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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2127, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837213

RESUMO

Tree stems are an important and unconstrained source of methane, yet it is uncertain whether internal microbial controls (i.e. methanotrophy) within tree bark may reduce methane emissions. Here we demonstrate that unique microbial communities dominated by methane-oxidising bacteria (MOB) dwell within bark of Melaleuca quinquenervia, a common, invasive and globally distributed lowland species. In laboratory incubations, methane-inoculated M. quinquenervia bark mediated methane consumption (up to 96.3 µmol m-2 bark d-1) and reveal distinct isotopic δ13C-CH4 enrichment characteristic of MOB. Molecular analysis indicates unique microbial communities reside within the bark, with MOB primarily from the genus Methylomonas comprising up to 25 % of the total microbial community. Methanotroph abundance was linearly correlated to methane uptake rates (R2 = 0.76, p = 0.006). Finally, field-based methane oxidation inhibition experiments demonstrate that bark-dwelling MOB reduce methane emissions by 36 ± 5 %. These multiple complementary lines of evidence indicate that bark-dwelling MOB represent a potentially significant methane sink, and an important frontier for further research.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Melaleuca/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Methylococcaceae/metabolismo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Melaleuca/microbiologia , Oxirredução , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/microbiologia , Árvores/metabolismo , Árvores/microbiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(8): e24311, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663048

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Necrotizing periodontal diseases (NPDs) are a group of infectious diseases varying in severity, and microorganisms are responsible for these diseases. Currently, the oral microbiota in early disease has been poorly investigated; thus, the causative pathogen and dynamic alteration of the microbiome in NPDs remain unclear. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 33-year-old female patient with severe gingival pain and localized necrotizing ulcerative gingival lesions. Conventional therapy was performed, but the necrotizing lesion continued to develop. DIAGNOSES: X-ray examination showed marginal alveolar bone loss in the involved teeth. Histological examination of a biopsy from the gingival lesion showed chronic inflammatory cell infiltration in the tissue, and no cancer cells were observed. Subgingival swabs were taken from the ulcerative gingiva and the gingiva that was not yet affected, and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by targeted pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. We found that Neisseria spp., Corynebacterium spp., and Prevotella spp. were clearly enriched in the lesion site. However, Fusobacteria was more abundant in the not-yet-affected gingiva, and Leptotrichia spp. were the most abundant phylotype. INTERVENTIONS: After clinical assessment, a tooth with poor prognosis was extracted, and minocycline hydrochloride was locally administered in the involved tooth pocket every day. Additionally, the patient received 100 mg of hydrochloric acid doxycycline twice per day. OUTCOMES: Remarkable improvement was obtained after 3 days, and the lesion completely healed after 1 week. The follow-up examination 1 year later showed a complete recovery with no recurrent episodes of pain. LESSONS: Changes in the subgingival microbiome can occurr before clinical symptoms appears, and Fusobacteria may be involved in the imbalance of the subgingival flora in the early stage of NPDs. Moreover, Neisseria is a potential bacterial candidate that deserves further study.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Periodontite Crônica/patologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Adulto , Perda do Osso Alveolar , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Periodontite Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite Crônica/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Necrose
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109115, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662901

RESUMO

Development of bloater defect in cucumber fermentations is the result of carbon dioxide (CO2) production by the indigenous microbiota. The amounts of CO2 needed to cause bloater defect in cucumber fermentations brined with low salt and potential microbial contributors of the gas were identified. The carbonation of acidified cucumbers showed that 28.68 ± 6.04 mM (12%) or higher dissolved CO2 induces bloater defect. The microbiome and biochemistry of cucumber fermentations (n = 9) brined with 25 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 345 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) or 1.06 M NaCl were monitored on day 0, 2, 3, 5, 8, 15 and 21 using culture dependent and independent microbiological techniques and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Changes in pH, CO2 concentrations and the incidence of bloater defect were also followed. The enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae on Violet Red Bile Glucose agar plates detected a cell density of 5.2 ± 0.7 log CFU/g on day 2, which declined to undetectable levels by day 8. A metagenomic analysis identified Leuconostocaceae in all fermentations at 10 to 62%. The presence of both bacterial families in fermentations brined with CaCl2 and NaCl coincided with a bloater index of 24.0 ± 10.3 to 58.8 ± 23.9. The prevalence of Lactobacillaceae in a cucumber fermentation brined with NaCl with a bloater index of 41.7 on day 5 suggests a contribution to bloater defect. This study identifies the utilization of sugars and malic acid by the cucumber indigenous Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae and Enterobacteriaceae as potential contributors to CO2 production during cucumber fermentation and the consequent bloater defect.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cucumis sativus/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Lactobacillaceae/metabolismo , Leuconostocaceae/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Malatos/metabolismo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Sais , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1977, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785746

