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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129940, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108496

RESUMO

Knowledge about the impact of singlet oxygen (1O2) on the characteristics and inactivation of harmful cyanobacterial organic matter is limited. In this study, the feasibility of using an improved single-iron doped graphite-like phase carbon nitride catalyst (FeCN) to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) catalytic production of 1O2 to inactivate four harmful cyanobacteria was investigated. The inactivation efficiencies at 30 min were 92.77%, 66.84%, 91.06%, and 93.45% for Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa), Nodularia harveyana, Oscillatoria sp., and Nostoc sp., respectively. This was associated with adjusting experimental parameters, such as the FeCN and PMS doses and initial pH, to obtain the maximum 1O2 yield. The quenching experiment results and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra showed that 1O2 generated via the non-radical pathway might play a dominant role in inactivating harmful cyanobacteria and degrading harmful algal toxins (Microcystin-LR and Nodularin). In addition, the FeCN-PMS system not only effectively destroyed the integrity of harmful cyanobacterial cells but also effectively degraded cyanobacterial toxins, thereby preventing severe secondary contamination by cell rupture. A possible removal mechanism was proposed. This reveals the potential of 1O2 to simultaneously inactivate harmful cyanobacteria and degrade harmful cyanobacterial toxins.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Grafite , Microcystis , Toxinas de Cianobactérias , Ferro , Microcistinas , Compostos de Nitrogênio , Peróxidos , Oxigênio Singlete
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 522-543, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182161

RESUMO

This study explored the effects of H2O2 on Cyanobacteria and non-target microbes using fluorometry, microscopy, flow cytometry, and high throughput DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene during a series of mesocosm and whole-ecosystem experiments in a eutrophic pond in NY, USA. The addition of H2O2 (8 mg/L) significantly reduced Cyanobacteria concentrations during a majority of experiments (66%; 6 of 9) and significantly increased eukaryotic green and unicellular brown algae in 78% and 45% of experiments, respectively. While heterotrophic bacteria declined significantly following H2O2 addition in all experiments, bacteria indicative of potential fecal contamination (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, fecal coliform bacteria) consistently and significantly increased in response to H2O2, evidencing a form of 'pollution swapping'. H2O2 more effectively reduced Cyanobacteria in enclosed mesocosms compared to whole-ecosystem applications. Ten whole-pond H2O2 applications over a two-year period temporarily reduced cyanobacterial levels but never reduced concentrations below bloom thresholds and populations always rebounded in two weeks or less. The bacterial phyla of Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes were the most negatively impacted by H2O2. Microcystis was always reduced by H2O2, as was the toxin microcystin, but Microcystis remained dominant even after repeated H2O2 treatments. Although H2O2 favored the growth of eukaryotic algae over potentially harmful Cyanobacteria, the inability of H2O2 to end cyanobacterial blooms in this eutrophic waterbody suggests it is a non-ideal mitigation approach in high biomass ecosystems and should be used judiciously due to potential negative impacts on non-target organisms and promotion of bacteria indicative of fecal contamination.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microcystis , Ecossistema , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Microcistinas , Lagoas , RNA Ribossômico 16S
3.
Food Chem ; 402: 134398, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303376

RESUMO

Despite decades of efforts, we are faced with the daunting task of on-site ultratrace environmental toxins detecting, especially the microcystins caused by water bloom. In this work, a novel fluorescent microsphere-based flow-through immunoaffinity chromatographic assay has been designed for detecting ultratrace microcystin-LR in water and aquatic products. The aggregation-induced emission luminogens were encapsulated into fluorescent microspheres to ensure microcystin-LR quantitation with a whole analytical time of less than 30 min. Furthermore, the colorimetric images were captured and quantitatively analyzed, which offered a limit of detection at 0.217 pg/mL and a limit of quantitation at 0.362 pg/mL in water and aquatic muscle samples. The developed immunoassays provide average recovery ranging from 79.1 % to 95.7 %, with relative standard deviations less than 13.4 %. Thus, the validated flow-through immunoaffinity chromatographic assay is an easy-to-use alternative for on-site screening of microcystin-LR in water and aquatic samples at picogram levels.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microcistinas , Microcistinas/análise , Microesferas , Cianobactérias/química , Água/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158906, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150599

