Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.472
Filtrar
1.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(1): 51-55, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902850

RESUMO

A computer simulation application on pharmacokinetics, which we developed using a software, named "Stella®", has been successfully used for the virtual training of pharmacokinetics at multiple medical schools. The training course using Stella® has encouraged the medical students to optimize drug administration for individual patients on the computers. Importantly, the virtual training is free of any concern on human and animal ethics. The simulation application has been freely provided for medical schools without any restrictions and charge. For many years, it has been under constant version-upgrade in response to updates of the operating systems (OS) of personal computers or the software. Very recently, major updates of the OS and the software, and the emergence of tablet- and smartphones-type computers have been prompting us to perform a major revision of the simulation application. Here, we introduce the new version of the "web-based" simulation application that is available through any device including personal computers, tablets, and smartphones irrespective of the OSs (Microsoft Windows and Macintosh, Android, and iOS), without any extra charge unless the modification is required. We believe that the new-version of web-based simulation application will be useful not only for medical, nursing and pharmacy students, but also for medical workers who need to simulate drug pharmacokinetics on the computers before they administer drugs to the patients.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Software , Estudantes de Medicina , Animais , Humanos , Internet , Microcomputadores
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(9)2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058871

RESUMO

Wireless sensor networks have attracted great attention for applications in structural health monitoring due to their ease of use, flexibility of deployment, and cost-effectiveness. This paper presents a software framework for WiFi-based wireless sensor networks composed of low-cost mass market single-board computers. A number of specific system-level software components were developed to enable robust data acquisition, data processing, sensor network communication, and timing with a focus on structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The framework was validated on Raspberry Pi computers, and its performance was studied in detail. The paper presents several characteristics of the measurement quality such as sampling accuracy and time synchronization and discusses the specific limitations of the system. The implementation includes a complementary smartphone application that is utilized for data acquisition, visualization, and analysis. A prototypical implementation further demonstrates the feasibility of integrating smartphones as data acquisition nodes into the network, utilizing their internal sensors. The measurement system was employed in several monitoring campaigns, three of which are documented in detail. The suitability of the system is evaluated based on comparisons of target quantities with reference measurements. The results indicate that the presented system can robustly achieve a measurement performance commensurate with that required in many typical SHM tasks such as modal identification. As such, it represents a cost-effective alternative to more traditional monitoring solutions.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica , Smartphone , Tecnologia sem Fio , Humanos , Microcomputadores , Software , Vibração
3.
Waste Manag ; 88: 268-279, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079639

RESUMO

The circular economy is proposed to reduce environmental impact, but as yet, there is limited empirical evidence of this sort from studying real, commercial circular economy business cases. This study investigates the environmental impacts of using second-hand laptops, mediated by a commercial reuse operation, instead of new ones. The method used is life cycle assessment (LCA) and special attention is given to laptops' metal resource use by using several complementary life cycle impact assessment methods. The results show that all activities required to enable reuse of laptops are negligible, despite the reuse company's large geographical scope. Two principal features of reuse reduce environmental impacts. Firstly, use extension reduces all impacts considerably since there are large embedded impacts in components. Secondly, the reuse company steers non-reusable laptops into state-of-the-art recycling. This provides additional impact reductions, especially with regards to toxicity and metal resource use. The results for metal resource use however diverge between LCIA methods in terms of highlighted metals which, in turn, affects the degree of impact reduction. LCIA methods that characterise functionally recycled metals as important, result in larger impact reduction, since these emphasise the merits of steering flows into state-of-the-art recycling. The study thus demonstrates how using second-hand laptops, mediated by a commercial reuse operation, compared to new ones, in practice, reduces different types of environmental impact through synergistic relationships between reuse and recycling. Moreover, it illustrates how the choice of LCIA method can influence interpretations of metal resource use impacts when applying circular economy measures to information and communication technologies (ICT).


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Reciclagem , Metais , Microcomputadores
4.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 32(5): 1149-1162, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify, extract, summarize and list the features of applied cognitive technology used to support employment-related outcomes for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. METHOD: Thematic analysis was employed on a published research base of 41 studies obtained through a larger scoping review of the literature on the same topic. RESULTS: The thematic analysis identified 109 technology features categorized into 14 main categories of features, which were grouped into three over-arching categories, Output, Input and General Features. The majority of the studies comprised "Output" features with "Audio" features being the most frequent category. Studies using more sophisticated technology incorporated a wider range of features and a larger number of references. CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation regarding the association of specific technology features with the enhancement of various cognitive functions will assist the decision making and technology selection process.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Emprego , Deficiência Intelectual , Microcomputadores , Tecnologia , Adulto , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
5.
Recurso educacional aberto em Português | CVSP - Brasil | ID: cfc-377573

RESUMO

O uso excessivo de aparelhos como smartphones, tablets e até computadores e televisão pode prejudicar a visão. E nos dias de hoje, em que todos esses aparelhos fazem parte da nossa rotina e cada vez mais estamos constantemente olhando para uma tela, os efeitos nocivos à saúde dos olhos tendem a aparecer cada vez mais. Segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), a miopia é a epidemia do século e o uso prolongado de celulares e computadores pode levar ao seu agravamento. A apresentadora Marcela Morato conversa com a oftalmologista da Sociedade Brasileira de Oftalmologia (SBO), Patrícia Contarini sobre o tema.


