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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

RESUMO

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Folhas de Planta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 398: 133905, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969991

RESUMO

Maillard reaction products (MRPs) play pivotal roles in gut health by affecting the microbiome-host interactions. This study aimed at investigating the effects of MRPs derived from bighead carp meat hydrolysates with galactose and galacto-oligosaccharides on intestinal microbial composition and metabolic profile by in vitro pig fecal fermentation. The pH decreased sharply in the first 12 h and the highest production of butyric acid was observed in GM (glycated BCH with galacto-oligosaccharide) treatment with 64.7 µmoL/10 mL (p < 0.05) at 48 h. Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus were dominant in the GM treatment, while Escherichia-Shigella was predominant in LgM (glycated BCH with galactose) treatment at 12 h. The up-regulated metabolites indicated that GM and LgM might participate in the fatty acids synthesis and modulate lipid metabolism, respectively. Overall, GM will be more beneficial for gut health by promoting the production of butyric acid and fatty acids synthesis.


Assuntos
Carpas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Ácido Butírico , Carpas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Galactose/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Carne , Metaboloma , Oligossacarídeos/química , Suínos
3.
Food Chem ; 399: 133959, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001928

RESUMO

Advances in understanding the biological effects of dietary flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods have been reported. Improving knowledge about their beneficial effects, and mechanisms of action, is crucial for better utilization. However, mechanisms responsible for their health benefits are still unclear. Previous research considered has suggested that gut microbiota might be linked to the metabolism of dietary flavonoids. To understand the bioactivities of dietary flavonoids/flavonoid-rich foods better, and the role of microbiota, we explored systematically 1) types of dietary flavonoids and associated health benefits, 2) low bioaccessibilities and metabolic characteristics, 3) gut microbiota role in regulation, and 4) crosstalk between regulation mechanisms. Current challenges and future perspectives were also considered, offering new research directions and identifying trends in the development of flavonoid-rich food products.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Promoção da Saúde , Polifenóis/farmacologia
4.
Food Chem ; 399: 133993, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029678

RESUMO

At present, uncovering how to preventandcontrol hyperuricemia has become an important public health issue. Fermented traditionalChinesemedicine has exhibited promising applications in the clinical management of hyperuricemia. In this study, we generated a hyperuricemic mouse model to explore the potent therapeutic ability of Bacillus subtilis-fermented Astragalus membranaceus (BFA) on this condition by multi-omics analysis. We found that the serum uric acid level was decreased in hyperuricemic mice after BFA treatment. BFA effectively attenuated renal inflammation and regulated the expression of urate transporters. Additionally, we found that BFA could increase the abundances of butyrate-producing bacteria, including Butyricimonas synergistica, Odoribacter splanchnicus, and Collinsella tanakaei, and probiotics, including Lactobacillus intestinalis and Bacillus mycoides, in hyperuricemic mice. Therefore, we believe that BFA has the potential to become a novel safe and valid functional food for addressing hyperuricemia.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperuricemia , Animais , Astragalus propinquus/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/genética , Rim , Camundongos , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

RESUMO

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Coelhos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bacteroides , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose , Inflamação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 291: 115145, 2022 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219821

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shenling Baizhu San (SBS) is commonly employed to improve gastrointestinal dysfunction in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in China. SBS combined with mesalamine has been demonstrated to result in improve its curative effects without increasing any adverse reactions, but the underlying mechanism remains unclarified. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our study aimed to illuminate the potential therapeutic effects and mechanisms of SBS, which is a medicine complementary to mesalamine, in the treatment of UC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of SBS as a complementary medicine to mesalamine for patients with UC (n = 48). The patients in the control group (n = 24) were given mesalamine alone, whereas those in the experimental group were administered mesalamine combined with SBS. The therapeutic outcome was assessed at 8 weeks. The structures of the gut microbiota (GMB) were characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing, and the microbial tryptophan metabolites were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS to investigate the mechanism through which SBS achieves its effects. RESULTS: Our results showed that the combination of SBS and mesalamine could significantly improve the clinical signs of UC by achieving mucosal healing and relieving colon damage. Interestingly, the combination of SBS and mesalamine could alter the GMB structures and increase the microbial levels of tryptophan metabolites, including indole-3-propionic acid and indole-3-acetic acid. CONCLUSION: SBS combined with mesalamine is effective in improving the clinical and endoscopic outcomes of patients with UC. SBS, as a complementary therapy to conventional treatment, alleviates UC via the GMB-tryptophan metabolite axis.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Terapias Complementares , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Cromatografia Líquida , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Humanos , Mesalamina/farmacologia , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triptofano
7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 76, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35197458