RESUMO

The scope of bioengineering is expanding from the creation of single strains to the design of microbial communities, allowing for division-of-labour, specialised sub-populations and interaction with "wild" microbiomes. However, in the absence of stabilising interactions, competition between microbes inevitably leads to the removal of less fit community members over time. Here, we leverage amensalism and competitive exclusion to stabilise a two-strain community by engineering a strain of Escherichia coli which secretes a toxin in response to competition. We show experimentally and mathematically that such a system can produce stable populations with a composition that is tunable by easily controllable parameters. This system creates a tunable, stable two-strain consortia while only requiring the engineering of a single strain.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia/métodos , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Consórcios Microbianos/fisiologia , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Bacteriocinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos
6.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 50, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extreme terrestrial, analogue environments are widely used models to study the limits of life and to infer habitability of extraterrestrial settings. In contrast to Earth's ecosystems, potential extraterrestrial biotopes are usually characterized by a lack of oxygen. METHODS: In the MASE project (Mars Analogues for Space Exploration), we selected representative anoxic analogue environments (permafrost, salt-mine, acidic lake and river, sulfur springs) for the comprehensive analysis of their microbial communities. We assessed the microbiome profile of intact cells by propidium monoazide-based amplicon and shotgun metagenome sequencing, supplemented with an extensive cultivation effort. RESULTS: The information retrieved from microbiome analyses on the intact microbial community thriving in the MASE sites, together with the isolation of 31 model microorganisms and successful binning of 15 high-quality genomes allowed us to observe principle pathways, which pinpoint specific microbial functions in the MASE sites compared to moderate environments. The microorganisms were characterized by an impressive machinery to withstand physical and chemical pressures. All levels of our analyses revealed the strong and omnipresent dependency of the microbial communities on complex organic matter. Moreover, we identified an extremotolerant cosmopolitan group of 34 poly-extremophiles thriving in all sites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal the presence of a core microbiome and microbial taxonomic similarities between saline and acidic anoxic environments. Our work further emphasizes the importance of the environmental, terrestrial parameters for the functionality of a microbial community, but also reveals a high proportion of living microorganisms in extreme environments with a high adaptation potential within habitability borders. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Ambientes Extremos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética
7.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 48, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salt marshes are major natural repositories of sequestered organic carbon with high burial rates of organic matter, produced by highly productive native flora. Accumulated carbon predominantly exists as lignocellulose which is metabolised by communities of functionally diverse microbes. However, the organisms that orchestrate this process and the enzymatic mechanisms employed that regulate the accumulation, composition and permanence of this carbon stock are not yet known. We applied meta-exo-proteome proteomics and 16S rRNA gene profiling to study lignocellulose decomposition in situ within the surface level sediments of a natural established UK salt marsh. RESULTS: Our studies revealed a community dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Deltaproteobacteria that drive lignocellulose degradation in the salt marsh. We identify 42 families of lignocellulolytic bacteria of which the most active secretors of carbohydrate-active enzymes were observed to be Prolixibacteracea, Flavobacteriaceae, Cellvibrionaceae, Saccharospirillaceae, Alteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae and Cytophagaceae. These families secreted lignocellulose-active glycoside hydrolase (GH) family enzymes GH3, GH5, GH6, GH9, GH10, GH11, GH13 and GH43 that were associated with degrading Spartina biomass. While fungi were present, we did not detect a lignocellulolytic contribution from fungi which are major contributors to terrestrial lignocellulose deconstruction. Oxidative enzymes such as laccases, peroxidases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases that are important for lignocellulose degradation in the terrestrial environment were present but not abundant, while a notable abundance of putative esterases (such as carbohydrate esterase family 1) associated with decoupling lignin from polysaccharides in lignocellulose was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we identify a diverse cohort of previously undefined bacteria that drive lignocellulose degradation in the surface sediments of the salt marsh environment and describe the enzymatic mechanisms they employ to facilitate this process. Our results increase the understanding of the microbial and molecular mechanisms that underpin carbon sequestration from lignocellulose within salt marsh surface sediments in situ and provide insights into the potential enzymatic mechanisms regulating the enrichment of polyphenolics in salt marsh sediments. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Lignina/metabolismo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Áreas Alagadas , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reino Unido
8.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(3): 1221-1229, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620523