Assuntos
Uso do Telefone Celular , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Oftalmopatias , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Microcomputadores
6.
Riv Psichiatr ; 54(1): 24-30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760934

RESUMO

Few studies have addressed the issue of psychopathology and personality of individuals with problematic use of internet. In this study we research psychopathological symptoms, personality traits and predictive variables associated with problematic internet use. The study was conducted on a total of 343 students from four Italian Universities using Pathological Internet Use Scale, Big Five Questionnaire, and Symptom Check List 90 Revised. According to this study 52.7% of the sample shows a problematic internet use while only 7.6% don't suffer from any symptom. More than half of subjects admits to have got into arguments with a significant other over being online, and to have missed social engagements because of online activities. Subjects with problematic internet use scored higher in psychopathological scales. Low levels of Friendliness and Emotional Stability could predict the problematic use of internet. Problematic internet use may be associated with higher psychopathology levels and personality traits.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Internet , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Personalidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Computadores de Mão/estatística & dados numéricos , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Microcomputadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(4): 524-530, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comparability of National Institutes of Health Toolbox Cognitive Battery test scores across iPad application and web-based personal computer administration platforms. Original test norms were developed using a personal computer-based administration and no previous studies assessing platform comparability have been published. METHOD: Participants (N = 62; final analyzed sample n = 49) were combat-exposed post-deployment veterans without neurologic disorder, severe mental illness, current substance use disorder, or a history of moderate or severe traumatic brain injury. All participants completed both iPad and web-based versions of tests on the same day in an experimental within-subjects crossover design. Standalone validity measures were incorporated to exclude invalid performance. Outcome measures included the Dimensional Change Card Sort Test, Flanker Inhibitory Control and Attention Test, List Sorting Working Memory Test, and Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test. RESULTS: Score differences between platforms were found on the Flanker Inhibitory Control and Attention Test. Scores were moderately correlated across tests, with the exception of low correlations for the Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test. Most participants preferred iPad to web administration, regardless of administration order. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest caution when interpreting iPad-acquired scores, particularly for the Flanker Inhibitory Control and Attention Test. iPad-based testing offers valuable improvements; however, the development of iPad-specific norms may be necessary to ensure valid interpretation of acquired data.


Assuntos
Cognição , Microcomputadores , Minicomputadores , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Internet , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
8.
J Sports Sci ; 37(8): 864-870, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326782

