably affected by replanting time, showing that fallow land harbored co-occurrence networks more complex than those in other groups, with the Y20 group showing the lowest complexity. Then, we isolated the dominant fungi in grapevine rhizosphere soil after continuous replanting and verified the harmful effects of three candidate strains through pot experiments. The results showed that 12 days post-treating the soil with fungal spore suspensions significantly inhibited grapevine seedlings' growth, whereas Fusarium solani inhibited plant growth. Overall, we showed that F. solani might be a potentially harmful fungus related to grapevine replant diseases. KEY POINTS: • Continuous grapevine planting reduced soil microbe diversities/abundances. • Beneficial bacteria and harmful fungi increased after short-term replanting. • F. solani may be a harmful fungus related to grapevine replant diseases.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Bactérias/genética , Fungos , Fusarium , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125805, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492779

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem affecting the quality of agricultural production and human health. In this study, spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and its compost (CSMS) were used to remedy black soil and red soil with simulated Pb contamination, aiming to discover their role in the improving rhizosphere environment and structuring rhizosphere bacterial community under lead stress. We designed an ultra-small-scale plot experiment to separate the rhizosphere from non-rhizosphere soil when planting water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk). The results showed that under 600 mg/kg of lead pollution, CSMS and SMS had no significant effect on the rhizosphere bacterial diversity in the black soil, but CSMS significantly increased the rhizosphere bacterial diversity in the red soil. The amendments significantly increased the percentage of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in rhizosphere soil, and the relative abundance of some beneficial genera, such as Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhizomicrobium, Lysobacter etc., which subsequently restructured the bacterial community. The compositions of bacterial community of the red soil remediated by both amendments evolved to those of the black soil.


Assuntos
Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias/genética , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520338

RESUMO

A novel rhizobacterium, designated strain NEAU-GH312T, with antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum was isolated from rhizosphere soil of rice (Heilongjiang Province, PR China) and characterized with a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain NEAU-GH312T were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, motile with peritrichous flagella and rod-shaped. Colonies were light orange, convex and semi-translucent on Reasoner's 2A (R2A) agar after 2 days of incubation at 28 °C. Growth was observed on R2A agar at 10-40 °C, pH 4.0-8.0 and with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-8. The major cellular fatty acids of strain NEAU-GH312T were C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the well-supported affiliation of strain NEAU-GH312T within the genus Massilia, close to the type strains of Massilia arvi THG-RS2OT (98.7 %), Massilia norwichensis NS9T (98.7 %) and Massilia kyonggiensis TSA1T (98.6 %). Strain NEAU-GH312T had a genome size of 6.68 Mb and an average DNA G+C content of 66.3 mol%. Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data obtained in this study, strain NEAU-GH312T could be classified as representative of a novel species of the genus Massilia, for which the name Massilia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain NEAU-GH312T (=DSM 109722T=CCTCC AB 2019142T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Oryza , Ralstonia solanacearum , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Oxalobacteraceae , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
Chemosphere ; 277: 130243, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384172

RESUMO

Improving phytoremediation efficiency in lead (Pb) contaminated soil through either bacterial or fungal inoculants have extensively been studied with different successes and limitations. In this study, co-application of bacteria and fungi have been investigated for development of an integrated phytoremediation system (IPS) for efficient Pb removal and restoration of soil microbial and enzymatic activities in degraded soil. For this purpose, Pb tolerant bacterial and fungal strains were firstly analyzed for antifungal and antibacterial activities through disc diffusion method. Afterwards, the co-inoculation studies were performed to investigate the effects on phytoavailability and uptake of Pb by Pelargonium hortorum through soil incubation and pot culture experiments, respectively. Results indicated significant (p < 0.05) antibacterial activity of Mucor spp. against bacterial species (Klebsiella variicola and K. quasipneumoniae). The highest significant increase in extractable Pb fraction (5.0-folds) was observed when soil was co-inoculated with Aspergillus flavus + Microbacterium paraoxydans compared to the control soil (un-inoculated soil) at 2000 mg Pb kg-1 concentration. Similarly, uptake results also indicated significantly higher Pb uptake in plants inoculated with A. flavus + M. paraoxydans. Soil microbial results indicated significant decrease in microbial health indicators and enzymatic activities with increasing Pb concentration and exposure time, as compared to control soil. A relatively severe decline was observed in soil respiration and dehydrogenase (DEH) activities by 2.8- and 2.5-folds, respectively at 2000 mg Pb kg-1 of soil. The optimized IPS was effective for restoring enzymatic activities in Pb contaminated soil and could be applied for sustainable restoration of Pb contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Klebsiella , Chumbo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360661