RESUMO

As plastic pollution continues to increase and plastic waste is shredded to form smaller plastic particles, there is growing concern about the potential impact of nanoplastics (NPs) on freshwater ecosystems. In this work, the effects of three surface-modified NPs, including polystyrene (PS), PS-NH2, and PS-COOH, on the growth, photosynthetic activity, oxidative damage, and microcystins (MCs) production/release of Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) were investigated. Results indicated that all three NPs significantly inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa after a 96 h exposure, and the growth inhibition followed the order of PS-NH2 > PS > PS-COOH (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, all three NPs at the concentration of 100 mg/L significantly increased the content of intra-MCs (115 %, 147 %, and 121 % higher than the control, respectively) and extra-MCs (142 %, 175 %, and 151 % higher than the control, respectively) after a 96 h exposure (p < 0.05). Moreover, our findings also suggested that the potential mechanisms of surface-modified PS NPs on M. aeruginosa growth and MCs production/release were associated with physical constraints, photosynthetic activity obstruct, and oxidative damage. Our findings provided direct evidence for different kinds of surface modifications of PS NPs on freshwater algae and improve the understanding of the potential risk of NPs in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Microcistinas , Microplásticos , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poliestirenos , Plásticos/toxicidade
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 205-214, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375906

RESUMO

Little information is available on influences of the conversion of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) to inorganic phosphorus (IP) on algal growth and subsequent behaviors of arsenate (As(V)) in Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa). In this study, the influences factors on the conversion of three typical DOP types including adenosine-5-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP), ß-glycerophosphate sodium (ßP) and D-glucose-6-phosphate disodium salt (GP) were investigated under different extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS) ratios from M. aeruginosa, and As(V) levels. Thus, algal growth, As(V) biotransformation and microcystins (MCs) release of M. aeruginosa were explored in the different converted DOP conditions compared with IP. Results showed that the three DOP to IP without EPS addition became in favor of algal growth during their conversion. Compared with IP, M. aeruginosa growth was thus facilitated in the three converted DOP conditions, subsequently resulting in potential algal bloom particularly at arsenic (As) contaminated water environment. Additionally, DOP after conversion could inhibit As accumulation in M. aeruginosa, thus intracellular As accumulation was lower in the converted DOP conditions than that in IP condition. As(V) biotransformation and MCs release in M. aeruginosa was impacted by different converted DOP with their different types. Specifically, DMA concentrations in media and As(III) ratios in algal cells were promoted in converted ßP condition, indicating that the observed dissolved organic compositions from ßP conversion could enhance As(V) reduction in M. aeruginosa and then accelerate DMA release. The obtained findings can provide better understanding of cyanobacteria blooms and As biotransformation in different DOP as the main phosphorus source.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Microcystis , Microcystis/metabolismo , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Arseniatos/metabolismo , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Eutrofização , Fósforo/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Arsênio/metabolismo
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130306, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345065

RESUMO

Prechlorination routinely applied for the treatment of algae-laden raw water has received extensive attention due to its influence on water quality and aquatic microbes. In this study, prechlorination experiments with different doses were conducted in sets of model raw water distribution systems. With the elevated dose of chlorine and prolonged hydraulic retention time (HRT), the ratio of intact algal cells decreased, and the stability of water enhanced. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) increased when chlorine dose elevated from 0 to 0.5 mg/L but decreased with elevations from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/L, while UV254 showed a monotonically increasing tendency. DOC, DON and extracellular microcystin-LR increase initially and decrease thereafter with the prolonged HRT. Notably, the effects of prechlorination on extracellular polymeric substances aggregation behavior on pipe walls and microbial community composition was revealed, providing more profound understanding of the community dynamics in this engineered system. This study helped optimize strategies to improve the stability and efficiency of pretreatment of algae-laden water.