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate pre-sleep behaviours (including evening electronic device use) and sleep quantity in well-trained athletes. Seventy well-trained athletes (44 females, 26 males) aged 21 ± 4 y from a range of team and individual sports were asked to complete an online sleep diary for 7 days. The sleep diary included questions about pre-sleep behaviours (e.g. napping, caffeine intake), electronic device use in the 2 h prior to bedtime (e.g. type of device and duration of use) and sleep (e.g. time in bed, sleep onset latency). On average, athletes spent 8:20 ± 1:21 h in bed each night. Associations between age, time in bed and sleepiness suggested that younger athletes spent more time in bed (B = -0.05, p = 0.001) but felt sleepier (r = -0.32, p < 0.01) than older athletes. On average, athletes mostly used electronic devices for 0-30 min prior to sleep. The use of multiple devices in the evening was associated with more perceived difficulty in falling asleep (B = 0.22, p = 0.03), but no associations existed with other sleep variables. In summary, younger athletes may require later start times or improved sleep quality to resolve excessive sleepiness.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Hábitos , Microcomputadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Sono , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Utilização de Equipamentos e Suprimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(1): 91-95, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cephalometric analysis has long been, and still is one of the most important tools in evaluating craniomaxillofacial skeletal profile. To perform this, manual tracing of x-ray film and plotting landmarks have been required. This procedure is time-consuming and demands expertise. In these days, computerized cephalometric systems have been introduced; however, tracing and plotting still have to be done on the monitor display. Artificial intelligence is developing rapidly. Deep learning is one of the most evolving areas in artificial intelligence. The authors made an automated landmark predicting system, based on a deep learning neural network. METHODS: On a personal desktop computer, a convolutional network was built for regression analysis of cephalometric landmarks' coordinate values. Lateral cephalogram images were gathered through the internet and 219 images were obtained. Ten skeletal cephalometric landmarks were manually plotted and coordinate values of them were listed. The images were randomly divided into 153 training images and 66 testing images. Training images were expanded 51 folds. The network was trained with the expanded training images. With the testing images, landmarks were predicted by the network. Prediction errors from manually plotted points were evaluated. RESULTS: Average and median prediction errors were 17.02 and 16.22 pixels. Angles and lengths in cephalometric analysis, predicted by the neural network, were not statistically different from those calculated from manually plotted points. CONCLUSION: Despite the variety of image quality, using cephalogram images on the internet is a feasible approach for landmark prediction.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Cefalometria/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Humanos , Internet , Microcomputadores , Radiografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Prosthet Orthot Int ; 43(3): 257-265, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals using a lower-limb prosthesis indicate that they need to concentrate on every step they take. Despite self-reports of increased cognitive demand, there is limited understanding of the link between cognitive processes and walking when using a lower-limb prosthesis. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess cortical brain activity during level walking in individuals using different prosthetic knee components and compare them to healthy controls. It was hypothesized that the least activity would be observed in the healthy control group, followed by individuals using a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee and finally individuals using a non-microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: An optical brain imaging system was used to measure relative changes in concentration of oxygenated and de-oxygenated haemoglobin in the frontal and motor cortices during level walking. The number of steps and time to walk 10 m was also recorded. The 6-min walk test was assessed as a measure of functional capacity. RESULTS: Individuals with a transfemoral or knee-disarticulation amputation, using non-microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee ( n = 14) or microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee ( n = 15) joints and healthy controls ( n = 16) participated in the study. A significant increase was observed in cortical brain activity of individuals walking with a non-microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee when compared to healthy controls ( p < 0.05) and individuals walking with an microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint ( p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Individuals walking with a non-microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee demonstrated an increase in cortical brain activity compared to healthy individuals. Use of a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee was associated with less cortical brain activity than use of a non-microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Increased understanding of cognitive processes underlying walking when using different types of prosthetic knees can help to optimize selection of prosthetic components and provide an opportunity to enhance functioning with a prosthesis.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Joelho/cirurgia , Microcomputadores , Desenho de Prótese , Adulto , Idoso , Amputados/reabilitação , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Caminhada
11.
Biomed Tech (Berl) ; 64(4): 407-420, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540556

RESUMO

Safety-relevant gait situations (walking on stairs and slopes, walking backwards, walking with small steps, simulated perturbations of swing phase extension) were investigated in a motion analysis laboratory with six unilateral transfemoral amputees using two different microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints (Rheo Knee XC, C-Leg). A randomized crossover design was chosen. The study results imply that the performance and safety potential of a microprocessor-controlled knee joint can be associated with the individual control algorithms and the technological concepts that are implemented to generate motion resistances for controlling flexion and extension movements. When walking with small steps, advantages of the "default swing" concept used in the Rheo Knee XC were identified due to a highly reproducible swing phase release. However, when walking backwards, this concept may lead to an uncontrolled knee flexion which partly resulted in falls. When walking down stairs, walking on slopes or while recovering from a stumble after perturbations of the swing phase extension, the C-Leg demonstrated a reliable prosthetic side load-bearing capacity resulting in reduced loading on the residual body. In contrast, the Rheo Knee XC required increased compensatory movements of the remaining locomotor system in order to compensate for reduced load-bearing and safety reserves.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Desenho de Prótese/métodos , Amputados , Estudos Cross-Over , Marcha , Humanos , Microcomputadores , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga
12.
Sports Biomech ; 18(4): 426-436, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355085

RESUMO

The landing error scoring system (LESS) assesses the quality of a landing after a jump. The quality of the jump is usually evaluated using a three-dimensional (3-D) motion analysis system or a two-dimensional (2-D) video analysis visually rated by a clinician. However, both methods have disadvantages. The aim of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of a novel portable motion analysis system ('PhysiMax System') in assessing the LESS score by comparing it to video analysis. The study population included 48 healthy participants (28.45 ± 5.61 years), each performing the LESS test while two video cameras and the 'PhysiMax' simultaneously recorded the jump. The 'Physimax' system automatically evaluated the LESS. Subsequently, the examiners scored the test by viewing the video recordings, blinded to the 'PhysiMax' results. The mean LESS score, using the video recordings and the 'PhysiMax' was 4.77 (±2.29) and 5.15 (±2.58), respectively, (ICC = 0.80, 95% confidence intervals 0.65-0.87), mean absolute differences 1.13 (95% confidence intervals; 0.79-1.46). The results indicate a high consensus between the methods of measurement. The 'Physimax' system's main advantages are portability, objective evaluation and immediate availability of results. The system can be used by athletic trainers and physiotherapists in the clinic and in the field for jumping assessment.