RESUMO

Fabricated ecosystems (EcoFABs) offer an innovative approach to in situ examination of microbial establishment patterns around plant roots using nondestructive, high-resolution microscopy. Previously high-resolution imaging was challenging because the roots were not constrained to a fixed distance from the objective. Here, we describe a new 'Imaging EcoFAB' and the use of this device to image the entire root system of growing Brachypodium distachyon at high resolutions (20×, 40×) over a 3-week period. The device is capable of investigating root-microbe interactions of multimember communities. We examined nine strains of Pseudomonas simiae with different fluorescent constructs to B. distachyon and individual cells on root hairs were visible. Succession in the rhizosphere using two different strains of P. simiae was examined, where the second addition was shown to be able to establish in the root tissue. The device was suitable for imaging with different solid media at high magnification, allowing for the imaging of fungal establishment in the rhizosphere. Overall, the Imaging EcoFAB could improve our ability to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of the rhizosphere, including studies of fluorescently-tagged, multimember, synthetic communities.


Assuntos
Brachypodium/microbiologia , Microtecnologia/instrumentação , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Brachypodium/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 339: 125515, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332859

RESUMO

In this study, influence of biochar on nitrification was explored using multi-level (DNA, RNA, protein) and multi-aspect (diversity, structure, key community, co-occurrence pattern and functional modules) analyses (M-LAA) of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOMs) during cattle manure composting. Biochar addition increased the copy numbers and diversity of AOMs, restricted (36.02%) the amoA gene transcripts of archaea but increased (24.53%) those of bacteria, and reduced (75.86%) ammonooxygenase (AMO) activity. Crenarchaeota and Thaumarcheota mediated NH4+-N, Unclassified_k_norank_d_Archaea and Crenarchaeota regulated AMO activity and potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) rates. Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira were the predominant microbial taxa influencing NH4+-N variation and PAO rates, respectively. Additionally, both Crenarchaeota and Nitrosospira played crucial roles in mediating NO3--N and NO2--N. Furthermore, biochar altered the network patterns of AOMs community by changing the keystone species and the interactivity among communities. These findings indicated that influence of biochar on nitrification could be better explained using M-LAA of AOMs.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Esterco , Amônia , Animais , Archaea/genética , Bovinos , Carvão Vegetal , Nitrificação , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4481-4488, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414748

RESUMO

Soil archaeal communities play an essential role in the biogeochemical cycles of agricultural ecosystems. However, the response and mechanisms of soil archaeal community structure and assembly processes to heavy metal pollution remain poorly understood. This study examined the archaeal community composition and assembly process and their relationships with environmental factors in arable soils around high geological background areas, metal enterprises, and mining areas, based on high-throughput sequencing. The arable soils within the study area exhibited high spatial heterogeneity of heavy metal content, as well as severe cadmium pollution. The ecological risk levels were high in some soil samples from mining areas, but low to moderate in other soil samples. Crenarchaeota (62.7%-98.3%) was the dominant phyla in all soil samples, followed by Halobacterota (1.1%-23.2%). The pH, organic matter, arsenic, and lead contents of the soil were significantly correlated with the archaeal community (P<0.05), making them the main driving factors of archaeal community structure. The null-model analysis showed that the assembly process of the archaeal community was mainly influenced by heterogeneous processes, including heterogeneous selection (deterministic process) and dispersal limitation (stochastic process). Heterogeneous selection played a vital role in our study areas, while homogeneous selection only occurred in samples around the metal enterprises. Therefore, environmental selection was the ultimate driver of the archaeal community assembly process in this study, and its relative importance varied according to habitat type. Environmental heterogeneity increased the contribution of heterogeneous selection to community assembly, thus enhancing the community's resistance to environmental stress, and contributing to the stability and sustainability of the agricultural ecosystem.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Solo , Archaea/genética , Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo
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