RESUMO

Salicylic acid, widely distributed in the whole plant kingdom, is a benzoic acid derivative acting as a signal substance in plants, but could be related to differences in cancer incidence, as many herbs and spices contain high amounts. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is one of the best-known lactic acid bacteria that has been studied for over 30 years. Probiotic and/or commensal bacteria of the human microbiota are known to respond to diet constituents. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the possible effects of salicylic acid on the probiotic properties of LGG, and in vitro cytotoxic effects of combination of salicylic acid and LGG on human colon and prostate cancer cells. Salicylic acid significantly (p < 0.05) increased co-aggregation of LGG with E. coli (~ twofold) and anti-oxidant properties. Furthermore, it also induced the cytotoxic effects of LGG against human colon cancer cells. These results suggest that interaction of LGG with salicylic acid can exert more probiotic properties.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus rhamnosus/fisiologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Simbióticos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/citologia , Colo/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/microbiologia
9.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 44, 2021 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sponges are increasingly recognised as key ecosystem engineers in many aquatic habitats. They play an important role in nutrient cycling due to their unrivalled capacity for processing both dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) and the exceptional metabolic repertoire of their diverse and abundant microbial communities. Functional studies determining the role of host and microbiome in organic nutrient uptake and exchange, however, are limited. Therefore, we coupled pulse-chase isotopic tracer techniques with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to visualise the uptake and translocation of 13C- and 15N-labelled dissolved and particulate organic food at subcellular level in the high microbial abundance sponge Plakortis angulospiculatus and the low microbial abundance sponge Halisarca caerulea. RESULTS: The two sponge species showed significant enrichment of DOM- and POM-derived 13C and 15N into their tissue over time. Microbial symbionts were actively involved in the assimilation of DOM, but host filtering cells (choanocytes) appeared to be the primary site of DOM and POM uptake in both sponge species overall, via pinocytosis and phagocytosis, respectively. Translocation of carbon and nitrogen from choanocytes to microbial symbionts occurred over time, irrespective of microbial abundance, reflecting recycling of host waste products by the microbiome. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we provide empirical evidence indicating that the prokaryotic communities of a high and a low microbial abundance sponge obtain nutritional benefits from their host-associated lifestyle. The metabolic interaction between the highly efficient filter-feeding host and its microbial symbionts likely provides a competitive advantage to the sponge holobiont in the oligotrophic environments in which they thrive, by retaining and recycling limiting nutrients. Sponges present a unique model to link nutritional symbiotic interactions to holobiont function, and, via cascading effects, ecosystem functioning, in one of the earliest metazoan-microbe symbioses. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Poríferos/metabolismo , Poríferos/microbiologia , Simbiose , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2246: 207-224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576991

