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1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127840, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763570

RESUMO

This work assessed the effect of the antibiotics trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on the granulation process, microbiology, and organic matter and nutrient removal of an aerobic granular sludge (AGS) system. In addition, after the maturation stage, the impact of the redox mediator anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) (25 µM) on the biotransformation of the antibiotics was evaluated. The reactor R1 was maintained as a control, and the reactor R2 was supplemented with TMP and SMX (200 µg L-1). The ability to remove C, N, and P was similar between the reactors. However, the structural integrity of the AGS was impaired by the antibiotics. Low TMP (∼30%) and SMX (∼60%) removals were achieved when compared to anaerobic or floccular biomass aerobic systems. However, when the system was supplemented with AQDS, an increase in the removal of TMP (∼75%) and SMX (∼95%) was observed, possibly due to the catalytic action of the redox mediator on cometabolic processes. Regarding the microbial groups, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacterioidetes increased, Planctomycetes decreased in both reactors. However, TMP and SMX presence seemed to inhibit or favor some genera during the formation of the granules, possibly due to their bactericidal action.


Assuntos
Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfametoxazol/toxicidade , Trimetoprima/toxicidade , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Antibacterianos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Esgotos , Sulfametoxazol/química , Trimetoprima/química , Microbiologia da Água
2.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127828, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763579

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a widespread environmental problem that decreases crop production, destroys the microbial ecology of soil, and poses a severe risk to human health. Organo-chemical amendment is a cost-effective, eco-friendly, and community-acceptable widely applied an in situ technique for metal-contaminated farmland. In this study, we mixed lime, zeolite, calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, and biochar in a mixture ratio of 71:23:5:1 to form a mixed amendment. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effects of the mixed amendment on soil exchangeable Cd content, plant Cd accumulation, and soil microbial community. It was found that the application of 0.5% mixed amendment decreased exchangeable soil Cd by more than 85% and 64% in wheat and rice season, respectively, compared with control (CK), without increasing pH. Moreover, the application of 0.5% mixed amendment decreased Cd accumulation in grains by 22.9% and 41.2% in wheat and rice season, respectively, compared to CK. The result of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) shows that the level of soil microbial diversity and species richness under mixed amendment treatments were higher than in lime treatment, indicating more copiotrophic conditions and faster rate of nutrient turnover in mixed amendment than pure lime treatment. Hence, it concluded that the mixed amendment has a strong effect on fixing exchangeable soil Cd and reducing the accumulation of Cd in crops. Finally, it was observed that the mixed amendment improved the soil microbial community structure and accelerate the rate of nutrient turnover by microbes under this favorable condition comparative to individual treatments.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Agricultura/métodos , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Compostos de Cálcio , Carvão Vegetal , Produtos Agrícolas , Poluição Ambiental , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxidos , Fosfatos , Rotação , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum
3.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127822, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799144

RESUMO

In this research, for the first time, three kinds of landfill leachate (young (YL), mature (ML) and mixed (MYL) leachate) were treated in a semi-aerobic aged refuse biofilter (SAARB) to compare the effectiveness of, and microbial changes in, this biofilter when treating leachates that have significantly different characteristics. The SAARB achieved stable removal of organic matter from all three leachates and reduced the concentrations of aromatic substances. The best treatment was achieved with YL, followed in order by MYL and ML. The removal of nitrogen from all three leachates by the SAARB was particularly significant. The microbial abundance and diversity in the media of the SAARB changed after treatment of the three leachates, and the order of change from small to large was ML# < MYL# < YL#. The microbial communities were mainly affected by (and negatively correlated to) the relative content of refractory organics in leachate. Proteobacteria was the dominant microorganism. Deinococcus-thermus responded most to the quality of leachate being treated, increasing in relative abundance as the content of refractory organics increased. This was opposite to the response of Chloroflexi. In YL# the dominant species at the genus level was Thauera, and in ML# the dominant species were Truepera and Iodidimonas. The microbial activity and metabolic intensity were enhanced after treatment of the different leachates. The expression of nitrification-related genes was the strongest and the total abundance was the highest when YL was treated. This study promotes the optimization and application of SAARB.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Resíduos de Alimentos , Nitrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Chemosphere ; 261: 128010, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113657

