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1.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(6): 505-509, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225424

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and a variety of extrahepatic chronic diseases are important risk factors for NAFLD. Currently, there is still a lack of effective therapeutic drugs. Liver inflammation is a key driving factor for the progression of NAFLD, so regulating liver inflammation may provide a potential means to delay and reverse the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Studies have found that the gut-liver-immune axis plays an important role in the progression of NASH. Gut microbiota can use its metabolites to induce glycolipid toxicity, oxidative stress and intestinal barrier damage, while bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycans, bacterial DNA and extracellular vesicles can translocate into the liver through the damaged intestinal barrier, causing excessive activation of immune cells, thus aggravating liver inflammation and promoting the progress of NASH. This paper focuses on the gut-liver-immune axis to analyze the gut microbiota mediated liver immunity and its mechanism in the occurrence and development of NASH, so as to lay a theoretical foundation for the research and development of new therapeutic strategies for NASH.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia
2.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209270

RESUMO

Resveratrol butyrate esters (RBE) are derivatives of resveratrol (RSV) and butyric acid and exhibit biological activity similar to that of RSV but with higher bioavailability. The aim of this study was designed as an animal experiment to explore the effects of RBE on the serum biochemistry, and fat deposits in the offspring rats exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), along with the growth and decline of gut microbiota. We constructed an animal model of perinatal Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure to observe the effects of RBE supplementation on obesity, blood lipids, and intestinal microbiota in female offspring rats. Perinatal exposure to BPA led to weight gain, lipid accumulation, high levels of blood lipids, and deterioration of intestinal microbiota in female offspring rats. RBE supplementation reduced the weight gain and lipid accumulation caused by BPA, optimised the levels of blood lipids, significantly reduced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio, and increased and decreased the abundance of S24-7 and Lactobacillus, respectively. The analysis of faecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels revealed that BPA exposure increased the faecal concentration of acetate, which could be reduced via RBE supplementation. However, the faecal concentrations of propionate and butyrate were not only significantly lower than that of acetate, but also did not significantly change in response to BPA exposure or RBE supplementation. Hence, RBE can suppress BPA-induced obesity in female offspring rats, and it demonstrates excellent modulatory activity on intestinal microbiota, with potential applications in perinatological research.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Obesidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 527, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (16S analysis) is widely used to analyze microbiota with next-generation sequencing technologies. Here, we compared fecal 16S analysis data from 192 Japanese volunteers using the modified V1-V2 (V12) and the standard V3-V4 primer (V34) sets to optimize the gut microbiota analysis protocol. RESULTS: QIIME1 and QIIME2 analysis revealed a higher number of unclassified representative sequences in the V34 data than in the V12 data. The comparison of bacterial composition demonstrated that at the phylum level, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were detected at higher levels with V34 than with V12. Among these phyla, we observed higher relative compositions of Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia with V34. To estimate the actual abundance, we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for Akkermansia and Bifidobacterium. We found that the abundance of Akkermansia as detected by qPCR was close to that in V12 data, but was markedly lower than that in V34 data. The abundance of Bifidobacterium detected by qPCR was higher than that in V12 and V34 data. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the bacterial composition derived from the V34 region might differ from the actual abundance for specific gut bacteria. We conclude that the use of the modified V12 primer set is more desirable in the 16S analysis of the Japanese gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Benchmarking , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Genes de RNAr , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Japão , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(27): 7581-7592, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197112

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that prevention of metabolic syndrome (MS) by dietary fibers is intricately linked to gut microbiota. In the present work, the mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and orally treated with yeast ß-glucan to further examine the effects of ß-glucan on MS and gut microbiota and the potential relationship between gut microbiota and its activity. After intervention for 10 weeks, it was found that the treatment of yeast ß-glucan could significantly improve the HFD-induced MS. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines in plasma including IL-6 and IL-1ß were decreased. Yeast ß-glucan could regulate the diversity and composition of HFD-induced gut microbiota. Moreover, the relative abundances of Lactobacillus and Lactococcus, having significant positive correlation with metabolic changes, were decreased by ß-glucan, which might play a critical role in attenuation of MS. Our findings suggest that yeast ß-glucan shows promising application as a prebiotic for preventing MS and regulating gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome Metabólica , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Lactobacillus , Lactococcus , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(27): 7629-7640, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213907