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood mental disorder with undetermined pathophysiological mechanisms. The gut microbiota and immunological dysfunction may influence brain functions and social behaviours. In the current study, we aimed to explore the correlation of gut microbiome imbalance and inflammation in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Forty-one children with ADHD and thirty-nine healthy-control (HC) individuals were recruited. Faecal samples from all participants were collected and submitted for 16 S rRNA V3-V4 amplicon microbiome sequencing analysis. The plasma levels of 10 cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IFN-α2, IFN-γ, and MCP-1, were determined using a custom-made sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed by Luminex Flowmetrix. There was no significant difference between the ADHD and HC groups in species diversity in the faeces, as determined with α-diversity and ß-diversity analysis. In the ADHD group, three differentially abundant taxonomic clades at the genus level were observed, namely Agathobacter, Anaerostipes, and Lachnospiraceae. Top differentially abundant bacteria and representative biological pathways were identified in children with ADHD using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe), and the phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis, respectively. The plasma levels of TNF-α were significantly lower in children with ADHD than in HCs. Within the ADHD group, the levels of TNF-α were negatively correlated with ADHD symptoms and diversity of the gut microbiome. Our study provides new insights into the association between gut microbiome dysbiosis and immune dysregulation, which may contribute to the pathophysiology of ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Criança , Citocinas/genética , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Filogenia
8.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2117509, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049025

RESUMO

Dietary restriction (DR) is one of the most robust interventions shown to extend health-span and remains on the forefront of anti-aging intervention studies, though conflicting results have been shown on its effect on lifespan both in rodents and primates. The severe inhibitory effects on the lymphoid lineage by DR remains one of its major negative downsides which reduces its overall beneficial effects on organismal health. Yet, the underlying mechanism of how DR suppresses the lymphoid system remains to be explored. Here, we show that antibiotic ablation of gut microbiota significantly rescued the inhibition of lymphopoiesis by DR. Interestingly, glycolysis in lymphocytes was significantly down-regulated in DR mice and pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis reverted this rescue effect of lymphopoiesis in DR mice with ablated gut microbiota. Furthermore, DR remarkably reconstructed gut microbiota with a significant increase in butyrate-producing bacterial taxa and in expression of But, a key gene involved in butyrate synthesis. Moreover, supplemental butyrate feeding in AL mice suppressed glycolysis in lymphoid cells and mimicked the inhibition of lymphopoiesis in AL mice. Together, our study reveals that gut microbiota mediates the inhibition on lymphopoiesis via down-regulation of glycolysis under DR conditions, which is associated with increased butyrate-synthesis. Our study uncovered a candidate that could potentially be targeted for ameliorating the negative effects of DR on lymphopoiesis, and therefore may have important implications for the wider application of DR and promoting healthy aging.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Glicólise , Linfopoese , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2107387, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050867

RESUMO

Although post-cholecystectomy (PC) patients usually have gastrointestinal complications and a higher risk of colorectal cancer, previous studies undetected a heightened risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, we tried to investigate cholecystectomy's impact and pathophysiological mechanism on murine colitis models and clarify the association among fecal bile acids (BAs), mucosal bacterial microbiota, and immune cells in the PC patients. One month or three months after cholecystectomy, mice have induced colitis and tested BAs and fecal microbiota analysis. Next, mice were treated with various cholecystectomy-accumulated bile acids in drinking water for three months before inducing colitis. All 14 paired PC patients and healthy subjects were enrolled for BAs and mucosal microbiota analysis. Cholecystectomy ameliorated DSS-induced murine colitis, accelerated mucosal repair, and induced a significant shifting of fecal microbiota and BAs profiles under colitis status, which featured a higher relative abundance of species involved in BAs metabolism and increased secondary BAs concentrations. Cholecystectomy-associated secondary BAs (LCA, DCA, and HDCA) also ameliorated DSS-induced colitis and accelerated mucosal repair in mice. Cholecystectomy and specific secondary BAs treatments inhibited monocytes/macrophages recruitment in colitis mice. In vitro, cholecystectomy-associated secondary BAs also downregulated monocytes chemokines in the THP-1 derived macrophages through activation of the LXRα-linked signaling pathway. The alterations of mucosal microbiota and fecal BAs profiles were found in the PC patients, characterized as increased species with potential immuno-modulating effects and secondary BAs, which were negatively associated with peripheral monocytes levels. Cholecystectomy-induced secondary bile acids accumulation ameliorated colitis through inhibiting monocyte/macrophage recruitment, which might be mediated by the LXRα-related signaling pathway. Cholecystectomy, after 3 months follow-up, has an immune-regulatory role in murine colitis, preliminarily explaining that no increased risk of IBD had been reported in the PC patients, which still warrants further studies.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Colecistectomia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos
10.
Cell ; 185(18): 3441-3456.e19, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055202