RESUMO

Clay materials are commonly used in remediation techniques for heavy metal contaminated soil. In this study, a magnesium (Mg(OH)2/MgO)-montmorillonite was proposed to be utilized for heavy metals immobilization in contaminated soil, with the remediation efficiency evaluated through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the community bureau of reference sequential extraction procedure (BCR). The addition of magnesium-montmorillonite resulted in lower TCLP extractability for the heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) in soil as it promoted their conversion from acid soluble fraction to residual fraction. Meanwhile, MM raised the soil pH and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). It was demonstrated that the immobilization of heavy metal in the presence of magnesium-montmorillonite was primarily induced by electrostatic attraction, precipitation and chelation with water-soluble organic carbon. Interestingly, a decreased bacterial community diversity was observed in soil treated by magnesium-montmorillonite (MM). The presence of pure magnesium-montmorillonite promoted the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes but reduced that of Bacteroides and Acidobacteria. Our results suggest that integrating the biochar into montmorillonite-based amendments can alleviate the damage to soil microorganisms by weakening the negative correlation between the two factors (content clay and WSOC in soil) and soil bacteria.


Assuntos
Bentonita/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 335: 108889, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007604

RESUMO

The safety and quality of cereal grain supplies are adversely impacted by microbiological contamination, with novel interventions required to maximise whole grains safety and stability. The microbiological contaminants of wheat grains and the efficacy of Atmospheric Cold Plasma (ACP) for potential to control these risks were investigated. The evaluations were performed using a contained reactor dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system; samples were treated for 0-20 min using direct and indirect plasma exposure. Amplicon-based metagenomic analysis using bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal 18S rRNA gene with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was performed to characterize the change in microbial community composition in response to ACP treatment. The antimicrobial efficacy of ACP against a range of bacterial and fungal contaminants of wheat, was assessed to include individual isolates from grains as challenge pathogens. ACP influenced wheat microbiome composition, with a higher microbial diversity as well as abundance found on the untreated control grain samples. Culture and genomic approaches revealed different trends for mycoflora detection and control. A challenge study demonstrated that using direct mode of plasma exposure with 20 min of treatment significantly reduced the concentration of all pathogens. Overall, reduction levels for B. atrophaeus vegetative cells were higher than for all fungal species tested, whereas B. atrophaeus spores were the most resistant to ACP among all microorganisms tested. Of note, repeating sub-lethal plasma treatment did not induce resistance to ACP in either B. atrophaeus or A. flavus spores. ACP process control could be tailored to address diverse microbiological risks for grain stability and safety.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105633, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069118

RESUMO

Microbial community functional diversity enhances the degradation of organic matter and pollutants in the environment, but there is a growing concern that these ecosystem services may be altered by the introduction of emerging environmental contaminants including silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into aquatic systems. We added 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 mg L-1 (nominal concentrations) of citrate-AgNP and polyvinylpyrrolidone-AgNP (PVP-AgNP) each to freshwater sediment and examined their antimicrobial effects on microbial communities using community-level physiological profiling. The results showed that citrate-AgNP decreased the overall microbial catabolic activity by 80% from 1.16 ± 0.02 to 0.23 ± 08 while PVP-AgNP decreased the catabolic activity by 51% from 1.25 ± 0.07 to 0.61 ± 0.19 at 125 mg L-1. Citrate-AgNP and PVP-AgNP caused a statistically significant reduction in substrate richness and substrate diversity that decreased microbial functional diversity. AgNPs decreased microbial catabolic capability and functional diversity at concentrations ranging from 0.12 ± 0.04 to 0.43 ± 0.07 mg Ag kg-1 which are lower than the predicted concentrations in freshwater sediment. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate inhibition of microbial functional diversity by citrate-AgNP and PVP-AgNP in a pathogen impaired stream. Citrate-AgNP caused greater inhibition of carbon substrate utilization but amino acids, carbohydrates, and carboxylic acids were the most affected carbon groups which led to a shift in the metabolic fingerprint pattern of the microbial community. AgNPs decreased the catabolic capability and the ability of the microbial community to degrade organic matter and a variety of pollutants in the environment.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Biodiversidade , Carbono/farmacologia , Ácido Cítrico , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Análise de Componente Principal
7.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 321-332, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897393