RESUMO

A high-fat diet (HFD) causes hyperlipidemia, which worsens disturbances in bile acid (BA) metabolism and gut microbiota. This study aimed to investigate the regulation of flavonoids from whole-grain oat (FO) on BA metabolism and gut microbiota in HFD-induced hyperlipidemic mice. The experiment results showed that FO improved serum lipid profiles and decreased body weight and lipid deposition in HFD-fed mice. Through real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot assays, by up-regulating the expression of PPARα, CPT-1, CYP7A1, FXR, TGR5, NTCP, and BSTP, and down-regulating those of SREBP-1c, FAS, and ASBT, FO suppressed lipogenesis, promoted lipolysis and BA synthesis, and efflux to faeces via the FXR pathway. 16s rRNA sequencing revealed that FO significantly increased Akkermansia and significantly decreased Lachnoclostridium, Blautia, Colidextribacter, and Desulfovibrio. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that these bacteria were strongly correlated with hyperlipidemia-related parameters. Therefore, our results indicated that FO possessed an antihyperlipidemic effect via regulating the gut-liver axis, i.e., BA metabolism and gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperlipidemias , Animais , Avena , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Ribossômico 16S
7.
Food Chem ; 362: 130228, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198129

RESUMO

In vitro human digestion models are widely used to determine the digestibility of bioactive substances and to perform drug delivery analyses. To develop the most accurate in vitro human digestion model reported to date, we simulated all digestion conditions, including pH and digestion time, with changes in the amount of digestive enzymes, motility, and proportion of human gut microbiota in adult and elderly individuals. Using this newly developed model, the digestibility of vitamin E emulsified by lard was found to be significantly different between adults and the elderly. Therefore, this model can accurately simulate oral, gastric, and intestinal (with gut microbiota effects) digestion of bioactive substances and can aid in analyzing drug delivery in adults and elderly individuals.


Assuntos
Digestão/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vitamina E/farmacocinética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Suco Gástrico , Humanos , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Masculino , Peristaltismo , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199239

RESUMO

We aimed to differentiate gut microbiota composition of overweight/obese and lean subjects and to determine its association with clinical variables and dietary intake. A cross-sectional study was performed with 96 overweight/obese subjects and 32 lean subjects. Anthropometric parameters were positively associated with Collinsella aerofaciens, Dorea formicigenerans and Dorea longicatena, which had higher abundance the overweight/obese subjects. Moreover, different genera of Lachnospiraceae were negatively associated with body fat, LDL and total cholesterol. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were negatively associated with the genus Intestinimonas, a biomarker of the overweight/obese group, whereas SFAs were positively associated with Roseburia, a biomarker for the lean group. In conclusion, Dorea formicigenerans, Dorea longicatena and Collinsella aerofaciens could be considered obesity biomarkers, Lachnospiraceae is associated with lipid cardiovascular risk factors. SFAs exhibited opposite association profiles with butyrate-producing bacteria depending on the BMI. Thus, the relationship between diet and microbiota opens new tools for the management of obesity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/microbiologia , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , Magreza/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Clostridiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/administração & dosagem
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203002

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is still a common functional gastrointestinal disease that presents chronic abdominal symptoms but with a pathophysiology that is not yet fully elucidated. Moreover, the use of the synergistic combination of prebiotics and probiotics, known as synbiotics, for IBS therapy is still in the early stages. Advancements in technology led to determining the important role played by probiotics in IBS, whereas the present paper focuses on the detailed review of the various pathophysiologic mechanisms of action of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics via multidisciplinary domains involving the gastroenterology (microbiota modulation, alteration of gut barrier function, visceral hypersensitivity, and gastrointestinal dysmotility) immunology (intestinal immunological modulation), and neurology (microbiota-gut-brain axis communication and co-morbidities) in mitigating the symptoms of IBS. In addition, this review synthesizes literature about the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of prebiotics and synbiotics for patients with IBS, discussing clinical studies testing the efficiency and outcomes of synbiotics used as therapy for IBS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/dietoterapia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Comorbidade , Depressão , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/imunologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(28): 8017-8027, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236836

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistant starch (RS) and fat levels on the gut microbiome in C57BL/6 mice. Three levels of RS from three varieties of rice were the major source of carbohydrates and fat levels were low (10%) and high (39%). We confirmed that RS decreased the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, increased SCFA production by higher Bacteroidaceae and S24-7 abundance, and enriched predicted gene families of glycosidases and functional pathways associated with carbohydrate and glycan metabolism. We also found correlations between microbial taxa and tissue gene expression related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Moreover, increasing RS levels resulted in a molecular ecological network with enhanced modularity and interspecific synergy, which is less sensitive to high fat intervention. Overall, RS as low as 0.44% from cooked rice can modulate gut microbiome in mice, which correlated to a protective effect against deleterious effects of an obesogenic diet.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oryza , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Intestinos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oryza/genética , Amido Resistente , Amido
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(28): 7863-7873, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236844