Assuntos
Cloro , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Microcistinas , Biofilmes
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159032, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167133

RESUMO

Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) adversely affects male reproduction and interferes with the development of the offspring. Here, we establish a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model to understand the cross-generational effects of MC-LR in a male-lineage transmission pattern. F0 embryos were reared in water containing MC-LR (0, 5, and 25 µg/L) for 90 days and the developmental indices of F1 and F2 embryos were then measured with no MC-LR treatment. The results show that paternal MC-LR exposure reduced the hatching rate, heart rate and body weight in F1 and F2 generations. Global DNA methylation significantly increased in sperm and testes with the elevation expressions of DNA methyltransferases. Meanwhile, DNA methylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) promoter was increased in sperm after paternal MC-LR exposure. Subsequently, increased DNA methylation of bdnf promoter and decreased gene expression of bdnf in the brain of F1 male zebrafish were detected. F1 offspring born to F0 males exhibit the depression of BDNF/AKT/CREB pathway and recapitulate these paternal neurodevelopment phenotypes in F2 offspring. In addition, the DNA methylations of dio3b and gad1b promoters were decreased and gene expressions of gad1b and dio3b were increased, accompanied with neurotransmitter disturbances in the brain of F1 male zebrafish after paternal MC-LR exposure. These data revealed that MC-LR displays a potential epigenetic impact on the germ line, reprogramming the epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of brain development, and contributing to aberrant expression of neurodevelopment-related genes and behavior disorders.


Assuntos
Microcistinas , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Masculino , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Leucina , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Arginina , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Sêmen , Epigênese Genética , Encéfalo , Expressão Gênica
8.
Oecologia ; 200(3-4): 515-528, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342526

RESUMO

Climate change is increasing water temperature and intensifying the incidence of cyanobacterial blooms worldwide. However, the combined effects of increased temperature and microcystin concentrations as co-stressors on survival and ecological processes in freshwater species are unclear. Here, using purified MC-LR and crude extract of toxigenic Microcystis aeruginosa, we tested the individual and combined effects of three water temperatures (15, 20, 25 °C) and a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of dissolved microcystin and crude extract (0.01-10 µg·L-1) on survival, growth inhibition, grazing and predation rates in three freshwater species: phytoplankton (Scenedesmus quadricauda), zooplankton (Daphnia pulex), and an invertebrate predator (Ischnura elegans). Purified MC-LR exerted a higher growth inhibitory effect on S. quadricauda compared to crude extract with the same concentration of MC-LR, while neither treatment affected its chlorophyll-a content or survival of D. pulex. Crude extract reduced grazing and survival of D. pulex and I. elegans, respectively. The combined effect of higher temperature and crude extract reduced I. elegans survival by 50%. Increased temperature reduced prey handing time in I. elegans by 49%, suggesting a higher predation rate. However, warming together with higher concentrations of crude extract jointly increased zooplankton grazing and reduced damselfly predation. Taken together, these results suggest crude extract, and not necessarily microcystin, can affect survival and productivity in freshwater species, although these effects may vary unevenly across trophic levels. Our findings highlight the importance of complex ecological mechanisms by which warming can exacerbate toxic effects of cyanobacterial bloom extracts on survival and functions among species in eutrophic freshwaters.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Sifonápteros , Animais , Água , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Temperatura , Água Doce , Zooplâncton , Misturas Complexas
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1685: 463614, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347073