RESUMO

Great progress has been made in understanding gut microbiomes' products and their effects on health and disease. Less attention, however, has been given to the inputs that gut bacteria consume. Here, we quantitatively examine inputs and outputs of the mouse gut microbiome, using isotope tracing. The main input to microbial carbohydrate fermentation is dietary fiber and to branched-chain fatty acids and aromatic metabolites is dietary protein. In addition, circulating host lactate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and urea (but not glucose or amino acids) feed the gut microbiome. To determine the nutrient preferences across bacteria, we traced into genus-specific bacterial protein sequences. We found systematic differences in nutrient use: most genera in the phylum Firmicutes prefer dietary protein, Bacteroides dietary fiber, and Akkermansia circulating host lactate. Such preferences correlate with microbiome composition changes in response to dietary modifications. Thus, diet shapes the microbiome by promoting the growth of bacteria that preferentially use the ingested nutrients.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Lactatos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Nutrientes
11.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2119054, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062329

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic life-long inflammatory disease affecting almost 2 million Americans. Although new biologic therapies have been developed, the standard medical treatment fails to selectively control the dysregulated immune pathways involved in chronic colonic inflammation. Further, IBD patients with uncontrolled colonic inflammation are at a higher risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Intestinal microbes can impact many immune functions, and here we asked if they could be used to improve intestinal inflammation. By utilizing an intestinal adherent E. coli that we find increases IL-10 producing macrophages, we were able to limit intestinal inflammation and restrict tumor formation. Macrophage IL-10 along with IL-10 signaling to the intestinal epithelium were required for protection in both inflammation and tumor development. Our work highlights that administration of immune modulating microbes can improve intestinal outcomes by altering tissue inflammation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Associadas a Colite , Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Microbiota , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Inflamação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Interleucina-10 , Macrófagos
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 312, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is a common protistan parasite inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. While there are increasing reports characterizing the associations between Blastocystis and the gut microbiome in healthy individuals, only a few studies have investigated the relationships between Blastocystis and the gut microbiota in diarrheal patients. METHODS: The effects of a specific subtype (ST7) of Blastocystis on the composition of gut microbiota in diarrheal patients were investigated using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. RESULTS: Compared with diarrheal patients without Blastocystis, diarrheal patients infected with Blastocystis ST7 exhibited lower bacterial diversity. Beta diversity analysis revealed significant differences in bacterial community structure between ST7-infected and Blastocystis-free patients. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia-Shigella were significantly enriched in ST7-infected patients. In contrast, the abundance of Bacteroides and Parabacteroides were more prevalent in Blastocystis-free patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study revealed, for the first time, that infection with Blastocystis ST7 is associated with lower bacterial diversity and altered microbial structure in diarrheal patients. Our study on clinical diarrheal patients is also the first to reinforce the notion that ST7 is a pathogenic subtype of Blastocystis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Diarreia , Fezes/parasitologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15080, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064754

RESUMO

The gut microbiome plays important roles in the maintenance of health and pathogenesis of diseases in the growing host. In order to fully comprehend the interplay of the gut microbiome and host, a foundational understanding of longitudinal microbiome, including bacteria and fungi, development is necessary. In this study, we evaluated enteric microbiome and host dynamics throughout the lifetime of commercial swine. We collected a total of 234 fecal samples from ten pigs across 31 time points in three developmental stages (5 preweaning, 15 nursery, and 11 growth adult). We then performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing for bacterial profiles and qPCR for the fungus Kazachstania slooffiae. We identified distinct bacteriome clustering according to the host developmental stage, with the preweaning stage exhibiting low bacterial diversity and high volatility amongst samples. We further identified clusters of bacteria that were considered core, increasing, decreasing or stage-associated throughout the host lifetime. Kazachstania slooffiae was absent in the preweaning stage but peaked during the nursery stage of the host. We determined that all host growth stages contained negative correlations between K. slooffiae and bacterial genera, with only the growth adult stage containing positive correlates. Our stage-associated bacteriome results suggested the neonate contained a volatile gut microbiome. Upon weaning, the microbiome became relatively established with comparatively fewer perturbations in microbiome composition. Differential analysis indicated bacteria might play distinct stage-associated roles in metabolism and pathogenesis. The lack of positive correlates and shared K. slooffiae-bacteria interactions between stages warranted future research into the interactions amongst these kingdoms for host health. This research is foundational for understanding how bacteria and fungi develop singularly, as well as within a complex ecosystem in the host's gut environment.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias , Fezes/microbiologia , Fungos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Saccharomycetales , Suínos
14.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273792, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067170