RESUMO

Regeneration of epithelia is crucial for maintaining the intestinal barrier and homeostasis. Our previous work showed that exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 (EPS116) regulated the barrier function and homeostasis of the intestine; however, the relevant mechanisms remain obscure. Therefore, we sought to explore the role of EPS116 in promoting intestinal epithelial regeneration. Our data showed that the administration of EPS116 markedly ameliorated inflammatory bowel disease-related phenotypes and promoted the regeneration of crypts in the colon of colitis mice. The results of immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction experiments indicated that EPS116 strikingly increased the number of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and the expression of differentiation markers for goblet cells, enterocytes, and enteroendocrine cells in the mouse colon. Intestinal microbiota analysis showed that EPS116 increased microbial populations associated with intestinal regeneration and glycan metabolism. Therefore, the present study revealed a novel model that EPS116 promoted the intestinal homeostasis through modulating the proliferation and differentiation of ISCs and altering the gut microbiota profile.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus plantarum , Animais , Homeostase , Mucosa Intestinal , Intestinos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Regeneração
13.
Science ; 373(6551): 181-186, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244407

RESUMO

Relatives have more similar gut microbiomes than nonrelatives, but the degree to which this similarity results from shared genotypes versus shared environments has been controversial. Here, we leveraged 16,234 gut microbiome profiles, collected over 14 years from 585 wild baboons, to reveal that host genetic effects on the gut microbiome are nearly universal. Controlling for diet, age, and socioecological variation, 97% of microbiome phenotypes were significantly heritable, including several reported as heritable in humans. Heritability was typically low (mean = 0.068) but was systematically greater in the dry season, with low diet diversity, and in older hosts. We show that longitudinal profiles and large sample sizes are crucial to quantifying microbiome heritability, and indicate scope for selection on microbiome characteristics as a host phenotype.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Meio Ambiente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Papio/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Envelhecimento , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Papio/genética , Fenótipo , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Social
14.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(7): 677-683, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics of gut microbiota and its association with the activity of ß-glucuronidase (ß-GD) in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. METHODS: A total of 50 neonates with hyperbilirubinemia who were admitted in January to December, 2018, were enrolled as the hyperbilirubinemia group, and 30 neonates without hyperbilirubinemia were enrolled as the control group. The 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing method was used to compare gut microbiota between the two groups. The phenolphthalein-glucuronic acid substrate method was used to measure the activity of ß-GD in the intestinal tract of neonates with hyperbilirubinemia before and after treatment. RESULTS: The comparison of the distribution of gut microbiota at the genus level showed a significant difference in the abundance of 52 bacteria between the hyperbilirubinemia and control groups before treatment (P < 0.05), as well as a significant difference in the abundance of 42 bacteria between the hyperbilirubinemia group on day 3 after treatment and the control group on day 3 after enrollment (P < 0.05). After treatment, the hyperbilirubinemia group had significant reductions in the content of Escherichia and Staphylococcus in the intestinal tract (P < 0.05) and the activity of ß-GD in feces (P < 0.05). The activity of ß-GD in feces was positively correlated with the abundance of Staphylococcus and Escherichia before and after treatment in the neonates with hyperbilirubinemia (rs=0.5948-0.7245, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in gut microbiota between the neonates with hyperbilirubinemia and those without hyperbilirubinemia. The activity of ß-GD in feces is positively correlated with the abundance of Staphylococcus and Escherichia in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. Gut microbiota may affect the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia by regulating the activity of ß-GD. The determination and analysis of gut microbiota and ß-GD activity may have certain clinical significance for the early assessment of the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Fezes , Glucuronidase , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , RNA Ribossômico 16S
15.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(2): 194-200, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270527

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all dimensions of health care, including exclusive breastfeeding assurance and its promotion. The risk of contagion and the consequences of the pandemic have raised concerns among future mothers or in those who are already breastfeeding due to the risk of possible transmission of the virus through breast milk, although active severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has not yet been detected in breast milk. The fear of contagion has favored mother-child isolation policies. So far, there is no evidence of vertical transmission, and the risk of horizontal transmission in the infant is similar to that of the general population. In infants with COVID-19, breastfeeding can even favorably change the clinical course of the disease.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , COVID-19 , Leite Humano , Pandemias , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Colostro/química , Colostro/metabolismo , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/citologia , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Leite Humano/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 151, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving probiotic engraftment in the human gut requires a thorough understanding of the in vivo adaptive strategies of probiotics in diverse contexts. However, for most probiotic strains, these in vivo genetic processes are still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the effects of gut selection pressures from human, mice, and zebrafish on the genetic stability of a candidate probiotic Lactiplantibacillus plantarum HNU082 (Lp082) as well as its ecological and evolutionary impacts on the indigenous gut microbiota using shotgun metagenomic sequencing in combination with isolate resequencing methods. RESULTS: We combined both metagenomics and isolate whole genome sequencing approaches to systematically study the gut-adaptive evolution of probiotic L. plantarum and the ecological and evolutionary changes of resident gut microbiomes in response to probiotic ingestion in multiple host species. Independent of host model, Lp082 colonized and adapted to the gut by acquiring highly consistent single-nucleotide mutations, which primarily modulated carbohydrate utilization and acid tolerance. We cultivated the probiotic mutants and validated that these gut-adapted mutations were genetically stable for at least 3 months and improved their fitness in vitro. In turn, resident gut microbial strains, especially competing strains with Lp082 (e.g., Bacteroides spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.), actively responded to Lp082 engraftment by accumulating 10-70 times more evolutionary changes than usual. Human gut microbiota exhibited a higher ecological and genetic stability than that of mice. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results suggest a highly convergent adaptation strategy of Lp082 across three different host environments. In contrast, the evolutionary changes within the resident gut microbes in response to Lp082 were more divergent and host-specific; however, these changes were not associated with any adverse outcomes. This work lays a theoretical foundation for leveraging animal models for ex vivo engineering of probiotics to improve engraftment outcomes in humans. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Probióticos , Animais , Bifidobacterium , Humanos , Camundongos , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202945

