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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 485-505, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590899

RESUMO

New insights into the host-microbiota relationship have recently emerged with the advancement of molecular technologies such as next-generation sequencing. This article presents the current knowledge regarding the interaction between bacteria and the immune system of the gut, the uterus, and the mammary gland of cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Sistema Imunitário/microbiologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3482-3490, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621235

RESUMO

Taking naturally growing grass (NG) as comparison, high-throughput sequencing technique was adopted to examine the effects of Lolium perenne (LP), Trifolium repens (TR), Vulpia myuros (VM), and Vicia villosa (VV) cultivation on soil microbial community in apple orchard of Yanggu County, Shandong Province, and the correlations of soil microbial community with soil nutrient and physicochemical property. The results showed that LP increased the relative abundance of Alternaria and Aspergillus in soil, TR increased that of Gibberella, VM increased Aureobasidium and Chaetomium, and VV increased probiotics such as Nitrososophaera and Metarhizium. However, the quantity of pathogenic bacteria Ralstonia was improved in NG treatment. Results from Spearman correlation analysis showed that the abundance of Bacillus was significantly positively correlated with the concentration of soil organic matter. The abundance of Aspergillus was significantly negatively correlated with available phosphorus, available potassium, CEC, and organic matter. The abundance of Metarhizium was significantly positively correlated with soil pH and CEC. Planting VV between rows of apple orchards, and enhancing the soil organic matter and nutrients content in a certain extent, helped to improve soil micro-ecological environment.


Assuntos
Malus , Microbiota , Fósforo , Poaceae , Solo
3.
Braz Oral Res ; 33(suppl 1): e064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576948

RESUMO

The aim was of this study was to determine the current weight of evidence for the existence of specific differences between the microbiota of healthy teeth and healthy implants, or of teeth with periodontitis and implants with peri-implantitis. A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched up to February 2018 for studies comparing microbiological data of biofilm samples collected from healthy teeth and implants or from teeth with periodontitis and implants with peri-implantitis. The weight of evidence was defined in three categories (strong, moderate and mild/some), according to the difference in number of studies showing statistically significantly higher counts and/or proportions and/or abundance and/or prevalence of microorganisms in health or in disease. Of the 132 articles identified, 8 were included. A wide range of microorganisms were present in different conditions but no microorganisms showed strong, moderate or mild/some evidence for a specific association with either teeth or implants. The results of this systematic review indicated that there is insufficient evidence in the literature to support specific differences between microorganisms colonizing teeth and implants, either in health or in disease.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários/microbiologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Peri-Implantite/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Microbiota
5.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109542, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569024

RESUMO

Microbial community is sensitive to the variations of environment, and it plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling in acid mine drainage (AMD). In this study, an integrated high-throughput absolute abundance quantification (iHAAQ) method was applied to study the dynamics of microbial community and the characteristics of microorganism. The results showed a significant difference in bacterial community with diversity being higher in watershed area. The main influential factors for bacterial communities in watershed were physicochemical properties (e.g., pH and potassium), while in mining areas the main driving factors were metals/metalloids (e.g., As, Zn, and Pb). Notably, the major functions of microbial community were transporter and ABC transporter in mining area, while two-component system was more abundant in watershed by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation analysis (level 3). In particular, Phyllobacterium, Bacteroides, and Sulfurovum were demonstrated to be potentially useful bacterial species for bioremediation, which should be a good choice for future studies. These results could facilitate our understanding of microbial diversity in different sediments of mining areas and identify microbial communities for bioremediation projects.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rios , Ácidos , Bactérias , Mineração
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 225-240, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471799