RESUMO

There have been numerous studies in humans and rodents substantiating the role of the gastrointestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis and progression of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in dogs; however, little is known about the composition of the gut microbiome during the development and treatment of diabetes in this species. The objective of this pilot study was to characterize the gastrointestinal microbiome of dogs with diabetes mellitus at the time of diagnosis and over the first 12 weeks of insulin therapy and identify associations with glycemic control. Rectal swabs and serum for fructosamine measurement were collected from 6 newly diagnosed diabetic dogs at 2-week intervals for 12 weeks. Rectal samples were sequenced using 16S, ITS, and archaeal primers. Measures of alpha and beta diversity were assessed for changes over time; associations between absolute sequence variant (ASV) relative abundances and time and fructosamine concentration were identified using a microbiome-specific, multivariate linear effects model. No statistically significant changes over time were noted in alpha diversity and samples significantly grouped by dog rather than by time in the beta diversity analysis. However, multiple ASVs were negatively (Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Romboutsia, Collinsella) and positively (Streptococcus, Bacteroides, Ruminococcus gauveauii, Peptoclostridium) associated with time and two ASVs were positively associated with fructosamine (Enterococcus, Escherichia-Shigella). These changes in gastrointestinal microbial composition warrant further investigation of how they may relate to diabetes mellitus progression or control in dogs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Cães , Frutosamina , Humanos , Insulina , Insulina Regular Humana , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5235, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068270

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), primarily a respiratory disease caused by infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is often accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms. However, little is known about the relation between the human microbiome and COVID-19, largely due to the fact that most previous studies fail to provide high taxonomic resolution to identify microbes that likely interact with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we used whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing data together with assembly and binning strategies to reconstruct metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from 514 COVID-19 related nasopharyngeal and fecal samples in six independent cohorts. We reconstructed a total of 11,584 medium-and high-quality microbial MAGs and obtained 5403 non-redundant MAGs (nrMAGs) with strain-level resolution. We found that there is a significant reduction of strain richness for many species in the gut microbiome of COVID-19 patients. The gut microbiome signatures can accurately distinguish COVID-19 cases from healthy controls and predict the progression of COVID-19. Moreover, we identified a set of nrMAGs with a putative causal role in the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and revealed their functional pathways that potentially interact with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we demonstrated that the main findings of our study can be largely validated in three independent cohorts. The presented results highlight the importance of incorporating the human gut microbiome in our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease progression.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Metagenoma/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15115, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068280

RESUMO

We have investigated the diversity and composition of gut microbiotas isolated from AD (Alzheimer's disease) patients (n = 41) and healthy seniors (n = 43) from Nur-Sultan city (Kazakhstan). The composition of the gut microbiota was characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Our results demonstrated significant differences in bacterial abundance at phylum, class, order, and genus levels in AD patients compared to healthy aged individuals. Relative abundance analysis has revealed increased amount of taxa belonging to Acidobacteriota, Verrucomicrobiota, Planctomycetota and Synergistota phyla in AD patients. Among bacterial genera, microbiotas of AD participants were characterized by a decreased amount of Bifidobacterium, Clostridia bacterium, Castellaniella, Erysipelotrichaceae UCG-003, Roseburia, Tuzzerella, Lactobacillaceae and Monoglobus. Differential abundance analysis determined enriched genera of Christensenellaceae R-7 group, Prevotella, Alloprevotella, Eubacterium coprostanoligenes group, Ruminococcus, Flavobacterium, Ohtaekwangia, Akkermansia, Bacteroides sp. Marseille-P3166 in AD patients, whereas Levilactobacillus, Lactiplantibacillus, Tyzzerella, Eubacterium siraeum group, Monoglobus, Bacteroides, Erysipelotrichaceae UCG-003, Veillonella, Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Haemophilus were depleted. We have also found correlations between some bacteria taxa and blood serum biochemical parameters. Adiponectin was correlated with Acidimicrobiia, Faecalibacterium, Actinobacteria, Oscillospiraceae, Prevotella and Christensenellaceae R-7. The Christensenellaceae R-7 group and Acidobacteriota were correlated with total bilirubin, while Firmicutes, Acidobacteriales bacterium, Castellaniella alcaligenes, Lachnospiraceae, Christensenellaceae and Klebsiella pneumoniae were correlated with the level of CRP in the blood of AD patients. In addition, we report the correlations found between disease severity and certain fecal bacteria. This is the first reported study demonstrating gut microbiota alterations in AD in the Central Asian region.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Idoso , Bactérias/genética , Bacteroides/genética , Faecalibacterium/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Cazaquistão , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
Cell Rep ; 40(10): 111314, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070692

