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2.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 683-690, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638020

RESUMO

The presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) increases the mutagenicity of water and may pose adverse health effects. Gut microbiota exerts a fundamental role on host physiology, and how extrinsic perturbations influence its composition has been increasingly examined. However, the effect of DBPs on gut microbiota is still poorly understood. In the present study, adult zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm, an emerging nitrogenous DBP) for 30 days. Sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed a significant change in the richness and diversity of microbiota in the gut of DCAcAm-exposed zebrafish. At the phylum level, the abundance of Proteobacteria decreased and the abundance of Fusobacteria and Firmicutes increased significantly in the gut after exposure to 100 and 500 µg/L DCAcAm. At the genus level, the abundances of several bacteria which are considered pathogens or opportunistic pathogens in fish and closely related to fish metabolism, disease and inflammation (Aeromonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacteroides and Ralstonia) increased in the DCAcAm-treated groups. Our results reveal that DBPs in drinking water potentially affect gut microbiota composition, which may contribute to the toxicity assessment of DBPs in future and provide new insight into the complex interactions between the DBPs in drinking water and host health.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/toxicidade , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Purificação da Água , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia , Animais , Desinfecção , Água Potável/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S
3.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 770, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Host genotype plays a crucial role in microbial composition of laying hens, which may lead to dissimilar odor gas production. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship among layer breed, microbial structure and odor production. RESULTS: Thirty Hy-Line Gray and thirty Lohmann Pink laying hens were used in this study to determine the impact of cecal microbial structure on odor production of laying hens. The hens were managed under the same husbandry and dietary regimes. Results of in vivo experiments showed a lower hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production from Hy-Line hens and a lower concentration of soluble sulfide (S2-) but a higher concentration of butyrate in the cecal content of the Hy-Line hens compared to Lohmann Pink hens (P < 0.05), which was consistent with the in vitro experiments (P < 0.05). However, ammonia (NH3) production was not different between genotypes (P > 0.05). Significant microbial structural differences existed between the two breed groups. The relative abundance of some butyrate producers (including Butyricicoccus, Butyricimonas and Roseburia) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (including Mailhella and Lawsonia) were found to be significantly correlated with odor production and were shown to be different in the 16S rRNA and PCR data between two breed groups. Furthermore, some bacterial metabolism pathways associated with energy extraction and carbohydrate utilization (oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, energy metabolism, two component system and secretion system) were overrepresented in the Hy-Line hens, while several amino acid metabolism-associated pathways (amino acid related enzymes, arginine and proline metabolism, and alanine-aspartate and glutamate metabolism) were more prevalent in the Lohmann hens. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that genotype of laying hens influence cecal microbiota, which in turn modulates their odor production. Our study provides references for breeding and enteric manipulation for defined microbiota to reduce odor gas emission.