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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210219, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253954

RESUMO

Aim: This study evaluated the chemical composition of Lippia thymoides (Lt) essential oil and its antimicrobial activity against fungal strains of Candida albicans (Ca) and Gram-negative bacteria Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). Methods: Lt essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation apparatus with a modified Clevenger extension. The chemical analysis was analyzed by gas phase chromatography and mass spectrometry on Shimadzu QP 2010 plus. Sample sensitivity evaluation was performed by ABHb-inoculum and culture plates were developed with triphenyltetrazolium chloride, also Fn and Pi samples analysis were in anaerobic environment and Ca sample analysis was performed in aerobic environment. The minimum inhibitory concentration (CIM) was determinated by microdilution in eppendorfs tubes. Results: The chemical analysis showed that Thymol (59,91%) is the main compound found in Lt essential oil, also other antifungal and antimicrobial agents were present γ-terpinene (8.16%), p-cymene (7.29%) and ß-caryophyllene (4.49%), Thymol is a central ingredient of many medicinal plants and has a potent fungicidal, bactericidal and antioxidant activity, it has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activity against Periodontal Disease (PD) cause can reduces prostanoids, interleukins, leukotrienes levels in periodontium. CIM result Pi was 6.5 µg/mL, Fn was 1.5 µg/mL and Ca was 0.19 µg/mL. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of L. thymoides, through the compound Thymol, has been shown promising potential against gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria and fungi whose therapeutic arsenal is still very restricted


Assuntos
Periodontite , Óleos Voláteis , Extratos Vegetais , Lippia , Microbiota , Antifúngicos
2.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131180, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467942

RESUMO

The raw water distribution systems (RWDSs) play key roles in urban water supply systems. The changes of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) precursors of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and halogenated acetaldehydes (HALs) in the RWDS in Taihu Basin were investigated by formation potentials. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) method and 454-pyrosequencing were employed to study the variation of molecular characteristics of low molecular weight-dissolved organic matter (LMW-DOM) and microbial communities of pipeline biofilms respectively, which played crucial roles in the variation of DBPs precursors. The results showed that both DBPs precursors and the molecular characteristics of LMW-DOM in the RWDS had changed. Moreover, the LMW-DOM could be an indicator due to the good positive correlation with precursors of HAAs and HALs. Specifically, the LMW-DOM showed continuous accumulation in the RWDS. The LMW-DOM tended to possess higher m/z and more CH2 or long alkyl chains while pre-chlorination controlled this trend. The LMW-DOM in the pre-chlorinated pipe section also possessed higher saturation. Additionally, lignins served as an important part of DBPs precursors and dominated the LMW-DOM. The microbial diversity decreased in the RWDS, and the abundance and diversity of the microbial community in the pre-chlorinated section were significantly lower than those in the no-chlorinated section. Finally, most DBPs precursors had positive correlation with dominant phylum and genus in RWDS. This study reveals variation of DBPs precursors, LMW-DOM and microbial pipeline biofilms as well, and provide important data for further research on raw water safety and stability in RWDSs.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Trialometanos/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131309, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467946

RESUMO

Omics longitudinal studies are effective experimental designs to inform on the stability and dynamics of microbial communities in response to perturbations, but time-course analytical frameworks are required to fully exploit the temporal information acquired in this context. In this study we investigate the influence of ammonia on the stability of anaerobic digestion (AD) microbiome with a new statistical framework. Ammonia can severely reduce AD performance. Understanding how it affects microbial communities development and the degradation progress is a key operational issue to propose more stable processes. Thirty batch digesters were set-up with different levels of ammonia. Microbial community structure and metabolomic profiles were monitored with 16 S-metabarcoding and GCMS (gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry). Digesters were first grouped according to similar degradation performances. Within each group, time profiles of OTUs and metabolites were modelled, then clustered into similar time trajectories, evidencing for example a syntrophic interaction between Syntrophomonas and Methanoculleus that was maintained up to 387 mg FAN/L. Metabolites resulting from organic matter fermentation, such as dehydroabietic or phytanic acid, decreased with increasing ammonia levels. Our analytical framework enabled to fully account for time variability and integrate this parameter in data analysis.