RESUMO

Trillions of microbes exist in the human body, particularly the gastrointestinal tract, coevolved with the host in a mutually beneficial relationship. The main role of the intestinal microbiome is the fermentation of non-digestible substrates and increased growth of beneficial microbes that produce key antimicrobial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, etc., to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes besides other functions. Intestinal microbiota can prevent pathogen colonization through the mechanism of colonization resistance. A wide range of resistomes are present in both beneficial and pathogenic microbes. Giving antibiotic exposure to the intestinal microbiome (both beneficial and hostile) can trigger a resistome response, affecting colonization resistance. The following review provides a mechanistic overview of the intestinal microbiome and the impacts of antibiotic therapy on pathogen colonization and diseases. Further, we also discuss the epidemiology of immunocompromised patients who are at high risk for nosocomial infections, colonization and decolonization of multi-drug resistant organisms in the intestine, and the direct and indirect mechanisms that govern colonization resistance to the pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sepse/etiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205336

RESUMO

Emerging evidence indicates that gut microbiota is important in the regulation of brain activity and cognitive functions. Microbes mediate communication among the metabolic, peripheral immune, and central nervous systems via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, it is not well understood how the gut microbiome and neurons in the brain mutually interact or how these interactions affect normal brain functioning and cognition. We summarize the mechanisms whereby the gut microbiota regulate the production, transportation, and functioning of neurotransmitters. We also discuss how microbiome dysbiosis affects cognitive function, especially in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/microbiologia , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/microbiologia , Animais , Ansiedade/microbiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Depressão/microbiologia , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/microbiologia , Esquizofrenia/microbiologia
19.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205413

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to reveal the characteristics of gut microbiome altered by acarbose intervention in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its possible association with habitual dietary intake. Eighteen patients with T2D were administered acarbose for four weeks. The abundances of two major phyla, namely Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were reciprocally changed accompanied by the acarbose intervention. There were also significant changes in the abundances of ten genera, including the greater abundance of Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, and Lactobacillus and the lower abundance of Bacteroides in the group after the intervention than that before the intervention. Hierarchical clustering of habitual dietary intake was performed based on the pattern of changes in the gut microbiota and were classified into distinct three clusters. Cluster I consisted of sucrose, cluster II mainly included fat intake, and cluster III mainly included carbohydrate intake. Moreover, the amount of change in Faecalibacterium was positively correlated with the intake of rice, but negatively correlated with the intake of bread. The intake of potato was negatively correlated with the amount of change in Akkermansia and Subdoligranulum. Acarbose altered the composition of gut microbiome in Japanese patients with T2D, which might be linked to the habitual dietary intake.


Assuntos
Acarbose/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205445

RESUMO

In the last decade, the role of nutritional management in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases has gained increasing popularity. Disease-specific diets have been introduced as conventional treatments by international guidelines. Patients tend to more willingly accept food-based therapies than drugs because of their relatively "harmless" nature. Apart from a diet's therapeutic role, nutritional support is crucial in maintaining growth and improving clinical outcomes in pediatric patients. Despite the absence of classical "side effects", however, it should be emphasized that any dietary modification might have negative consequences on children's growth and development. Hence, expert supervision is always advised, in order to support adequate nutritional requirements. Unfortunately, the media provide an inaccurate perception of the role of diet for gastrointestinal diseases, leading to misconceptions by patients or their caregivers that tends to overestimate the beneficial role of diets and underestimate the potential adverse effects. Moreover, not only patients, but also healthcare professionals, have a number of misconceptions about the nutritional benefits of diet modification on gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of diet in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases, to detect misconceptions and to give a practical guide for physicians on the basis of current scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/dietoterapia , Terapia Nutricional , Dor Abdominal , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Enterite/dietoterapia , Enterite/fisiopatologia , Eosinofilia/dietoterapia , Eosinofilia/fisiopatologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Gastrite/dietoterapia , Gastrite/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Leite/efeitos adversos , Leite/imunologia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Probióticos
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