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the association among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and air pollutants and the diversity of microbiota. Daily average concentrations of six common air pollutants were obtained from China National Environmental Monitoring Centre. The PAHs exposure levels were evaluated by external and internal exposure detection methods, including monitoring atmospheric PAHs and urinary hydroxyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (OH-PAH) metabolite levels. We analyzed the diversity of environmental and commensal bacterial communities with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and performed functional enrichment with Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Correlation analysis and logistic regression modeling were conducted to evaluate the relationship of PAHs levels with air pollutants and microbial diversity. Correlation analysis found that the concentrations of atmospheric PAHs were significantly positively correlated with those of PM10, NO2, and SO2. There also was a positive correlation between the abundance of the genus Micrococcus (Actinobacteria) and high molecular weight PAHs, and Bacillus, such as genera and low molecular weight PAHs in the atmosphere. Logistic regression showed that the level of urinary 1-OHPyrene was associated with childhood asthma after sex and age adjustment. The level of urinary 1-OHPyrene was significantly positively correlated with that of PM2.5 and PM10. In addition, the level of 1-OHPyrene was positively correlated with oral Prevotella-7 abundance. Functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that PAHs exposure may disturb signaling pathways by the imbalance of commensal microbiota, such as purine metabolism, pyrimidine metabolites, lipid metabolism, and one carbon pool by folate, which may contribute to public health issues. Our results confirmed that atmospheric PAHs and urinary 1-OHPyrene were correlated with part of six common air pollutants and indicated that PAHs pollution may alter both environmental and commensal microbiota communities associated with health-related problems. The potential health and environmental impacts of PAHs should be further explored.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Atmosfera , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111022, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888608

RESUMO

To evaluate the aquatic hazards of the insect juvenile hormone analogue fenoxycarb, a single application (0, 48.8, 156.3, 500, 1600, and 5120 µg/L) of it was done in indoor freshwater systems dominated by Daphnia carinata (daphnid) and Dolerocypris sinensis (ostracoda). The responses of zooplankton (counted by abundance and the activity and immuno-reactive content of free N-Acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase)), phytoplankton (counted by chlorophyll and phycocyanin), planktonic bacteria and fungi, and some water quality parameters were investigated in a period of 35 d. Results of the study showed that the ostracoda was more sensitive than daphnid, with time-weighted average (TWA)-based no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) to be 8.45 and 12.66 µg/L in systems without humic acid addition (HA-) and to be 6.37 and 9.54 µg/L in systems with humic acid addition (HA+). The duration of treatment-related effects in the ostracoda population was longer than the daphnid population (21 vs. 14 days). Besides, the data analysis indicated that the toxicity of fenoxycarb was significantly enhanced in the HA+ systems. Owing to the reduced grazing pressure, the concentrations of chlorophyll and phycocyanin increased in the two highest treatments. The increase in photosynthesis along with a reduced animal excretion led to an increase in pH and a decrease in nutrient contents. These changes seemed to have an effect on the microbial communities. For example, the abundances of some opportunistic pathogens of aquatic animals (e.g. Aeromonas and Cladosporium) and organic-pollutant-degrading microorganisms (e.g. Ancylobacter and Azospirillum) increased significantly in microbial communities, but the abundances of Pedobacter, Candidatus Planktoluna, and Rhodobacter (photosynthetic bacteria) markedly decreased. This study provides useful information to understand the ecotoxicological impacts of fenoxycarb at the population and community levels while integrating the effects of HA on toxicity.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce/química , Fenilcarbamatos/toxicidade , Fitoplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zooplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ecotoxicologia , Substâncias Húmicas/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111318, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979806