RESUMO

Host immune response via Th17 cells against oral pathobionts is a key mediator in periodontitis development. However, where and how the Th17-type immune response is induced during the development of periodontitis is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that gut translocation of the oral pathobiont Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) exacerbates oral pathobiont-induced periodontitis with enhanced Th17 cell differentiation. The oral pathobiont-responsive Th17 cells are differentiated in Peyer's patches and translocated systemically in the peripheral immune tissues. They are also capable of migrating to and accumulating in the mouth upon oral infection. Development of periodontitis via the oral pathobiont-responsive Th17 cells is regulated by the intestinal microbiome, and altering the intestinal microbiome composition with antibiotics affects the development of periodontitis. Our study highlights that pathobiont-responsive Th17 cells in the gut-mouth axis and the intestinal microbiome work together to provoke inflammatory oral diseases, including periodontitis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Periodontite , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Células Th17
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 973563, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072223

RESUMO

As a set of inflammatory disorders, spondyloarthritis (SpA) exhibits distinct pathophysiological, clinical, radiological, and genetic characteristics. Due to the extra-articular features of this disorder, early recognition is crucial to limiting disability and improving outcomes. Gut dysbiosis has been linked to SpA development as evidence grows. A pathogenic SpA process is likely to occur when a mucosal immune system interacts with abnormal local microbiota, with subsequent joint involvement. It is largely unknown, however, how microbiota alterations predate the onset of SpA within the "gut-joint axis". New microbiome therapies, such as probiotics, are used as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of SpA, suggesting that the modulation of intestinal microbiota and/or intestinal barrier function may contribute to the prevention of SpA. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms of SpA by which the gut microbiota impacts gut inflammation and triggers the activation of immune responses. Additionally, we analyze the regulatory role of therapeutic SpA medication in the gut microbiota and the potential application of probiotics as adjunctive therapy for SpA.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Espondilartrite , Espondiloartropatias , Disbiose , Humanos , Inflamação , Espondilartrite/terapia
19.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 6860940, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072769

RESUMO

Aims: To explore the study of the relationship between the level of gut flora in childhood obese people and normal healthy people based on the analysis of machine learning. Materials and Methods: The stools of 54 normal weight, 53 overweight, and 59 obese children from May 2021 to May 2022 were selected. And DNA was extracted, and primers specific for the four bacteria were designed according to the specificity of the four bacteria to the 16 S rDNA gene sequences of the bacteria to be tested, and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR reactions were performed to compare whether there was any difference in the number of the four bacteria between the three groups. Results. The results of agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the PCR amplification products of all four target bacteria showed clear bands at the corresponding positions, and no nonspecific bands appeared. When compared with the marker, the size matched with the target fragment, indicating good primer specificity. The comparison between normal body recombinant, super recombinant, and obese groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05) for rectal eubacteria, polymorphic anaplasma, bifidobacteria spp., and lactobacilli. The median number of bifidobacteria in the three groups was significantly higher than the median number of rectal eubacteria, polymorphomycetes, and lactobacilli. The difference in comparison was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Stratified analysis of children's age revealed that normal body composition of Lactobacillus decreased with increasing age, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: An increase in rectal eubacteria and a decrease in polymorphomycetes, bifidobacteria spp., and lactobacilli may be associated with the development of obesity. The numbers of rectal eubacteria, polymorphic methanobacteria, bifidobacteria spp., and lactobacilli in the intestine of normal weight and obese children were less affected by sex and age.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade Pediátrica , Bactérias/genética , Criança , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Aprendizado de Máquina
20.
Cell ; 185(18): 3282-3284, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055195

RESUMO

Non-nutritive sweeteners are increasingly consumed to satisfy cravings for sweet taste without the associated calories. Paradoxically, non-nutritive sweeteners have been linked to metabolic risks, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. In this issue of Cell, Suez and colleagues pinpoint changes in the gut microbiome as a mechanism for non-nutritive sweetener-induced glycemic impairments in healthy adults.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adoçantes não Calóricos , Adulto , Humanos , Adoçantes não Calóricos/efeitos adversos , Edulcorantes/farmacologia
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