RESUMO

It is crucially important to develop simple, selective, and rapid extraction pretreatments and analytical methods to detect microcystins (MCs) in food samples with complex matrices. In this study, a magnetic self-assembled covalent organic framework (COF) adsorbent was synthesized via a facile approach by using a one-pot reaction of 1,6-bis(4-formylphenyl)-3,8-bis(4-aminophenyl)pyrene (BFBAPy) as precursors to assemble amino-functionalized magnetic Fe3O4-NH2 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@Py-COF, simplified as mCOF). The superparamagnetic mCOF is found to exhibit a high specific surface area, abundant nanopores and good stability. In particular, adsorption experiments demonstrate that mCOF exhibits a good adsorption capability, efficiency and some specificity to MCs. The mCOF was applied for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of two kinds of MCs (MC-LR and MC-RR) from aquatic samples followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Under the optimized conditions, good linearity is obtained in the range of 10-1000 µg/kg (R2≥0.9989), the limits of detection are 3.0-4.5 µg/kg, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) are lower than 4.9% (n=5). The extraction recoveries are also satisfactory (84.2%-105%). These results demonstrate that the developed method can be used as a good alternative method for the selective determination of MCs in complex aquatic foods.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Microcistinas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Limite de Detecção
10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355999

RESUMO

Health-related concerns about cyanobacteria-laden sludge of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) have been raised in the past few years. Microscopic taxonomy, shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and microcystin (MC) measurement were applied to study the fate of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins after controlled sludge storage (stagnation) in the dark in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant within 7 to 38 days. For four out of eight dates, cyanobacterial cell growth was observed by total taxonomic cell counts during sludge stagnation. The highest observed cell growth was 96% after 16 days of stagnation. Cell growth was dominated by potential MC producers such as Microcystis, Aphanocapsa, Chroococcus, and Dolichospermum. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing unveiled that stagnation stress shifts the cyanobacterial communities from the stress-sensitive Nostocales (e.g., Dolichospermum) order towards less compromised orders and potential MC producers such as Chroococcales (e.g., Microcystis) and Synechococcales (e.g., Synechococcus). The relative increase of cyanotoxin producers presents a health challenge when the supernatant of the stored sludge is recycled to the head of the DWTP or discharged into the source. These findings emphasize the importance of a strategy to manage cyanobacteria-laden sludge and suggest practical approaches should be adopted to control health/environmental impacts of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in sludge.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Água Potável , Microcystis , Purificação da Água , Esgotos , Microcistinas , Cianobactérias/genética
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 72(11)2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355408

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, microcystin-degrading bacterium, designated as CPCC 100929T, was isolated from a fresh water reservoir in Sichuan Province, PR China. This isolate grew well at 4-37 °C and pH 6.0-8.0, with optimal growth at 28-32 °C and pH 7.0, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c, C16:0, C18:1 ω7c 11-methyl and C19:0 cyclo ω8c. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-10. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine were detected in the polar lipids extraction. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain CPCC 100929T was closely related to those of members of the genus Shinella, with the highest similarity of 98.6 % to Shinella zoogloeoides DSM 287T and 97.4-98.4 % with other identified Shinella members. In the phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the core-genes analysis, strain CPCC 100929T was included within the clade of the genus Shinella. The values of average nucleotide identity (81.4-86.7 %) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (25.4-44.6 %) between strain CPCC 100929T and other Shinella species were all below the thresholds for bacterial species delineation, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain CPCC 100929T was 63.6 %. The genomic sequence analysis indicated that this species contained genes encoding peroxidase, bla carbapenemase and the key enzyme for microcystin bio degradation, as well as rich carbohydrate-active enzyme coding genes, which might endow the micro-organism with properties to adapt to diverse environments. Based on its phenotypic and genetic properties, we propose that strain CPCC 100929T (=T1A350T=KCTC 72957T) is the type strain of a novel species with the name Shinella lacus sp. nov.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Microcistinas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Filogenia , Composição de Bases , Microcistinas/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Fosfolipídeos/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
12.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422987