RESUMO

The retention of polyether sulfone (PES) and bisphenol A (BPA) in wastewater has received extensive attention. The effects of PES and BPA on the removal of organic matter by anaerobic granular sludge were investigated. We also analyzed the changes in the electron transport system and the effects on the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), as well as alternations of the microbial community in the anaerobic granular sludge. In the experimental groups which received BPA, the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) were significantly suppressed, which an average removal efficiency of less than 65%, 30% lower than that of the control group. In the loosely-bound EPS (LB-EPS) excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra, the absorption peak of tryptophan disappeared when the BPA pollutants was added, which it was present in the control group without added pollutants. The addition of PES and BPA also affected protease, acetate kinase, and coenzyme F420 activities in the anaerobic granular sludge. Especially, the coenzyme F420 reduced from 0.0045 to 0.0017 µmol/L in the presence of PES and BPA. The relative abundance of Spirochaetes decreased in the presence of PES and BPA, while the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased from 12.98% to 22.87%. At the genus level, in the presence of PES and BPA, the relative abundance of Acinetobacter increased from 2.20% to 9.64% and Hydrogenophaga decreased sharply from 15.58% to 0.12%.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Microplásticos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Polímeros/química , Sulfonas/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Anaerobiose , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Plásticos , Esgotos/química , Águas Residuárias
10.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127392, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947654

RESUMO

Discharge of urban stormwater containing organic matter, heavy metals and sometime human feces, to the natural aquatic reservoirs without any treatment is not only an environmental problem. It can lead to prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in stormwater systems and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes to the environment. We performed antibiotic resistome identification and virus detection in stormwater samples from Stockholm, using publicly available metagenomic sequencing MinION data. A MinION platform offers low-cost, precise environmental metagenomics analysis. 37 groups of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), 11 resistance types with 26 resistance mechanisms - antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) giving tolerance to the aminoglycoside, beta-lactams, fosmidomycin, MLS, multidrug and vancomycin were identified using ARGpore pipeline. The majority of the identified bacteria species were related to the natural environment such as soil and were not dangerous to human. Alarmingly, human pathogenic bacteria carrying resistance to antibiotics currently used against them (Bordetella resistant to macrolides and multidrug resistant Propionibacterium avidum) were also found in the samples. Most abundant viruses identified belonged to Caudovirales and Herpesvirales and they were not carrying ARGs. Unlike the virome, resistome and ARB were not unique for stormwater sampling points. This results underline the need for extensive monitoring of the microbial community structure in the urban stormwater systems to assess antimicrobial resistance spread.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Metagenoma , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrolídeos , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , beta-Lactamas
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111328, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950805

RESUMO

Understanding the degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by indigenous microorganisms stimulated by an electron donor and shuttle in paddy soil, and the influences of PCP/electron donor/shuttle on the native microbial community are important for biodegradation and ecological and environmental safety. Previous studies focused on the kinetics and the microbial actions of PCP degradation, however, the effects of toxic and antimicrobial PCP and electron donor/shuttle on the microbial community diversity and composition in paddy soil are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of PCP, an electron donor (lactate), and the electron shuttle (anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonate, AQDS) on the microbial community in paddy soil were investigated. The results showed that the presence of PCP reduced the microbial diversity compared to the control during PCP degradation, while increased the microbial diversity was observed in response to lactate and AQDS. The addition of PCP stimulated the microorganisms involved in PCP dechlorination, including Clostridium, Desulfitobacterium, Pandoraea, and unclassified Veillonellaceae, which were dormant in raw soil without PCP stress. In all of the treatments with PCP, the addition of lactate or AQDS enhanced PCP dechlorination by stimulating the growth of functional groups involved in PCP dechlorination and by changing the microbial community during dechlorination process. The microbial community tended to be uniform after complete PCP degradation (28 days). However, when lactate and AQDS were present simultaneously in PCP-contaminated soil, lactate acted as a carbon source or electron donor to promote the activities of microbial community, and AQDS changed the redox potential because of the production of reduced AQDS. These findings enhance our understanding of the effect of PCP and a biostimulation method for PCP biodegradation in soil ecosystems at the microbial community level, and suggest the appropriate selection of an electron donor/shuttle for accelerating the bioremediation of PCP-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Pentaclorofenol/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Transporte de Elétrons , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111267, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992213