RESUMO

Catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) is an imaging method used to identify microorganisms in environmental samples based on their phylogeny. CARD-FISH can be combined with nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) to directly link the cell identity to their activity, measured as the incorporation of stable isotopes into hybridized cells after stable isotope probing. In environmental microbiology, a combination of these methods has been used to determine the identity and growth of uncultured microorganisms, and to explore the factors controlling their activity. Additionally, FISH-nanoSIMS has been widely used to directly visualize microbial interactions in situ. Here, we describe a step-by-step protocol for a combination of CARD-FISH, laser marking, and nanoSIMS analysis on samples from aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário/métodos , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Microbiologia Ambiental , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Filogenia
11.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 35, 2021 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between biodiversity and soil microbiome stability remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the impacts of bacterial phylogenetic diversity on the functional traits and the stability of the soil microbiome. Communities differing in phylogenetic diversity were generated by inoculating serially diluted soil suspensions into sterilized soil, and the stability of the microbiome was assessed by detecting community variations under various pH levels. The taxonomic features and potential functional traits were detected by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: We found that bacterial communities with higher phylogenetic diversity tended to be more stable, implying that microbiomes with higher biodiversity are more resistant to perturbation. Functional gene co-occurrence network and machine learning classification analyses identified specialized metabolic functions, especially "nitrogen metabolism" and "phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism," as keystone functions. Further taxonomic annotation found that keystone functions are carried out by specific bacterial taxa, including Nitrospira and Gemmatimonas, among others. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new insights into our understanding of the relationships between soil microbiome biodiversity and ecosystem stability and highlights specialized metabolic functions embedded in keystone taxa that may be essential for soil microbiome stability. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota/fisiologia , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Biodiversidade , Microbiota/genética
12.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 38, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial endocrinology, which is the study of neuroendocrine-based interkingdom signaling, provides a causal mechanistic framework for understanding the bi-directional crosstalk between the host and microbiome, especially as regards the effect of stress on health and disease. The importance of the cecal microbiome in avian health is well-recognized, yet little is understood regarding the mechanisms underpinning the avian host-microbiome relationship. Neuroendocrine plasticity of avian tissues that are focal points of host-microbiome interaction, such as the gut and lung, has likewise received limited attention. Avian in vivo models that enable the study of the neuroendocrine dynamic between host and microbiome are needed. As such, we utilized Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) that diverge in corticosterone response to stress to examine the relationship between stress-related neurochemical concentrations at sites of host-microbe interaction, such as the gut, and the cecal microbiome. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that birds which contrast in corticosterone response to stress show profound separation in cecal microbial community structure as well as exhibit differences in tissue neurochemical concentrations and structural morphologies of the gut. Changes in neurochemicals known to be affected by the microbiome were also identified in tissues outside of the gut, suggesting a potential relationship in birds between the cecal microbiome and overall avian physiology. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first evidence that the structure of the avian cecal microbial community is shaped by selection pressure on the bird for neuroendocrine response to stress. Identification of unique region-dependent neurochemical changes in the intestinal tract following stress highlights environmental stressors as potential drivers of microbial endocrinology-based mechanisms of avian host-microbiome dialogue. Together, these results demonstrate that tissue neurochemical concentrations in the avian gut may be related to the cecal microbiome and reveal the Japanese quail as a novel avian model in which to further examine the mechanisms underpinning these relationships. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Coturnix/metabolismo , Coturnix/microbiologia , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino/microbiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos
14.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-20, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522391

RESUMO

The last twenty years of seminal microbiome research has uncovered microbiota's intrinsic relationship with human health. Studies elucidating the relationship between an unbalanced microbiome and disease are currently published daily. As such, microbiome big data have become a reality that provide a mine of information for the development of new therapeutics. Machine learning (ML), a branch of artificial intelligence, offers powerful techniques for big data analysis and prediction-making, that are out of reach of human intellect alone. This review will explore how ML can be applied for the development of microbiome-targeted therapeutics. A background on ML will be given, followed by a guide on where to find reliable microbiome big data. Existing applications and opportunities will be discussed, including the use of ML to discover, design, and characterize microbiome therapeutics. The use of ML to optimize advanced processes, such as 3D printing and in silico prediction of drug-microbiome interactions, will also be highlighted. Finally, barriers to adoption of ML in academic and industrial settings will be examined, concluded by a future outlook for the field.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Microbiota/fisiologia , Inteligência Artificial , Medicina de Precisão
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 942, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574256