RESUMO

Microcystins are toxic chemicals generated by certain freshwater cyanobacteria. These chemicals can accumulate to dangerous levels during harmful algal blooms. When exposed to microcystins, humans are at risk of hepatic injury, including liver failure. Here, we describe a method to detect microcystins in human plasma by using immunocapture followed by a protein phosphatase inhibition assay. At least 279 microcystins have been identified, and most of these compounds share a common amino acid, the Adda side chain. We targeted this Adda side chain using a commercial antibody and extracted microcystins from human samples for screening and analysis. To quantitate the extracted microcystins, we fortified plasma with microcystin-LR, one of the most well-studied, commonly detected, and toxic microcystin congeners. The quantitation range for the detection of microcystin in human plasma using this method is 0.030-0.50 ng/mL microcystin-LR equivalents. This method detects unconjugated and conjugated forms (cysteine and glutathione) of microcystins. Quality control sample accuracies varied between 98.9% and 114%, with a precision of 7.18-15.8%. Finally, we evaluated plasma samples from a community health surveillance project of Florida residents living or working near harmful algae blooms.


Assuntos
Microcistinas , Plasma , Humanos , Bioensaio , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 246: 114148, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194938

RESUMO

Efficient treatment of cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophication waters by safe and reliable nanomaterials is a big challenge for reducing environmental health risks. Herein, a novel strategy combining palladium clusters (Pdn) with g-C3N4 nanocomposite was presented to achieve high-efficient removal of Microcystis aeruginosa cells through coagulation and breakage. Interestingly, 95.17% of algal cells (initial concentration of 5.6 × 106 cells mL-1) were promptly removed in the Pd/g-C3N4 (5%) system within only 10 min and without visible light irradiation and persulfate activation. Both the release of potassium ion and microcystin during the removal process and the transmission electron microscope observations of Microcystis aeruginosa cells proved that the integrity of the algal cell membrane was destroyed. The removal of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) were further confirmed in the next process. Pd metal interaction and breakage against algal cells may cause disruption of algal cells. This study describes a novel technology for the superfast removal of harmful algae and may provide a new insight into the control of cyanobacterial blooms in practical applications.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Nanoestruturas , Microcystis/metabolismo , Paládio/metabolismo , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Eutrofização , Luz
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 365: 128133, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252763

RESUMO

In this study, adsorption strategy using diethylenetriamine-modified cotton fiber (DETA-cotton) was investigated to control the target cells in aqueous phase. Adsorptive removal of M. aeruginosa using the DETA-cotton showed decrease in cell concentration from (100 ± 4.0) × 104 cells/mL to (32.1 ± 0.7) × 104 cells/mL in 24 h, and the concentration of microcystin did not increase during the removal process. Also, an increase in the amine groups on the surface was confirmed through the surface characterization by FT-IR and XPS. Desorption process was performed to analyze total lipid and fatty acid contents for potential use as bio-energy resources. About 90 % of the adsorbed cells were recovered through desorption, and the lipid content and composition were more suitable for use as biodiesel raw materials. Our adsorption-based approach might provide feasible solution not only to counteract environmental issue HABs but also to recover energy-resources from the harmful cyanobacterial species.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microcystis , Adsorção , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , DEET , Microcistinas , Lipídeos
15.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287933