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Butiratos , Feminino , Odorantes , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(9): 1102-1107, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of fecal microbiota transplantation on septic gut flora and the cortex cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in rats. METHODS: Sixty clean grade male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into normal saline (NS) control group, sepsis model group and fecal microbiota transplantation group by random number table, with 20 rats in each group. The rat model of sepsis was reproduced by injection of 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via tail vein, the rats in the NS control group was given the same amount of NS. The rats in the fecal microbiota transplantation group received nasogastric infusion of feces from healthy donor on the 1st day, 2 mL each time, for 3 times a day, the other two groups were given equal dose of NS by gavage. Fecal samples were collected on the 7th day after modeling, the levels of intestinal microbiota composition was determined using the 16SrDNA gene sequencing technology. The brain function was evaluated by electroencephalogram (EEG), and the proportion of each waveform in EEG was calculated. After sacrifice of rats, the brain tissues were harvested, the levels of protein expression of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) were determined by Western Blot, and positive cells of Iba-1 in brain tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry method. The levels of interleukins (IL-6 and IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Seven days after the reproduction of the model, all rats in the NS control group survived, while 10 rats and 8 rats died in the sepsis model group and fecal microbiota transplantation group, respectively, with mortality rates of 50% and 40% respectively. Finally, there were 20 rats in the NS control group, 10 in the sepsis model group and 12 in the fecal microbiota transplantation group. Compared with the NS control group, the diversity and composition of intestinal flora were changed, the incidence of abnormal EEG increased significantly, the expression of α7nAchR in the cortex decreased significantly, and the levels of Iba-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß were significantly increased in the model group, suggested that the intestinal flora was dysbiosis, and severe inflammatory reaction occurred in the cerebral cortex, and brain function was impaired. Compared with the model group, the diversity of intestinal flora in the fecal microbiota transplantation group was significantly increased (species index: 510.24±58.76 vs. 282.50±47.42, Chao1 index: 852.75±25.24 vs. 705.50±46.50, both P < 0.05), the dysbiosis of intestinal flora at phylum, family, genus level induced by LPS were also significantly reversed, and with the improvement of intestinal flora, the incidence of abnormal EEG waveforms was lower in the fecal microbiota transplantation group compared with that in the model group [25.0% (3/12) vs. 80.0% (8/10), P < 0.05], and the expression of α7nAChR protein in the cerebral cortex was significantly increased (α7nAChR/ß-actin: 1.56±0.05 vs. 0.82±0.07, P < 0.05), immunohistochemistry analysis showed that Iba-1 positive expression of microglia decreased significantly, and cerebral cortex TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß levels were significantly decreased [TNF-α (ng/L): 6.28±0.61 vs. 12.02±0.54, IL-6 (ng/L): 28.26±3.15 vs. 60.58±4.62, IL-1ß (ng/L): 33.63±3.48 vs. 72.56±2.25, all P < 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal that fecal microbiota transplantation has remarkably modulated the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota and activated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and ameliorate the brain dysfunction in septic rats.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sepse , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Córtex Cerebral , Colinérgicos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
6.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(10): 782-785, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594178