RESUMO

The mosquito microbiota impacts the physiology of its host and is essential for normal larval development, thereby influencing transmission of vector-borne pathogens. Germ-free mosquitoes generated with current methods show larval stunting and developmental deficits. Therefore, functional studies of the mosquito microbiota have so far mostly been limited to antibiotic treatments of emerging adults. In this study, we introduce a method to produce germ-free Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. It is based on reversible colonisation with bacteria genetically modified to allow complete decolonisation at any developmental stage. We show that, unlike germ-free mosquitoes previously produced using sterile diets, reversibly colonised mosquitoes show no developmental retardation and reach the same size as control adults. This allows us to uncouple the study of the microbiota in larvae and adults. In adults, we detect no impact of bacterial colonisation on mosquito fecundity or longevity. In larvae, data from our transcriptome analysis and diet supplementation experiments following decolonisation suggest that bacteria support larval development by contributing to folate biosynthesis and by enhancing energy storage. Our study establishes a tool to study the microbiota in insects and deepens our knowledge on the metabolic contribution of bacteria to mosquito development.


Assuntos
Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Aedes/genética , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Fólico , Alimentos Fortificados , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Vida Livre de Germes , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S
16.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(2): 196-208, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398099

RESUMO

Microbial communities often undergo intricate compositional changes yet also maintain stable coexistence of diverse species. The mechanisms underlying long-term coexistence remain unclear as system-wide studies have been largely limited to engineered communities, ex situ adapted cultures or synthetic assemblies. Here, we show how kefir, a natural milk-fermenting community of prokaryotes (predominantly lactic and acetic acid bacteria) and yeasts (family Saccharomycetaceae), realizes stable coexistence through spatiotemporal orchestration of species and metabolite dynamics. During milk fermentation, kefir grains (a polysaccharide matrix synthesized by kefir microorganisms) grow in mass but remain unchanged in composition. In contrast, the milk is colonized in a sequential manner in which early members open the niche for the followers by making available metabolites such as amino acids and lactate. Through metabolomics, transcriptomics and large-scale mapping of inter-species interactions, we show how microorganisms poorly suited for milk survive in-and even dominate-the community, through metabolic cooperation and uneven partitioning between grain and milk. Overall, our findings reveal how inter-species interactions partitioned in space and time lead to stable coexistence.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Kefir/microbiologia , Interações Microbianas , Microbiota/fisiologia , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Fermentação , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Saccharomycetales/genética
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 173: 108670, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association of the coronary thrombus microbiota and relative metabolites with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in hyperglycemic patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia during STEMI may affect both development and progression of coronary thrombus via gut and thrombus microbiota modifications. METHODS: We undertook an observational cohort study of 146 first STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and thrombus-aspiration (TA). Patients were clustered, based on admission blood glucose levels, in hyperglycemic (≥140 mg/dl) and normoglycemic (<140 mg/dl). We analyzed gut and thrombus microbiota in all patients. Moreover, we assessed TMAO, CD40L and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in coronary thrombi. Cox regressions were used for the association between Prevotellaspp. and TMAO terziles and MACE. MACE endpoint at 1 year included death, re-infarction, unstable angina. RESULTS: In fecal and thrombus samples, we observed a significantly different prevalence of both Prevotellaspp. and Alistipesspp. between patients with hyperglycemia (n = 56) and those with normal glucose levels (n = 90). The abundance of Prevotella increased in hyperglycemic vs normoglycemic patients whereas the contrary was observed for Alistipes. Interestingly, in coronary thrombus, the content of Prevotella was associated with admission blood glucose levels (p < 0.01), thrombus dimensions (p < 0.01), TMAO, CDL40 (p < 0.01) and vWF (p < 0.01) coronary thrombus contents. Multivariate Cox-analysis disclosed a reduced survival in patients with high levels of Prevotella and TMAO in coronary thrombus as compared to patients with low levels of Prevotella and TMAO, after 1-year follow up. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia during STEMI may increase coronary thrombus burden via gut and thrombus microbiota dysbiosis characterized by an increase of Prevotella and TMAO content in thrombi. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03439592. September 30, 2016. Ethic Committee Vanvitelli University: 268/2016.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/complicações , Microbiota/fisiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Trombose/microbiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Trombose Coronária/complicações , Trombose Coronária/mortalidade , Trombose Coronária/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 8, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436098