RESUMO

Africa's water needs are often supported by eutrophic water bodies dominated by cyanobacteria posing health threats to riparian populations from cyanotoxins, and Lake Victoria is no exception. In two embayments of the lake (Murchison Bay and Napoleon Gulf), cyanobacterial surveys were conducted to characterize the dynamics of cyanotoxins in lake water and water treatment plants. Forty-six cyanobacterial taxa were recorded, and out of these, fourteen were considered potentially toxigenic (i.e., from the genera Dolichospermum, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Pseudanabaena and Raphidiopsis). A higher concentration (ranging from 5 to 10 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1) of microcystins (MC) was detected in Murchison Bay compared to Napoleon Gulf, with a declining gradient from the inshore (max. 15 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1) to the open lake. In Murchison Bay, an increase in Microcystis sp. biovolume and MC was observed over the last two decades. Despite high cell densities of toxigenic Microcystis and high MC concentrations, the water treatment plant in Murchison Bay efficiently removed the cyanobacterial biomass, intracellular and dissolved MC to below the lifetime guideline value for exposure via drinking water (&lt;1.0 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1). Thus, the potential health threats stem from the consumption of untreated water and recreational activities along the shores of the lake embayments. MC concentrations were predicted from Microcystis cell numbers regulated by environmental factors, such as solar radiation, wind speed in the N-S direction and turbidity. Thus, an early warning through microscopical counting of Microcystis cell numbers is proposed to better manage health risks from toxigenic cyanobacteria in Lake Victoria.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Água Potável , Microcystis , Purificação da Água , Microcistinas , Lagos/microbiologia , Toxinas de Cianobactérias
16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287953

RESUMO

The Lake in Central Park (LCP) and Prospect Park Lake (PPL) in New York City (NYC), USA, are lakes within two of the most visited parks in the USA. Five years of nearshore sampling of these systems revealed extremely elevated levels of cyanobacteria and the toxin, microcystin, with microcystin levels averaging 920 µg L-1 and chlorophyll a from cyanobacterial (cyano-chla) populations averaging 1.0 × 105 µg cyano-chla L-1. Both lakes displayed elevated levels of orthophosphate (DIP) relative to dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) during summer months when DIN:DIP ratios were &lt; 1. Nutrient addition and dilution experiments revealed that N consistently limited cyanobacterial populations but that green algae were rarely nutrient limited. Experimental additions of public drinking water that is rich in P and, to a lesser extent N, to lake water significantly enhanced cyanobacterial growth rates in experiments during which N additions also yielded growth enhancement. Collectively, this study demonstrates that the extreme microcystin levels during blooms in these highly trafficked lakes represent a potential human and animal health threat and that supplementation of these artificial lakes with public drinking water to maintain water levels during summer may promote the intensity and N limitation of blooms.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Água Potável , Humanos , Lagos/microbiologia , Microcistinas , Clorofila A , Nitrogênio/análise , Fosfatos , Eutrofização
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287957

RESUMO

The excessive proliferation of cyanobacteria in surface waters is a widespread problem worldwide, leading to the contamination of drinking water sources. Short- and long-term solutions for managing cyanobacterial blooms are needed for drinking water supplies. The goal of this research was to investigate the cyanobacteria community composition using shotgun metagenomics in a short term, in situ mesocosm experiment of two lakes following their coagulation with ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3) as an option for source water treatment. Among the nutrient paramenters, dissolved nitrogen was related to Microcystis in both Missisquoi Bay and Petit Lac St. François, while the presence of Synechococcus was related to total nitrogen, dissolved nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved phosphorus. Results from the shotgun metagenomic sequencing showed that Dolichospermum and Microcystis were the dominant genera in all of the mesocosms in the beginning of the sampling period in Missisquoi Bay and Petit Lac St. François, respectively. Potentially toxigenic genera such as Microcystis were correlated with intracellular microcystin concentrations. A principal component analysis showed that there was a change of the cyanobacterial composition at the genus level in the mesocosms after two days, which varied across the studied sites and sampling time. The cyanobacterial community richness and diversity did not change significantly after its coagulation by Fe2(SO4)3 in all of the mesocosms at either site. The use of Fe2(SO4)3 for an onsite source water treatment should consider its impact on cyanobacterial community structure and the reduction of toxin concentrations.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Água Potável , Microcystis , Microcistinas/análise , Água Potável/análise , Cianobactérias/genética , Microcystis/genética , Lagos/microbiologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise
18.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287973