RESUMO

Communities of microbes have coevolved in animal organisms and are found in almost every part of the body. Compositions of those communities (microbiota) as well as their genomes and genes (microbiomes) are critical for functional regulations of the body organ systems-the digestive or 'gut' microbiome being the most described so far. Based on extensive research in humans, microbiomes in the reproductive tract may play a role in reproductive functions and pregnancy. However, in wild animal species, those microbiomes have been poorly studied, and as a result, little is known about their involvement in fertility or parental/offspring health. This emerging research area is highly relevant to conservation biology from captive breeding management to successful reintroduction or maintenance of wild populations. The objective of this chapter is to review current knowledge about reproductive microbiomes in healthy wild animal species. While recognizing the current technical limits of microbial identification in all animal species, we also explore the link between microbial communities (within female or male reproductive systems) and fertility, from conception to birth outcome. In addition, it is critical to understanding how reproductive microbiomes are affected by environmental factors (including captivity, contact with other individuals, or changes in the ecosystem) to optimize conservation efforts. Thus, reproductive microbiomes represent a novel dimension in conservation biology that will likely gain importance in the future.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Microbiota , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez
8.
Yi Chuan ; 41(9): 845-862, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549683

RESUMO

Development of high-throughput sequencing stimulates a series of microbiome technologies, such as amplicon sequencing, metagenome, metatranscriptome, which have rapidly promoted microbiome research. Microbiome data analysis involves a lot of basic knowledge, software and databases, and it is difficult for peers to learn and select proper methods. This review systematically outlines the basic ideas of microbiome data analysis and the basic knowledge required to conduct analysis. In addition, it summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used software and databases used in the comparison, visualization, network, evolution, machine learning and association analysis. This review aims to provide a convenient and flexible guide for selecting analytical tools and suitable databases for mining the biological significance of microbiome data.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Microbiota , Bases de Dados Factuais , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenoma , Software
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 85: 35-45, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471029

RESUMO

Imazethapyr (IM) is an acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide that has been widely used in recent years. However, IM spraying can lead to the accumulation of herbicide residues in leaves. Here, we determined the effects of IM spraying on the plant growth and leaf surface microbial communities of Arabidopsis thaliana after 7 and 14 days of exposure. The results suggested that IM spraying inhibited plant growth. Fresh weight decreased to 48% and 26% of the control value after 7 and 14 days, respectively, of 0.035 kg/ha IM exposure. In addition, anthocyanin content increased 9.2-fold and 37.2-fold relative to the control content after 7 and 14 days of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, IM spraying destroyed the cell structures of the leaves, as evidenced by increases in the number of starch granules and the stomatal closure rate. Reductions in photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant enzyme activity were observed after IM spraying, especially after 14 days of exposure. The diversity and evenness of the leaf microbiota were not affected by IM treatment, but the composition of community structure at the genus level was altered by IM spraying. Imazethapyr application increased the abundance of Pseudomonas, a genus that includes species pathogenic to plants and humans, indicating that IM potentially increased the abundance of pathogenic bacteria on leaves. Our findings increase our understanding of the relationships between herbicide application and the microbial community structures on plant leaves, and they provide a new perspective for studying the ecological safety of herbicide usage.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Nicotínicos/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 2983-2991, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529873

RESUMO

To understand the relationship between soil fauna and microorganism in the detrital food chain during litter decomposition, leaf litters of poplar (Populus simonii) and fargesia (Fargesia spathacea) in a subalpine forest of western Sichuan were taken as study objects. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFAs) biomarker method was used to determine the effects of soil fauna on the abundance, structure and diversity of microbial community during the decomposition of leaf litter of two species from April 2016 to April 2018 with in situ control experiment. The results showed that the presence of soil fauna significantly affected the microbial PLFAs content during the decomposition of both species, reducing the PLFAs content in the first 240 days and increasing the PLFAs content in the 360 to 480 days. Soil fauna participation reduced the ratio of fungi to bacteria in the decomposition of poplar litter, and increased the ratio of gram-positive bacteria (G+) to gram-negative bacteria (G-), which had the opposite effect on the ratio of fungi/bacteria and G+/G- in the decomposition of fargesia litter. Microbial diversity and evenness maintained a high level in 120th and 480th days of the decomposition, and decreased sharply in 360th and 720th days of decomposition. Soil fauna participation significantly affected microbial diversity and evenness of poplar litter, but it had no signifi-cant effect on fargesia litter. The effects of soil fauna on the changes of litter PLFAs content were different with the decomposition days and tree species. The interaction between soil fauna and microbial community during litter decomposition in subalpine forest varied with seasons and tree species.