Assuntos
Amônia , Microbiota , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148411, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465037

RESUMO

Biodegradation of soil contaminants may be promoted near plant roots due to the "rhizosphere effect" which may enhance microbial growth and activity. However, the effects of different plant cultivars within a single species on degradation remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the removal of soil total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) by ten different cultivars of tall fescue grass (Festuca arundinacea L.) and their associated rhizosphere microbiomes. TPH removal efficiency across the ten different cultivars was not significantly correlated with plant biomass. Rhizing Star and Greenbrooks cultivars showed the maximum (76.6%) and minimum (62.2%) TPH removal efficiencies, respectively, after 120 days. Significant differences were observed between these two cultivars in the composition of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities, especially during the early stages (day 30) of remediation but the differences decreased later (day 90). Putative petroleum-degrading bacterial and fungal guilds were enriched in the presence of tall fescue. Moreover, the complexity of microbial networks declined in treatments with higher TPH removal efficiency. The relative abundances of saprotrophic fungi and putative genes alkB and C12O in bacetria involved in petroleum degradation increased, especially in the presence of Rhizing Star cultivar, and this was consistent with the TPH removal efficiency results. These results indicate the potential of tall fescue grass cultivars and their associated rhizosphere microbiomes to phytoremediate petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Festuca , Microbiota , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148454, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465049

RESUMO

Nano zero-valent iron particles (nZVI, 0.09 wt%), micro zero-valent iron particles (mZVI, 0.09 wt%), granular activated carbon (GAC, 3.03 wt%), GAC supported nZVI (nZVI/GAC, 3.12 wt%) and nZVI&GAC (nZVI 0.09 wt%, GAC 3.03 wt%) were evaluated for their effects on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) anaerobic reductive dechlorination, detoxification, as well as microbial community structure in Taihu Lake (China) sediment microcosms. The results showed that all of these five materials could stimulate PCBs reductive dechlorination, especially for dioxin-like PCB congeners, and nZVI&GAC had the best removal effect on PCBs. The reduction of total PCBs increased from 13.5% to 33.2%. H2 generated by zero-valent iron corrosion was utilized by organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) to enhance the dechlorination of PCBs predominantly via meta chlorine removal in the short term. The addition of ZVI had little impact on the total bacterial abundance and the microbial community structure. The adsorption of GAC and potential bioremediation properties of attached biofilm could promote the long-term removal of PCBs. GAC, nZVI/GAC, nZVI&GAC had different influences on the microbial structure. These findings provide insights into the biostimulation technique for in situ remediations of PCBs contaminated sediments.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Bifenilos Policlorados , Biodegradação Ambiental , Catálise , Cloro , Sedimentos Geológicos , Ferro , Lagos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148363, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465051

RESUMO

The alpine meadow in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has been seriously degraded due to human activities and climate change in recent decades. Understanding the changes of the soil microbial community in response to the degradation process helps reveal the mechanism underlying the degradation process of alpine meadows. We surveyed and analyzed changes of the vegetation, soil physicochemical properties, and soil microbial community in three degradation levels, namely, non-degradation (ND), moderate degradation (MD), and severe degradation (SD), of the alpine meadows in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that as the level of degradation increased, plant cover, plant density (PD), above-ground biomass (AGB), plant Shannon-Wiener index (PS), soil water content (SWC), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) decreased significantly, while the soil pH increased from 7.20 to 8.57. Alpine meadow degradation significantly changed the composition of soil bacterial and fungal communities but had no significant impact on the diversity of the microbial communities. Functional predictions indicated that meadow degradation increased the relative abundances of aerobic_chemoheterotrophy, undefined_saprotroph, and plant_pathogen, likely increasing the risk of plant diseases. Redundancy analysis revealed that in ND, the soil microbial community was mainly regulated by PS, PH, PD, SWC, and soil pH. In MD, the soil microbial community was regulated by the soil's available nutrients and SOC. In SD, the soil microbial community was not only regulated by the soil's available nutrients but also influenced by plant characteristics. These results indicate that during alpine meadow degradation, while the changes in the plants and soil environmental factors both affect the composition of the soil microbial community, the influence of soil factors is greater. The soil's available nutrients are the main driving factors regulating the change in the soil microbial community's composition alongside degradation levels.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Carbono/análise , Pradaria , Humanos , Nutrientes , Microbiologia do Solo , Tibet
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148486, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465064