RESUMO

Microcystins (MCs) are a large group of heptapeptide cyanobacterial toxins commonly produced in harmful algal blooms (HABs) and associated with adverse health effects in wildlife, livestock, pets, and humans. MC chemical standards are extracted from cyanobacteria biomass rather than produced synthetically and are used in water assessment methods and toxicological studies. MC standards are generally supplied in less than 1 mg quantities, and verification of the mass can only be accomplished by analytical chemistry methods using a certified reference of the specific MC for comparison. Analytical quantification of MCs in environmental samples and toxicology studies using accurate doses of test chemicals administered to experimental animals rely on the availability and accuracy of chemical standards. To check the accuracy and purity of available standards, seven individual microcystin-LR (MCLR) standards were purchased from separate commercial vendors and analyzed to determine the actual mass supplied and identify the presence of potential contaminants. To determine the effect of varying toxin mass in toxicological studies, each MCLR standard was administered to CD-1 mice in doses based on mass purchased, by a single 40 µg/kg intraperitoneal injection. The measured mass purchased varied from the vendor label mass by more than 35% for two of the seven MCLR standards. Contaminants, including trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), were identified in four of the seven samples. Comparative in vivo hepatotoxicity between vendor samples closely reflected the actual amount of MCLR present in each standard and demonstrated the toxicological impact of varying cyanotoxin mass.


Assuntos
Toxinas de Cianobactérias , Microcistinas , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Ácido Trifluoracético , Água
19.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287983

RESUMO

The cyanobacterial blooms produced by eutrophic water bodies have become a serious environmental issue around the world. After cellular lysing or algaecide treatment, microcystins (MCs), which are regarded as the most frequently encountered cyanobacterial toxins in fresh water, are released into water. Among all the variants of MCs, MC-LR has been widely studied due to its severe hepatotoxicity. Since 1992, various studies have identified the important roles of MC-LR in the origin and progression of primary liver cancers (PLCs), although few reviews have focused on it. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the major achievements and shortcomings observed in the past few years. Based on the available literature, the mechanisms of how MC-LR induces or promotes PLCs are elucidated in this review. This review aims to enhance our understanding of the role that MC-LR plays in PLCs and provides a rational approach for future applications.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Água
20.
Aquat Toxicol ; 253: 106327, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274501

RESUMO

Global climate change favors explosive population growth events (blooms) of phytoplanktonic species, often producing toxic products, e.g., several genera of cyanobacteria synthesize a family of cyanotoxins called microcystins (MCs). Freshwater fish such as the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss can uptake MCs accumulated in the food chain. We studied the toxic effects and modulation of the activity and expression of multixenobiotic resistance proteins (ABCC transporters and the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the O. mykiss middle intestine by microcystin-LR (MCLR). Juvenile fish were fed with MCLR incorporated in the food every 12 h and euthanized at 12, 24, or 48 h. We estimated the ABCC-mediated transport in ex vivo intestinal strips to estimate ABCC-mediated transport activity. We measured total and reduced (GSH) glutathione contents and GST and glutathione reductase (GR) activities. We studied MCLR cytotoxicity by measuring protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) activity and lysosomal membrane stability. Finally, we examined the relationship between ROS production and lysosomal membrane stability through in vitro experiments. Dietary MCLR had a time-dependent effect on ABCC-mediated transport, from inhibition at 12 h to a significant increase after 48 h. GST activity decreased only at 12 h, and GR activity only increased at 48 h. There were no effects on GSH or total glutathione contents. MCLR inhibited PP1 activity and diminished the lysosomal membrane stability at the three experimental times. In the in vitro study, the lysosomal membrane stability decreased in a concentration-dependent fashion from 0 to 5 µmol L - 1 MCLR, while ROS production increased only at 5 µmol L - 1 MCLR. MCLR did not affect mRNA expression of abcc2 or gst-π. We conclude that MCLR modulates ABCC-mediated transport activity in O. mykiss's middle intestine in a time-dependent manner. The transport rate increase does not impair MCLR cytotoxic effects.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Intestinos , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo
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