RESUMO

To explore the therapeutic effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for severe psoriasis. A patient, male, 36 years old, diagnosed as severe plaque psoriasis for 10 years and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for 15 years, was administrated twice FMT via both upper endoscopy and colonoscopy with a 5-week interval. The following items were used to evaluate responses: body surface area (BSA), psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), dermatology life quality index (DLQI), histological examination, intestinal symptoms, adverse reactions and serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. After second FMT treatment for 5 weeks, aforementioned items were improved greatly compared with those before treatment. Moreover, IBS was completely relieved and no adverse reactions were observed during the treatment and follow-up. In conclusion, FMT could be a novel therapy for psoriasis. Further clinical trials are needed to provide solid evidences.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Psoríase/terapia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto , Endoscopia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/tendências , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Intestinos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Masculino , Psoríase/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Science ; 365(6460): 1379-1380, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604257
8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(4): 446-448, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600496

RESUMO

The diet-microbiome interaction can positively or negatively affect our health depending on dietary habits. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Wolf et al. (2019) highlight the beneficial roles of gut commensal Collinsella in degrading potentially toxic food contaminants, called Maillard reaction products, found in processed foods.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dieta , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(4): 448-449, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600497

RESUMO

The viral fraction of the human gut microbiota, or virome, has been studied in a limited capacity. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Shkoporov et al. (2019) perform a longitudinal study with database-independent clustering of bacteriophage genomes and de novo taxonomic classification, increasing our understanding of the virome.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17206, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the features and function of gut microbiota in necrotizing enterocolitis patients over 28 gestational age weeks through a case-control study. METHODS: Fecal samples from patients with NEC over 28 gestational week age and matched control cases were collected. DNA of the fecal samples was extracted for 16 s rRNA sequencing to estimate the composition of the microbiota. Functional inference analyses were conducted through PICRUSt based on the sequencing raw data. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the total diversity of microbiota between the fecal samples from the patients with NEC and the controls (P = .40). Propionibacterium was more abundant in the NEC cases than in the controls. Conversely, Lactobacillus, Phascolarctobacterium, and Streptococcus_salivarius were found to be more plentiful in the controls through LEfSe analysis. Functional inference analysis revealed that the xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolic activity was lower in the NEC cases than in the controls (P < .05). CONCLUSION: The NEC cohort with a gestational age of over 28 weeks has a different pattern of microbiota compared with the controls. Functional inference analysis indicated that the potential function of the microbiota may also differ between these groups.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Idade Gestacional , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/microbiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11665-11674, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588753

RESUMO

A long-term high-fat diet (HFD) can cause a range of health problems. Gut microbiota plays a decisive role in the development of HFD-associated inflammation, involved in function of T cells. This study was designed to probe the regulative effects of dietary stachyose, a functional oligosaccharide, on HFD-induced weight gain, inflammation, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and T cell abnormality in C57Bl/6 mice. Mice were divided into three groups which received normal chow, HFD and HFD plus stachyose (400 mg/kg), respectively. Results showed that administration of stachyose diminished the HFD-induced upregulation of serum TNF-α level and elevation of peripheral blood leukocyte populations to alleviate the HFD-caused colonic and hepatic inflammation in mice. Analysis of gut microbiota revealed that stachyose improved the intestinal homeostasis of HFD-fed mice by improving the bacterial diversity with the increases in the relative abundances of the Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Parasutterella, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, and Anaerovorax, as well as the fecal level of butanoic acid, while decreasing the ratio of Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes and the abundances of the Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Desulfovibrio, Anaerotruncus, Mucispirillum, Roseburia, and Odoribacter. Flow cytometric analysis showed that stachyose antagonized the HFD-induced decrease of peripheral CD4+ T cell population in mice. Conclusively, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of stachyose can ameliorate the HFD-associated colonic and hepatic inflammation and its complications by modulating gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Colo/imunologia , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fígado/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
12.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1176-1183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564708

RESUMO

Recently, the potential role of gut microbiome (GM) in cardiovascular diseases has been revealed. Heart failure (HF) is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide; however, whether GM dysbiosis participates in the development of HF remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the specific changes in GM composition and function in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced HF in rats.The rats were divided into C (control), 4w-HF (ISO, 2.5 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, intraperitoneally), and 2w-HF (ISO, 2.5 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks, intraperitoneally) groups. The cardiac structure and function in rats were assessed, and metagenomic analyses were then performed. Compared with the healthy control group, we found that the Shannon diversity index and microbial gene count in the 4w-HF and 2w-HF groups was drastically decreased. High-throughput sequencing showed that the three groups differed in intestinal bacterial community composition. Overgrowth of bacteria, such as Prevotella, was observed in the 4w-HF group, with reduced growth of bacteria, such as Roseburia, Lactobacillus, and Butyrivibrio, associated with healthy status compared with the C group on the genus level. Concomitant with the alteration of GM composition, underrepresentation of health-linked microbial function was observed in both the 4w-HF and 2w-HF groups compared with the C group.Iso-induced HF rats showed a significant decrease in the diversity and richness of the intestinal microbiome, with a downregulation of the key intestinal bacterial groups and overgrowth of bacteria considered to be involved in inflammatory responses as well as a decrease in health-linked microbial function. Our data indicated that altered GM may be a potential player in the pathogenesis and progression of HF.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/microbiologia , Isoproterenol/efeitos adversos , Metagenômica/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Ratos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 251-255, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580563