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely distributed in littoral zones and may cause adverse impacts on mangrove ecosystem. Biodegradation and phytoremediation are two primary processes for BPA dissipation in mangrove soils. However, the rhizosphere effects of different mangrove species on BPA elimination are still unresolved. In this study, three typical mangrove seedlings, namely Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) and Aegiceras corniculatum, were cultivated in soil microcosms for four months and then subjected to 28-day continuous BPA amendment. Un-planted soil microcosms (as control) were also set up. The BPA residual rates and root exudates were monitored, and the metabolic pathways as well as functional microbial communities were also investigated to decipher the rhizosphere effects based on metagenomic analysis. The BPA residual rates in all planted soils were significantly lower than that in un-planted soil on day 7. Both plantation and BPA dosage had significant effects on bacterial abundance. A distinct separation of microbial structure was found between planted and un-planted soil microcosms. Genera Pseudomonas and Lutibacter got enriched with BPA addition and may play important roles in BPA biodegradation. The shifts in bacterial community structure upon BPA addition were different among the microcosms with different mangrove species. Genus Novosphingobium increased in Avicennia marina and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) rhizosphere soils but decreased in Aegiceras corniculatum rhizosphere soil. Based on KEGG annotation and binning analysis, the proposal of BPA degradation pathways and the quantification of relevant functional genes were achieved. The roles of Pseudomonas and Novosphingobium may differ in lower BPA degradation pathways. The quantity variation patterns of functional genes during the 28-day BPA amendment were different among soil microcosms and bacterial genera.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rizosfera , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fenóis , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3106-3115, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467702

RESUMO

To obtain the difference of the fungal and bacterial community diversity between wild Cordyceps sinensis, artificial C. sinensis and their habitat soil, Illmina Hiseq high-throughput sequencing technology was applied. The results show that Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in C. sinensis, Actinobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in soil microhabitat, Ophiocordyceps sinensis was the predominant dominant fungus of C. sinensis. The α diversity analysis showed that the fungal diversity of stroma was lower than other parts, and the fungal diversity of wild C. sinensis was lower than that of artificial C. sinensis. The ß diversity analysis showed that the fungal and bacterial community diversity of soil microhabitat samples was significantly different from that of C. sinensis. The fungal community diversity was less different between wild and artificial C. sinensis, especially in sclerotia. LEfSe analysis showed a lot of species diversity between wild and artificial C. sinensis. Those different species between wild C. sinensis, artificial C. sinensis and their habitat soil provide ideas for further research on breed and components of C. sinensis.