RESUMO

Arsenic is a common contaminant in gold mine soil and tailings. Microbes present an opportunity for bio-treatment of arsenic, since it is a sustainable and cost-effective approach to remove arsenic from water. However, the development of existing bio-treatment approaches depends on isolation of arsenic-resistant microbes from arsenic contaminated samples. Microbial cultures are commonly used in bio-treatment; however, it is not established whether the structure of the cultured isolates resembles the native microbial community from arsenic-contaminated soil. In this milieu, a culture-independent approach using Illumina sequencing technology was used to profile the microbial community in situ. This was coupled with a culture-dependent technique, that is, isolation using two different growth media, to analyse the microbial population in arsenic laden tailing dam sludge based on the culture-independent sequencing approach, 4 phyla and 8 genera were identified in a sample from the arsenic-rich gold mine. Firmicutes (92.23%) was the dominant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria (3.21%), Actinobacteria (2.41%), and Bacteroidetes (1.49%). The identified genera included Staphylococcus (89.8%), Pseudomonas (1.25), Corynebacterium (0.82), Prevotella (0.54%), Megamonas (0.38%) and Sphingomonas (0.36%). The Shannon index value (3.05) and Simpson index value (0.1661) indicated low diversity in arsenic laden tailing. The culture dependent method exposed significant similarities with culture independent methods at the phylum level with Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, being common, and Firmicutes was the dominant phylum whereas, at the genus level, only Pseudomonas was presented by both methods. It showed high similarities between culture independent and dependent methods at the phylum level and large differences at the genus level, highlighting the complementarity between the two methods for identification of the native population bacteria in arsenic-rich mine. As a result, the present study can be a resource on microbes for bio-treatment of arsenic in mining waste.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsênico/toxicidade , Firmicutes/efeitos dos fármacos , Metagenômica/métodos , Proteobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Actinobacteria/citologia , Actinobacteria/genética , Arsênico/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Meios de Cultura/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Firmicutes/citologia , Firmicutes/genética , Ouro , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/genética , Mineração , Proteobactérias/citologia , Proteobactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4807-4818, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878769

RESUMO

The microbiome is extremely important for human health; more recently its role in the context of cancer became clear. Microbial effects range from enhancing cancer immunity and cancer therapy efficacy, to promoting cancer progression and inhibiting treatment efficacy. These broad implications led researchers to investigate these specific interactions, as well as how modification of the microbiome can improve cancer survival and treatment efficacy. While these interactions are better established for cancers such as gastric cancer, they are far less understood in others. As non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) makes up the majority of lung cancer cases, and is among the top causes of cancer deaths worldwide, understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiome may impact progression and treatment is crucial to improve patient survival and treatment response. A literature review was conducted to reveal the crosslink between human microbiome and lung cancer. This includes immune priming, induction of pro- or anti-tumor response, and the local effects of intra-tumoral microbiota. Overall, this is a complex multifactorial relationship, and there are broad implications as to how this knowledge can improve cancer treatment. Solutions include manipulation of the microbiome using probiotics, bacterial vaccines and antibiotics. Bacteria biomarkers may also be used as a diagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/microbiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 334: 14-20, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949622

RESUMO

Air pollution is known to trigger and exacerbate many respiratory diseases. The interaction between respiratory microbiome and host plays a significant role in maintaining airway immune homeostasis and health. Emerging evidence has revealed the associations of disturbances in the airway microbiome with air pollution and respiratory disease. However, respiratory microbiome has been an undervalued player in progressions of respiratory disease caused by air pollution. In this review, we summarize the current research advances with respect to the effects of air pollution on respiratory microbiome, then discuss the underlying mechanisms of air pollution induction of dysbiosis in respiratory microbiota and its links to respiratory diseases. This work may be helpful to deepening understanding the relationships between exposure, microbiome and airway disease and discovering new preventive and therapeutic strategies for air pollution-mediated respiratory disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/microbiologia
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110958, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800230