RESUMO

For more than a century, the prenatal environment was considered sterile. Over the last few years, findings obtained with next-generation sequencing approaches from samples of the placenta, the amniotic fluid, meconium, and even fetal tissues have challenged the dogma of a sterile womb, and additional reports have emerged that used culture, microscopy, and quantitative PCR to support the presence of a low-biomass microbial community at prenatal sites. Given the substantial implications of prenatal exposure to microbes for the development and health of the host, the findings have gathered substantial interest from academics, high impact journals, the public press, and funding agencies. However, an increasing number of studies have challenged the prenatal microbiome identifying contamination as a major issue, and scientists that remained skeptical have pointed to inconsistencies with in utero colonization, the impact of c-sections on early microbiome assembly, and the ability to generate germ-free mammals. A lively academic controversy has emerged on the existence of the wider importance of prenatal microbial communities. Microbiome has asked experts to discuss these issues and provide their thoughts on the implications. To allow for a broader perspective of this discussion, we have specifically selected scientists, who have a long-standing expertise in microbiome sciences but who have not directly been involved in the debate so far.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas , Feto/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Líquido Amniótico/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mecônio/microbiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Útero/microbiologia
19.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 7, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436100

RESUMO

The human microbiome refers to the genetic composition of microorganisms in a particular location in the human body. Emerging evidence over the past many years suggests that the microbiome constitute drivers of human fate almost at par with our genome and epigenome. It is now well accepted after decades of disbelief that a broad understanding of human development, health, physiology, and disease requires understanding of the microbiome along with the genome and epigenome. We are learning daily of the interdependent relationships between microbiome/microbiota and immune responses, mood, cancer progression, response to therapies, aging, obesity, antibiotic usage, and overusage and much more. The next frontier in microbiome field is understanding when does this influence begin? Does the human microbiome initiate at the time of birth or are developing human fetuses already primed with microbes and their products in utero. In this commentary, we reflect on evidence gathered thus far on this question and identify the unknown common truths. We present a way forward to continue understanding our microbial colleagues and our interwoven fates.


Assuntos
Consenso , Feto/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Útero/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incerteza
20.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 56(3): 272-281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400564

RESUMO

The study's objective was to identify typical aerobic isolates from commercial, corn-soybean meal poultry diets utilizing 16S rDNA, assign them their corresponding taxonomy, and compare the data with the previously published WGS analysis of these same isolates. Ten grams of a commercial corn-soybean meal poultry diet was homogenized in 100 mL of tryptic soy broth for 2 min, serially diluted, plated onto tryptic soy agar (TSA), and incubated aerobically for 24 h at 37 °C. Subsequently, 20 unique colonies were streaked for isolation on TSA and incubated aerobically for 24 h at 37 °C. This process was repeated three consecutive times for purification of isolates until only 11 morphologically distinct colonies were obtained. DNA was extracted using Qiagen's DNeasey® Blood and Tissue Kit. The 16S rRNA V4 region was targeted using an Illumina MiSeq and analyzed via QIIME2-2020.2. Alpha diversity and Beta diversity metrics were generated, and taxa were aligned using Silva in Qiime2-2020.2. Twenty-five distinct genera were identified within the 11 different colonies. Because 16S rDNA identification can provide an understanding of pathogen associations and microbial niches within an ecosystem, the information may present a potential method to establish and characterize the hygienic indicator microorganisms associated with poultry feed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/fisiologia , Aves Domésticas , Aerobiose , Animais , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Soja , Zea mays
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