Assuntos
Florestas , Microbiota , Populus , Animais , China , Folhas de Planta , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3183-3194, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529894

RESUMO

Soil organic carbon is essential for maintaining terrestrial ecosystem function and mitigating soil degradation. Soil microorganisms participate in soil carbon cycling. They are affected by tillage methods and straw returning. A split-plot design was adopted in this experiment. The whole-plot treatment had two tillage methods, subsoil tillage (ST) and rotary tillage (RT). The split-plot treatment included full straw returning (F) and no straw returning (0). The microbial community structure and carbon sequestration genes were assessed by Illumina sequencing technique. Soil organic carbon contents were measured during 2012-2017. The results showed that 1) subsoil tillage and straw returning significantly increased pH, microbial biomass carbon, total nitrogen, silt content, and clay content, while significantly decreased sand content; 2) during the test period (2012-2017), soil organic carbon (SOC) content under all treatments showed an increasing trend, but the increment for average SOC content under straw returning and subsoiling treatments was significantly higher than that of no straw returning and rotary tillage by 33.2 % and 30.6%, respectively; 3) Proteobacteria was the most abundant type of bacteria in the soil, followed by Acidobacteria and Gemmatadanetes; 4) STF treatment maintained high microbial diversity; 5) Excepted for soil sand content, soil pH, microbial biomass carbon, total nitrogen, silt content and clay content all caused the variation of soil microbial community structure under the STF treatment in the direction of SOC accumulation; 6) in addition to the gene abundance in the di- and oligosaccharides metabolic pathway, the gene abundance in the metabolic pathways for CO2 fixation, central carbohydrate metabolism, fermentation, one-carbon metabolism, organic acids, sugar alcohols and glycoside hydrolases showed that subsoil tillage was significantly higher than rotary tillage, with posi-tively correlation with soil organic carbon content. Therefore, the combination of subsoil tillage and straw returning could improve basic soil properties, affect soil microbial community structure, and increase the capacity of soil carbon fixation, thus providing a realistic basis for solving soil degradation.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Carbono/análise , Triticum
12.
Water Environ Res ; 91(10): 1326-1341, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523907

RESUMO

This survey of 2018 literature on substratum-associated microbiota presents brief highlights on research findings from primarily freshwaters, but includes those from a variety of aquatic ecosystems. Coverage of topics associated with benthic algae and cyanobacteria, though not comprehensive, includes new methods, taxa new to science, nutrient dynamics, trophic interactions, herbicides and other pollutants, metal contaminants, nuisance, bloom-forming and harmful algae, bioassessment, and bioremediation. Coverage of bacteria, also not comprehensive, focused on methylation of mercury, metal contamination, toxins, and other environmental pollutants, including oil, as well as the use of benthic bacteria as bioindicators, in bioassessment tools and in biomonitoring. Additionally, we cover trends in recent and emerging topics on substratum-associated microbiota of relevance to the Water Environment Federation. PRACTITIONER POINTS: This review of literature from 2018 on substratum-associated microbiota presents highlights of findings on algae, cyanobacteria, and bacteria from primarily freshwaters. Topics covered that focus on algae and cyanobacteria include findings on new methods, taxa new to science, nutrient dynamics, trophic interactions, herbicides and other pollutants, metal contaminants, nuisance, bloomforming and harmful algae, bioassessment, and bioremediation. Topics covered that focus on bacteria include findings on methylation of mercury, metal contamination, toxins and other environmental pollutants, including oil, as well as the us e of benthic bacteria as bioindicators, in bioassessment tools and in biomonitoring. A brief presentation of new, noteworthy and emerging topics on substratum-associated microbiota, build on those from 2017, to highlight those of particular relevance to the Water Environment Federation.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microbiota , Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122006, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476564

RESUMO

The rapid growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in reactor prevents the application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) technology to main-stream wastewater treatment. How to eliminate NOB and reserve anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AnAOB) simultaneously becomes the biggest challenge. In this study two coupled biological aeration filters (BAFs) were built up to treat domestic sewage. In BAF1 nitrogen removal concentration was 21.4 mg/L via heterotrophic denitrification pathway. Backwash was conducted to BAF2 to improve nitrogen removal performance. After backwash Nitrospira proportion declined from 10.8% to 2.1%, while Candidatus Kuenenia percentage increased from 5.6% to 10.2%. Nitrogen removal concentration improved from 8.6 mg/L to 22.8 mg/L via anammox pathway in BAF2, and total nitrogen removal concentration reached to 44.2 mg/L in two coupled BAFs during aeration process. These findings could provide a new strategy for the application of anammox technology to main-stream wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Nitrogênio , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Esgotos
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122096, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493731