Assuntos
Cordyceps , Microbiota , Cordyceps/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 667, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human microbiome is inherently dynamic and its dynamic nature plays a critical role in maintaining health and driving disease. With an increasing number of longitudinal microbiome studies, scientists are eager to learn the comprehensive characterization of microbial dynamics and their implications to the health and disease-related phenotypes. However, due to the challenging structure of longitudinal microbiome data, few analytic methods are available to characterize the microbial dynamics over time. RESULTS: We propose a microbial trend analysis (MTA) framework for the high-dimensional and phylogenetically-based longitudinal microbiome data. In particular, MTA can perform three tasks: 1) capture the common microbial dynamic trends for a group of subjects at the community level and identify the dominant taxa; 2) examine whether or not the microbial overall dynamic trends are significantly different between groups; 3) classify an individual subject based on its longitudinal microbial profiling. Our extensive simulations demonstrate that the proposed MTA framework is robust and powerful in hypothesis testing, taxon identification, and subject classification. Our real data analyses further illustrate the utility of MTA through a longitudinal study in mice. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed MTA framework is an attractive and effective tool in investigating dynamic microbial pattern from longitudinal microbiome studies.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Microbiota , Animais , Estudos Longitudinais , Camundongos
10.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 179, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aquaculture sector now accounts for almost 50% of all fish for human consumption and is anticipated to provide 62% by 2030. Innovative strategies are being sought to improve fish feeds and feed additives to enhance fish performance, welfare, and the environmental sustainability of the aquaculture industry. There is still a lack of knowledge surrounding the importance and functionality of the teleost gut microbiome in fish nutrition. In vitro gut model systems might prove a valuable tool to study the effect of feed, and additives, on the host's microbial communities. Several in vitro gut models targeted at monogastric vertebrates are now in operation. Here, we report the development of an Atlantic salmon gut model, SalmoSim, to simulate three gut compartments (stomach, pyloric caecum, and midgut) and associated microbial communities. RESULTS: The gut model was established in a series of linked bioreactors seeded with biological material derived from farmed adult marine-phase salmon. We first aimed to achieve a stable microbiome composition representative of founding microbial communities derived from Atlantic salmon. Then, in biological triplicate, the response of the in vitro system to two distinct dietary formulations (fishmeal and fishmeal free) was compared to a parallel in vivo trial over 40 days. Metabarcoding based on 16S rDNA sequencing qPCR, ammoniacal nitrogen, and volatile fatty acid measurements were undertaken to survey the microbial community dynamics and function. SalmoSim microbiomes were indistinguishable (p = 0.230) from their founding inocula at 20 days and the most abundant genera (e.g., Psycrobacter, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas) proliferated within SalmoSim (OTUs accounting for 98% of all reads shared with founding communities). Real salmon and SalmoSim responded similarly to the introduction of novel feed, with majority of the taxa (96% Salmon, 97% SalmoSim) unaffected, while a subset of taxa (e.g., a small fraction of Psychrobacter) was differentially affected across both systems. Consistent with a low impact of the novel feed on microbial fermentative activity, volatile fatty acid profiles were not significantly different in SalmoSim pre- and post-feed switch. CONCLUSION: By establishing stable and representative salmon gut communities, this study represents an important step in the development of an in vitro gut system as a tool for the improvement of fish nutrition and welfare. The steps of the system development described in this paper can be used as guidelines to develop various other systems representing other fish species. These systems, including SalmoSim, aim to be utilised as a prescreening tool for new feed ingredients and additives, as well as being used to study antimicrobial resistance and transfer and fundamental ecological processes that underpin microbiome dynamics and assembly. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Salmo salar , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos
11.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 181, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of bacterial taxa associated with diseases, exposures, and other variables of interest offers a more comprehensive understanding of the role of microbes in many conditions. However, despite considerable research in statistical methods for association testing with microbiome data, approaches that are generally applicable remain elusive. Classical tests often do not accommodate the realities of microbiome data, leading to power loss. Approaches tailored for microbiome data depend highly upon the normalization strategies used to handle differential read depth and other data characteristics, and they often have unacceptably high false positive rates, generally due to unsatisfied distributional assumptions. On the other hand, many non-parametric tests suffer from loss of power and may also present difficulties in adjusting for potential covariates. Most extant approaches also fail in the presence of heterogeneous effects. The field needs new non-parametric approaches that are tailored to microbiome data, robust to distributional assumptions, and powerful under heterogeneous effects, while permitting adjustment for covariates. METHODS: As an alternative to existing approaches, we propose a zero-inflated quantile approach (ZINQ), which uses a two-part quantile regression model to accommodate the zero inflation in microbiome data. For a given taxon, ZINQ consists of a valid test in logistic regression to model the zero counts, followed by a series of quantile rank-score based tests on multiple quantiles of the non-zero part with adjustment for the zero inflation. As a regression and quantile-based approach, the method is non-parametric and robust to irregular distributions, while providing an allowance for covariate adjustment. Since no distributional assumptions are made, ZINQ can be applied to data that has been processed under any normalization strategy. RESULTS: Thorough simulations based on real data across a range of scenarios and application to real data sets show that ZINQ often has equivalent or higher power compared to existing tests even as it offers better control of false positives. CONCLUSIONS: We present ZINQ, a quantile-based association test between microbiota and dichotomous or quantitative clinical variables, providing a powerful and robust alternative for the current microbiome differential abundance analysis. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Microbiota/genética
12.
F1000Res ; 10: 103, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484688

RESUMO

The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) aided in understanding the role of microbial communities and the influence of collective genetic material (the 'microbiome') in human health and disease. With the evolution of new sequencing technologies, researchers can now investigate the microbiome and map its influence on human health. Advances in bioinformatics methods for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data analysis have helped researchers to gain an in-depth knowledge about the taxonomic and genetic composition of microbial communities. Metagenomic-based methods have been the most commonly used approaches for microbiome analysis; however, it primarily extracts information about taxonomic composition and genetic potential of the microbiome under study, lacking quantification of the gene products (RNA and proteins). Conversely, metatranscriptomics, the study of a microbial community's RNA expression, can reveal the dynamic gene expression of individual microbial populations and the community as a whole, ultimately providing information about the active pathways in the microbiome.  In order to address the analysis of NGS data, the ASaiM analysis framework was previously developed and made available via the Galaxy platform. Although developed for both metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the original publication demonstrated the use of ASaiM only for metagenomics, while thorough testing for metatranscriptomics data was lacking.  In the current study, we have focused on validating and optimizing the tools within ASaiM for metatranscriptomics data. As a result, we deliver a robust workflow that will enable researchers to understand dynamic functional response of the microbiome in a wide variety of metatranscriptomics studies. This improved and optimized ASaiM-metatranscriptomics (ASaiM-MT) workflow is publicly available via the ASaiM framework, documented and supported with training material so that users can interrogate and characterize metatranscriptomic data, as part of larger meta-omic studies of microbiomes.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Microbiota , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética , Fluxo de Trabalho
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 680845, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484179