RESUMO

Trends in dietary nutrition and their personalization are progress in medical science and point out the necessity of adaptation and development of innovations in health system. The main objective of this article is to review the role of dietary fibre as prebiotics in nutrition with different functionality, its influence on modulation of intestinal microbiota, which has an essential role in maintenance of healthy organisms in people of all ages.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem
14.
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17528, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has shown beneficial effects on the lipid profile and inflammatory parameters in general population. Our goal is to analyze these changes together with those of intestinal microbiota in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients over 50 years of age. METHODS: Experimental single arm open study. HIV patients over the age of 50 with undetectable viral load were selected. EVOO was distributed among the patients so that each one consumed 50 g daily for 12 weeks. Lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), and intestinal microbiota composition were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. RESULTS: Total cholesterol decreased significantly (5 mg/dL), and a nonsignificant decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (12 mg/dL), triglycerides (21 mg/dL), and CRP (1.25 mg/dL) was observed. There was a significant increase in alpha diversity after the intervention in men and a decrease in proinflammatory genera such as Dethiosulfovibrionaceae was observed. Differences were also observed in the microbiota of men and women and according to the type of antiretroviral treatment. CONCLUSION: Sustained consumption of 50 g of EVOO in elderly HIV-infected patients might be associated with an improvement in lipid profile and alfa diversity of intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11408-11419, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556290

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of 2-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2ßG), a natural ascorbic acid derivative from the fruits of Lycium barbarum, on treating the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice were investigated. The results revealed that AA-2ßG had palliating effects on DSS-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in terms of slowing down the trends of body weight and solid fecal mass loss, reducing colitis disease activity index, improving serum physiological and biochemical indicators, increasing colon length, blocking proinflammatory cytokines, and increasing tight junction proteins. Additionally, AA-2ßG treatment could promote the production of short-chain fatty acids and modulate the composition of the gut microbiota. The key bacteria related to IBD were found to be Porphyromonadaceae, Prevotellaceae, Rikenellaceae, Parasutterella, Parabacteroides, and Clostridium. The results indicated that AA-2ßG might treat IBD through the regulation of gut microbiota, suggesting that AA-2ßG has the potential to be used as a dietary supplement in the treatment of IBD.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colite/genética , Colite/imunologia , Colite/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 381-385, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders may be correlated with a low-grade systemic inflammation but the origin of this inflammatory response remains unclear and both genetics and environmental factors seems to be concerned. Recent researches observed that gut microbiota seems to have an impact on the brain and immune processes. METHOD: We review recent literature to a better understanding of how microbiota interacts with brain, immunity and psychiatric disorders. We search on Pubmed, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Sciencedirect articles with the keywords "gastrointestinal microbiota" and "mental disorders" or "psychological stress". RESULTS: We showed links between gut microbiota and brain-gut axis regulation, immune and endocrine system activity, neurophysiological changes, behavior variations and neuropsychiatric disorders. Communications between brain and gut are bidirectional via neural, endocrine and immune pathway. Microbiota dysbiosis and increase gut permeability with subsequent immune challenges seems to be the source of the chronic mild inflammation associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Repeated immune or stress events early in life may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders or sickness behavior later in life. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological stress impact gut microbiota with subsequent immune activation leading to neurodevelopmental disorders or sickness behavior and altering neurophysiology and reactivity to stress or lifestyle.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/imunologia , Transtornos Mentais/microbiologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/psicologia , Sistema Endócrino/imunologia , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Neuropsiquiatria , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia
18.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(5): 637-654, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551115