RESUMO

Phytoremediation is an effective way to repair heavy metal contaminated soil and rhizosphere microorganisms play an important role in plant regulation. Nevertheless, little information is known about the variation of microbial metabolic activities and community structure in rhizosphere during phytoremediation. In this study, the rhizosphere soil microbial metabolic activities and community structure of Trifolium repensL. during Cd-contaminated soil phytoremediation, were analyzed by Biolog EcoPlate™ and high-throughput sequencing. The uptake in the roots of Trifolium repensL. grown in 5.68 and 24.23 mg/kg Cd contaminated soil was 33.51 and 84.69 mg/kg respectively, causing the acid-soluble Cd fractions decreased 7.3% and 5.4%. Phytoremediation significantly influenced microbial community and Trifolium repensL. planting significantly increased the rhizosphere microbial population, diversity, the relative abundance of plant growth promoting bacteria (Kaistobacter and Flavisolibacter), and the utilization of difficultly metabolized compounds. The correlation analysis among substrate utilization and microbial communities revealed that the relative abundance increased microorganisms possessed stronger carbon utilization capacity, which was beneficial to regulate the stability of plant-microbial system. Collectively, the results of this study provide fundamental insights into the microbial metabolic activities and community structure during heavy metal contaminated soil phytoremediation, which may aid in the bioregulation of phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Trifolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Trifolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trifolium/metabolismo , Trifolium/microbiologia
17.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105591, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853898

RESUMO

The effects of allelopathy and the potential harm of several isolated allelochemicals have been studied in detail. Microorganisms in the phycosphere play an important role in algal growth, decay and nutrient cycling. However, it is unknown and often neglected whether allelochemicals affect the phycosphere. The present study selected a phenolic acid protocatechuic acid (PA) - previously shown to be an allelochemical. We studied PA at a half maximal effective concentration of 0.20 mM (30 mg L-1) against Scrippsiella trochoidea to assess the effect of PA on its phycosphere in an acute time period (48 h). The results showed that: 1) OTUs (operational taxonomic units) in the treatment groups (31.4 ± 0.55) exceeded those of the control groups (28.2 ± 1.30) and the Shannon and Simpson indices were lower than the control groups (3.31 ± 0.08 and 0.84 ± 0.02, 3.45 ± 0.09 and 0.88 ± 0.01); 2) Gammaproteobacteria predominated in the treatment groups (44.71 ± 2.13 %) while Alphaproteobacteria dominated in the controls (67.17 ± 3.87 %); 3) Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were important biomarkers in the treatment and control groups respectively (LDA > 4.0). PA improved the relative abundance of Alteromonas significantly and decreased the one of Rhodobacteraceae. PICRUSt analysis showed that the decrease of Rhodobacterceae was closely related with the decline of most functional genes in metabolism such as amino acid, carbohydrate, xenobiotics, cofactors and vitamins metabolism after PA-treated.


Assuntos
Alelopatia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinoflagelados/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Alelopatia/genética , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota/genética , Proteobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111114, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798752

RESUMO

The widely distributed seaweed Ulva fasciata has nutrient absorption abilities and can be used in the bioremediation of polluted maricultural environments. This study explored microbial community and antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) variation in mariculture sediments in response to different trace levels (10, 100, and 500 µg L-1) of oxytetracycline (OTC) and the presence of Ulva fasciata. The increase in OTC level promoted nutrient (NO3_-N and PO43--P) removal mainly due to Ulva fasciata adsorption. The abundances of the Euryarchaeota and Planctomycetes phyla in sediments were positively related to the increase in OTC stress, while a negative correlation occurred for the Proteobacteria phylum via metagenomic analysis. Compared with the control system, the increase rates of total ARGs were 3.90%, 7.36% and 13.42% at the OTC levels of 10, 100 and 500 µg L-1, respectively. OTC stress mainly favoured the collateral enrichment of non-corresponding polypeptide and MLS ARGs, mainly due to the enrichment of the phyla Planctomycetes and Euryarchaeota by the synergistic effect of OTC and nutrients. The results of quantitative PCR with tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) (tetO, tetT, tetPB, tetW and otrA) and a horizontal transfer gene (intl1) demonstrated that all of genes had much higher gene numbers in sediments after 3 months of OTC stress than in those without OTC stress, which was strongly related to the variation in the phyla Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria. The significant correlation between intl1 and the target TRGs is indicative of the important role of the horizontal transfer of integron-resistant genes in the spread of TRGs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Aquicultura , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Ulva/fisiologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Integrons , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxitetraciclina/análise , Alga Marinha/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Tetraciclina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ulva/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780763