RESUMO

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in a major global pandemic, causing extreme morbidity and mortality. Few studies appear to suggest a significant impact of gender in morbidity and mortality, where men are reported at a higher risk than women. The infectivity, transmissibility, and varying degree of disease manifestation (mild, modest, and severe) in population studies reinforce the importance of a number of genetic and epigenetic factors, in the context of immune response and gender. The present review dwells on several contributing factors such as a stronger innate immune response, estrogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene, and microbiota, which impart greater resistance to the SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease progression in women. In addition, the underlying importance of associated microbiota and certain environmental factors in gender-based disparity pertaining to the mortality and morbidity due to COVID-19 in women has also been addressed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Imunidade Inata , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 416, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf color variation is a common trait in plants and widely distributed in many plants. In this study, a leaf color mutation in Camellia japonica (cultivar named as Maguxianzi, M) was used as material, and the mechanism of leaf color variation was revealed by physiological, cytological, transcriptome and microbiome analyses. RESULTS: The yellowing C. japonica (M) exhibits lower pigment content than its parent (cultivar named as Huafurong, H), especially chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid, and leaves of M have weaker photosynthesis. Subsequently, the results of transmission electron microscopy(TEM) exhibited that M chloroplast was accompanied by broken thylakoid membrane, degraded thylakoid grana, and filled with many vesicles. Furthermore, comparative transcriptome sequencing identified 3,298 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). KEGG annotation analysis results showed that 69 significantly enriched DEGs were involved in Chl biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interaction. On this basis, we sequenced the microbial diversity of the H and M leaves. The sequencing results suggested that the abundance of Didymella in the M leaves was significantly higher than that in the H leaves, which meant that M leaves might be infected by Didymella. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, we speculated that Didymella infected M leaves while reduced Chl and carotenoid content by damaging chloroplast structures, and altered the intensity of photosynthesis, thereby causing the leaf yellowing phenomenon of C. japonica (M). This research will provide new insights into the leaf color variation mechanism and lay a theoretical foundation for plant breeding and molecular markers.


Assuntos
Camellia/anatomia & histologia , Camellia/genética , Camellia/metabolismo , Cor , Microbiota , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , China , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/anatomia & histologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125850, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492801

RESUMO

This study aims to unravel the microbial responses to Cr(VI) stress in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor. The result showed that anammox process could tolerate 2 mg/L Cr(VI) after acclimation, while 5 mg/L Cr(VI) stress resulted in significant inhibition on anammox bacterial activity. Ca. Jettenia was the predominant anammox genus, whose abundance showed a decreasing tendency with increasing Cr(VI) dosage. Cr(VI) addition resulted in significant and irreversible changes in microbial community structure, and increased the relative influence of stochastic processes on community assembly. Furthermore, rare subcommunity contributed greatly to biodiversity of whole community (90.35%), while abundant subcommunity were more similar to the whole community. Importantly, Cr(VI) exposure caused greater variations in rare subcommunity compared with abundant one, indicating that rare taxa were more sensitive to Cr(VI) stress. This was further confirmed by ABT model, which showed higher relative influence of Cr(VI) on rare subcommunity. In addition, results suggested that rare taxa play essential roles in whole community stability, because of their great contribution to species richness and community variations, and keystone roles in ecosystem network. Moreover, network analysis showed that conditionally rare taxa frequently and positively interacted with abundant taxa, which may contribute to the community resilience to Cr(VI) stress.