RESUMO

The microbial community characteristics, functional and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), anammox performance under individual and combined oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were tested under environmentally relevant levels. The results showed that anammox performance was inhibited when the OTC or SMX concentration increased from 0.5 to 1.0 mg L-1. The absolute abundance of tetX in OTC (3.03 × 106 copies mg-1), SMX (2.80 × 106 copies mg-1) and OTC + SMX (2.03 × 106 copies mg-1) was the highest and one more order of magnitude higher than that of tetG, tetM, intI1, or sul2. The anammox performance in the presence of OTC or SMX was lower than that sum of their independent effects. The enrichment of sludge resistomes with prolonged exposure time and increasing OTC and SMX doses might be due to succession of bacterial hosts and potential elevation of ARGs by horizontal transfer.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oxitetraciclina , Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Sulfametoxazol
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10667-10677, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483636

RESUMO

This study investigated the modulatory effects of Decaisnea insignis seed oil (DISO), which was rich in palmitoleic acid (55.25%), palmitic acid (12.25%), and oleic acid (28.74%), on alcohol-induced metabolism disorder in mice. Fifty mice were orally administered with 38% alcohol (0.4 mL/day) and without or with DISO (3, 6, and 12 g/kg) for consecutive 12 weeks. DISO inhibited the alcohol-induced weight loss and liver function abnormality (p < 0.01) and shifted the profiles of cecal microbiome: elevating the abundance of Lactobacillus, Ruminoccoceae_UCG_004 (p < 0.05) and decreasing abundance of Parabacteroides (p < 0.05). This treatment also regulated metabolome response of amino acid and lipid metabolism in cecal content: upregulating 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (p < 0.05), 6-hydroxynicotinic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, nicotinamide, and nicotinic acid (p < 0.1) and downregulating androsterone, tryptophan, and indole-3-acetamide (p < 0.05). DISO protected against alcoholic liver injury and gut microbiota dysbiosis by enriching the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, which was positively associated with the improvement of intestinal permeability and tryptophan metabolism.


Assuntos
Álcoois/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/microbiologia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10577-10586, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490682

RESUMO

Root and rhizosphere is important for phosphorus (P) uptake in rice plants. However, little is known about the detailed regulation of irrigation regimes, especially frequently alternate wetting and drying (FAWD), on P usage of rice plants. Here, we found that compared with normal water and P dose, FAWD with a reduced P dose maintained the grain yield in two rice varieties. Compared to rice variety Gaoshan1, rice variety WufengyouT025 displayed a higher grain yield, shoot P content, rhizosphere acid phosphatase activity, abundance of bacteria, and bacterial acid phosphatase gene of rhizosphere. Moreover, the FAWD regime may increase the abundance of bacteria with acid phosphatase activity to release available phosphorus in the rhizosphere, which is associated with rice varieties. Our results suggest that an optimized management of irrigation and phosphorous application can enhance both water and phosphorus use efficiency without sacrificing the yield, which may contribute significantly to sustainable agriculture production.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Fertilizantes/análise , Microbiota , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Água/metabolismo
17.
JAMA ; 322(12): 1195-1205, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550037