RESUMO

Fermented feeds contain abundant organic acids, amino acids, and small peptides, which improve the nutritional status as well as the morphology and microbiota composition of the intestine. Ginseng polysaccharides exhibit several biological activities and contribute to improving intestinal development. Here, Xuefeng black-bone chickens were fed a basal diet fermented by Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium, with or without ginseng polysaccharides. The 100% microbially fermented feed (Fe) and 100% microbially fermented feed and ginseng polysaccharide (FP) groups showed significantly increased villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio, and decreased crypt depth in the jejunum. In the 100% complete feed and ginseng polysaccharide (Po) group, the villus height to crypt depth ratio was significantly increased, crypt depth was reduced, and villus height remained unaffected. Next, we studied the intestinal microbial composition of 32 Xuefeng black-bone chickens. A total of 10 phyla and 442 genera were identified, among which Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. At the genus level, Sutterella and Asteroleplasma abundance increased and decreased, respectively, in the FP and Po groups. Sutterella abundance was positively correlated to villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio, and negatively correlated to crypt depth, and Asteroleplasma abundance was positively correlated to crypt depth and negatively correlated to villus height to crypt depth ratio. At the species level, the FP group showed significantly increased Bacteroides_vulgatus and Eubacterium_tortuosum and decreased Mycoplasma_gallinarum and Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance, and the Po group showed significantly increased Mycoplasma_gallinarum and Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance. Moreover, bacterial abundance was closely related to the jejunum histomorphology. Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance was positively correlated with crypt depth and negatively correlated with villus height to crypt depth ratio. Mycoplasma_gallinarum abundance was positively correlated to villus height, and Bacteroides_vulgatus and Eubacterium_tortuosum abundance was positively correlated with villus height to crypt depth ratio and negatively correlated with crypt depth. Therefore, fermented feeds with ginseng polysaccharides may be used as effective alternatives to antibiotics for improving intestinal morphology and microbial composition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Fermentação , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/microbiologia
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111073, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755736

RESUMO

The high pH and salinity of textile wastewater is a major hindrance to azo dye decolorization. In this study, a mixed bacterial consortium ZW1 was enriched under saline (10% salinity) and alkaline (pH 10.0) conditions to decolorize Methanil Yellow G (MY-G). Consortium ZW1 was mainly composed of Halomonas (49.8%), Marinobacter (30.7%) and Clostridiisalibacter (19.2%). The effects of physicochemical factors were systematically investigated, along with the degradation pathway and metagenome analysis. The co-carbon source was found to be necessary, and the addition of yeast extract led to 93.3% decolorization of 100 mg/L MY-G within 16 h (compared with 1.12% for control). The optimum pH, salinity, temperature and initial dye concentration were 8.0, 5-10%, 40 °C and 100 mg/L, respectively. The typical dye-related degradation enzymes were most effective at 10% salinity. Consortium ZW1 was also able to differentially decolorize five other direct and acidic dyes in a short period. Phototoxicity tests revealed the detoxification of MY-G degradation products. Combining UV-vis, FTIR and GC-MS detection, the MY-G degradation pathway by consortium ZW1 was proposed. Furthermore, metagenomic approach was used to elucidate the functional potential of genes in MY-G biodegradation. These results signify the broad potential application of halo-alkaliphilic consortia in the bioremediation of dyeing wastewater.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/toxicidade , Corantes/toxicidade , Metagenoma , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos , Compostos Azo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono/metabolismo , Corantes/metabolismo , Microbiota/genética , Salinidade , Temperatura , Indústria Têxtil , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
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