Assuntos
Cromo , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Cromo/toxicidade , Oxirredução
17.
N Engl J Med ; 385(10): 921-929, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469647

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections underlie a wide spectrum of both benign and malignant epithelial diseases. In this report, we describe the case of a young man who had encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus during adolescence and currently presented with multiple recurrent skin and mucosal lesions caused by HPV. The patient was found to have a pathogenic germline mutation in the X-linked interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma gene (IL2RG), which was somatically reverted in T cells but not in natural killer (NK) cells. Allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation led to restoration of NK cytotoxicity, with normalization of the skin microbiome and persistent remission of all HPV-related diseases. NK cytotoxicity appears to play a role in containing HPV colonization and the ensuing HPV-related hyperplastic or dysplastic lesions. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center Flow Cytometry Shared Resources.).


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células Matadoras Naturais/fisiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Encefalite/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Células T Matadoras Naturais/fisiologia , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Linhagem , Pele/microbiologia , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 7035-7050, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477939

RESUMO

Soil microorganisms are essential for the long-term sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. However, continuous grapevine replanting can disrupt the stability of soil microbial communities. We investigated the bacterial and fungal abundance, diversity, and community composition in rhizosphere soils with continuous grapevine replanting for 5, 6, 7 (Y5, Y6, and Y7; short-term), and 20 (Y20; long-term) years with high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that diversities and abundances of bacterial and fungal communities in Y20 were significantly lower than in other samples. The bacterial and fungal community compositions were markedly affected by the replanting time and planting year. After short-term grapevine replanting, relative abundances of potential beneficial bacteria and harmful fungi in rhizosphere soils were higher compared to long-term planting. Bacterial and fungal communities were significantly correlated with available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus, available potassium (AK), and pH. AK and AN were the primary soil factors related to the shift of bacterial and fungal communities. Bacterial and fungal co-occurrence patterns were remarkably affected by replanting time, showing that fallow land harbored co-occurrence networks more complex than those in other groups, with the Y20 group showing the lowest complexity. Then, we isolated the dominant fungi in grapevine rhizosphere soil after continuous replanting and verified the harmful effects of three candidate strains through pot experiments. The results showed that 12 days post-treating the soil with fungal spore suspensions significantly inhibited grapevine seedlings' growth, whereas Fusarium solani inhibited plant growth. Overall, we showed that F. solani might be a potentially harmful fungus related to grapevine replant diseases. KEY POINTS: • Continuous grapevine planting reduced soil microbe diversities/abundances. • Beneficial bacteria and harmful fungi increased after short-term replanting. • F. solani may be a harmful fungus related to grapevine replant diseases.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Bactérias/genética , Fungos , Fusarium , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 333, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cenotes are flooded caves in Mexico's Yucatan peninsula. Many cenotes are interconnected in an underground network of pools and streams forming a vast belowground aquifer across most of the peninsula. Many plants in the peninsula grow roots that reach the cenotes water and live submerged in conditions similar to hydroponics. Our objective was to study the microbial community associated with these submerged roots of the Sac Actun cenote. We accomplished this objective by profiling the root prokaryotic community using 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. RESULTS: We identified plant species by DNA barcoding the total genomic DNA of each root. We found a distinctive composition of the root and water bacterial and archaeal communities. Prokaryotic diversity was higher in all plant roots than in the surrounding freshwater, suggesting that plants in the cenotes may attract and select microorganisms from soil and freshwater, and may also harbor vertically transmitted lineages. The reported data are of interest for studies targeting biodiversity in general and root-microbial ecological interactions specifically.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rizosfera , México , Microbiota/genética , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246038, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495150

RESUMO

Isla Arena is located in the coordinate 20° 70´ N - 90° 45´ W, from Campeche, Mexico. In these estuaries, the ocean mixes with fresh water, and ecosystems are concentrated where petenes and pink flamingos proliferate. Crustaceans and mollusks abound in the sea. Despite its enormous marine wealth, there are no studies carried out on which halophilic microorganisms are present in these waters. In this work, the diversity and structure of the microbial community was investigated through a metagenomics approach and corroborated for sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. It was found that the phylum Fimicutes predominates with more than 50%, in almost the same proportion of the class Bacilli and with almost 41% of relative abundance of the order Bacillales. The sequencing results showed that one of the samples presented a high percentage of similarity (99.75%) using the Nucleotide BLAST program with a peculiar microorganism: Bacillus subtilis. This microorganism is one of the best characterized bacteria among the gram-positive ones. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis can be an efficient source of proteases, lipases and cellulases, from halophilic microbial communities located in poorly explored areas.


Assuntos
Archaea , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , México , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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