RESUMO

Importance: Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria can identify patients for whom treatment might be beneficial for preventing symptomatic infection and other health outcomes. Objective: To systematically review benefits and harms of asymptomatic bacteriuria screening and treatment in adults, including during pregnancy, to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed (publisher-supplied records), and Cochrane Collaboration Central Registry of Controlled Trials; surveillance through May 24, 2019. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies on benefits and harms of screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria; RCTs on benefits and harms of asymptomatic bacteriuria treatment. Eligible populations included unselected, asymptomatic individuals without known urinary tract conditions. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Independent critical appraisal and data abstraction by 2 reviewers. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate benefits of the interventions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Symptomatic infection; function, morbidity, mortality; pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Results: Nineteen studies (N = 8443) meeting inclusion criteria were identified. Two cohort studies (n = 5289) found fewer cases of pyelonephritis in the cohorts of screened pregnant women (0.5%) than within retrospective comparisons of unscreened cohorts (2.2% and 1.8%); the larger study estimated a statistically significant relative risk of 0.30 (95% CI, 0.15-0.60). No studies examined screening in nonpregnant populations. Among 12 trials of asymptomatic bacteriuria screening and treatment during pregnancy (n = 2377; 1 conducted within past 30 years), there were reduced rates of pyelonephritis (range, 0%-16.5% for the intervention group and 2.2%-36.4% for the control group; pooled risk ratio [RR], 0.24 [95% CI, 0.14-0.40]; 12 trials) and low birth weight (range, 2.5%-14.8% for the intervention group and 6.7%-21.4% for the control group; pooled RR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.46-0.90]; 7 trials). There was no significant difference in infant mortality (pooled RR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.29-3.26]; 6 trials). Five RCTs of asymptomatic bacteriuria treatment in nonpregnant adults (n = 777) did not report any significant differences in risk of infection, mobility, or mortality. Limited evidence on harms of screening or treatment was available, and no statistically significant differences were identified. Conclusions and Relevance: Screening and treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy was associated with reduced rates of pyelonephritis and low birth weights, but the available evidence was not current, with only 1 study conducted in the past 30 years. Benefits of asymptomatic bacteriuria treatment in nonpregnant adult populations were not found. Trial evidence on harms of asymptomatic bacteriuria antibiotic treatment was limited.


Assuntos
Bacteriúria/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriúria/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Pielonefrite/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico
18.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(8): 507-512, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479609

RESUMO

The purpose of the work is to determine the spectrum, quantity and frequency of occurrence of microorganisms in the oral fluid and large intestine in healthy young men under changes of living conditions. A survey was conducted of 14 nonresident young men, students of the 1st and 2nd courses, studying at Tver State Medical University, which included questions about the place of birth, living conditions, the presence of chronic diseases and the frequency of their exacerbations over the past year, water and food regimes, physical exertion, the presence of bad habits and emotional stress, etc. The oral fluid and feces were examined to determine the spectrum and amount of microbiota of the upper and lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. As the result of the survey, it was found that the living conditions of all young men significantly worsened among second-year students than freshmen. It was revealed that colon microbiota in sophomores characterized by less diverse than those of first-year, despite of a marked increase in the number of opportunistic pathogens (Stаphylocоccus spp., Strерtocoсcus spp., Clоstridium spp., Васillus spp., Кlebsiеlla spp.) over resident microbes. It was found the decrease in the number and frequency of occurrence of all microbial representatives in the oral microbiota of 2nd year students in comparison with first-year. It was proved that the deterioration of living conditions of nonresident students led to the increase in the number of second-year students with dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota from 86% to 100%, mainly due to the increase in the number of persons with dysbiosis of II and III degree.


Assuntos
Intestino Grosso/microbiologia , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Disbiose , Fezes , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Características de Residência
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1178: 129-154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493226

RESUMO

Gut microbiota composition and functionality can influence the pathophysiology of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia, according to a large number of animal studies. The translation of this concept to humans is still uncertain, due to the relatively low number of clinical studies focused on fecal microbiota and large number of environmental factors that influence the microbiota composition. However, the fecal microbiota composition of older patients with dementia is deeply different from that of healthy active controls, conditioning a different metabolic profile. The possible use of fecal microbiota-related parameters and microbiota-derived metabolites as biomarkers of cognitive performance and dementia is critically reviewed in this paper, focusing on the most promising areas of research for the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Microbiota/fisiologia
20.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(3): 307-308, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513768

RESUMO

Studies of the intestinal microbial environment largely focus on microbial taxonomy, without clarifying their health benefits. Two recent studies (Raman et al. and Gehrig et al.) classify microbial environments into "ecogroups" that provide insight into their metabolic and/or nutritional pathways and how this can be used for interventions in malnourished children.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Microbiota , Desnutrição Aguda Grave , Animais , Criança , Alimentos , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos
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