RESUMO

The relationship between gut microbiota and neurological diseases, including chronic pain, has received increasing attention. The gut microbiome is a crucial modulator of visceral pain, whereas recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota may also play a critical role in many other types of chronic pain, including inflammatory pain, headache, neuropathic pain, and opioid tolerance. We present a narrative review of the current understanding on the role of gut microbiota in pain regulation and discuss the possibility of targeting gut microbiota for the management of chronic pain. Numerous signalling molecules derived from gut microbiota, such as by-products of microbiota, metabolites, neurotransmitters, and neuromodulators, act on their receptors and remarkably regulate the peripheral and central sensitisation, which in turn mediate the development of chronic pain. Gut microbiota-derived mediators serve as critical modulators for the induction of peripheral sensitisation, directly or indirectly regulating the excitability of primary nociceptive neurones. In the central nervous system, gut microbiota-derived mediators may regulate neuroinflammation, which involves the activation of cells in the blood-brain barrier, microglia, and infiltrating immune cells, to modulate induction and maintenance of central sensitisation. Thus, we propose that gut microbiota regulates pain in the peripheral and central nervous system, and targeting gut microbiota by diet and pharmabiotic intervention may represent a new therapeutic strategy for the management of chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Trato Gastrointestinal/inervação , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Neuroimunomodulação/fisiologia , Dor Visceral/microbiologia , Dor Visceral/terapia
19.
Life Sci ; 235: 116818, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473193

RESUMO

AIMS: Considering the potential oral administration sequences and role of microbiota for metformin (MET) and berberine (BBR) during anti-diabetic treatments, the current study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic interactions between MET and BBR in rats after oral administration at different sequences and impacts of microbiota on such interactions. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups as per what was orally administered to them: MET (G1)/BBR (G2) at 200 mg/kg, BBR 2-hour (h) after dosing MET (G3), MET 2-h after dosing BBR (G4) or MET with BBR at the same time (G5) followed by monitoring their pharmacokinetic profiles. Further in vitro incubations mimicking the above five treatments in rat intestinal content (G1R-G5R), human fecalase (G1H-G5H) and selected bacteria (G1B-G5B) were conducted for both MET and BBR (10 µg/ml for G1R/H-G5R/H and 50 µM for G1B-G5B) up to 24-h. Concentrations of MET and BBR were analyzed by LC/MS/MS. KEY FINDINGS: Although BBR was barely measurable in vivo, it significantly increased systemic exposure of MET in G3/G4. Consistent with pharmacokinetic findings, sequential in vitro incubations of MET and BBR in both rat intestinal content and human fecalase demonstrated significant increase on MET persisted after 24-h incubation in G3R/H & G4R/H. Moreover, post-dose (G3B) and pre-dose (G4B) of BBR decreased the MET degradation significantly in most selected bacteria. SIGNIFICANCE: Our finding for the first time demonstrated the significant effect of sequential co-administration of BBR and MET on their pharmacokinetic interactions, which could be related to their microbiota mediated metabolisms in gastrointestinal tract (GI).


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Berberina/farmacocinética , Interações de Medicamentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Metformina/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109530, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521922

RESUMO

This work aimed at elucidating the role of bacteria present in the gut of the earthworm Metaphire posthuma in plant growth promotion and toxic trace elements (TTEs) bioremediation. We isolated and identified three bacterial strains Bacillus safensis (MF 589718), Bacillus flexus (MF 589717) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (MF 589719) among which the Bacillus strains appeared to be significantly more potent than the Staphylococcus strain (P < 0.05) in promoting plant growth and removing TTE (Cr(VI), Cu(II) and Zn(II)) from aqueous media. These strains exhibited several plant growth promoting traits (e.g., indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA) and ammonium ion production, 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, and phosphate solubilizing potential). In a pot trial, the gut isolates improved Vigna radiata seed germination, and enhanced the leaf area (30-79%), total chlorophyll content (26-67%) and overall root-shoot biomass (32-83%) as compared to the control. Bacillus safensis and Bacillus flexus were equipotent in removing Cr(VI) (40.5 and 40.3%) from aqueous media; the former triumphed for Zn(II) removal (52.8%), while the latter performed better for Cu(II) removal (43.5%). The gut isolates successfully solubilized phosphate even in TTE-contaminated conditions. The results demonstrate that the earthworm's enteric bacteria possess inherent plant growth promoting, TTE resistance and phosphate solubilization (even under TTE stress) properties which can be further explored for their application in sustainable crop production and environmental management.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oligoquetos , Oligoelementos , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo
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