Assuntos
Exercício Pliométrico/instrumentação , Exercício Pliométrico/métodos , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcomputadores , Fotografação , Software , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 236(10): 1170-1173, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117611

RESUMO

Amblyopia is one of the most common visual disorders in children. Current therapy of amblyopia is an occlusion therapy of the stronger eye with an occlusion patch until the best corrected visual acuity is achieved. The success of occlusion therapy essentially depends on the compliance of the children and their parents. There is a commercially available 8 × 12 mm small TheraMon microsensor (TheraMon-Chip, MC Technology GmbH). This sensor allows a simple objective documentation of the therapy compliance of patches and glasses. It samples the surrounding temperature in regular intervals. Due to the specific temperatures, it is possible to detect the time of application and, therefore, the compliance. Therefore, TheraMon microsensor could be a study-related approach for monitoring the compliance and further leading to possible improvement of application time protocols in amblyopia therapy.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Microcomputadores , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Ambliopia/terapia , Criança , Óculos , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Privação Sensorial , Fatores de Tempo , Acuidade Visual
14.
Neural Comput ; 31(6): 1048-1065, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148703

RESUMO

Simulation of the cerebral cortex requires a combination of extensive domain-specific knowledge and efficient software. However, when the complexity of the biological system is combined with that of the software, the likelihood of coding errors increases, which slows model adjustments. Moreover, few life scientists are familiar with software engineering and would benefit from simplicity in form of a high-level abstraction of the biological model. Our primary aim was to build a scalable cortical simulation framework for personal computers. We isolated an adjustable part of the domain-specific knowledge from the software. Next, we designed a framework that reads the model parameters from comma-separated value files and creates the necessary code for Brian2 model simulation. This separation allows rapid exploration of complex cortical circuits while decreasing the likelihood of coding errors and automatically using efficient hardware devices. Next, we tested the system on a simplified version of the neocortical microcircuit proposed by Markram and colleagues ( 2015 ). Our results indicate that the framework can efficiently perform simulations using Python, C ++ , and GPU devices. The most efficient device varied with computer hardware and the duration and scale of the simulated system. The speed of Brian2 was retained despite an overlying layer of software. However, the Python and C ++ devices inherited the single core limitation of Brian2. The CxSystem framework supports exploration of complex models on personal computers and thus has the potential to facilitate research on cortical networks and systems.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral , Simulação por Computador , Software , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Humanos , Microcomputadores
15.
Biomed Tech (Berl) ; 64(1): 119-126, 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425102

RESUMO

A crossover design study with a small group of subjects was used to evaluate the performance of three microprocessor-controlled exoprosthetic knee joints (MPKs): C-Leg 4, Plié 3 and Rheo Knee 3. Given that the mechanical designs and control algorithms of the joints determine the user outcome, the influence of these inherent differences on the functional characteristics was investigated in this study. The knee joints were evaluated during level-ground walking at different velocities in a motion analysis laboratory. Additionally, technical analyses using patents, technical documentations and X-ray computed tomography (CT) for each knee joint were performed. The technical analyses showed that only C-Leg 4 and Rheo Knee 3 allow microprocessor-controlled adaptation of the joint resistances for different gait velocities. Furthermore, Plié 3 is not able to provide stance extension damping. The biomechanical results showed that only if a knee joint adapts flexion and extension resistances by the microprocessor all known advantages of MPKs can become apparent. But not all users may benefit from the examined functions: e.g. a good accommodation to fast walking speeds or comfortable stance phase flexion. Hence, a detailed comparison of user demands and performance of the designated knee joint is mandatory to ensure a maximum in user outcome.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Microcomputadores , Desenho de Prótese/métodos , Marcha , Humanos , Prótese do Joelho , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Caminhada
16.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 39(9): 726-735, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether use of digital-based screening is a feasible approach to monitoring child development, it is necessary to assess young children's abilities to interface with touch screen technology. The primary objectives of this exploratory feasibility study with a randomized experimental design were to determine (1) whether young children respond differently to developmental tasks on paper versus tablet device and (2) whether responses to items presented digitally differed according to hours of weekly exposure to touch screen technology in the home. METHODS: Eighty children attending 18-, 24-, 36-, or 48-month pediatrician well-child checks were randomly assigned to complete a series of 70 examiner-facilitated, developmental tasks across 7 domains (receptive language, expressive language, early literacy, early numeracy, social emotional, cognition, and fine motor) presented either digitally or on paper. Parents provided information about use of technology in the home. A series of t tests assessed for main effects of presentation modality (digital vs paper) on each of the domains. RESULTS: Raw scores across the 7 domains did not differ by presentation modality. Hours of technology use per week was not related to raw scores among children in the digital condition. CONCLUSION: Young children do not respond differentially to items when presented in a digital format in comparison to a paper-based format. Use of manipulatives for assessing developmental skills may be needed for children 2 years and younger, as they displayed a limited range of responses to items in both conditions at these age groups.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Computador , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Interface Usuário-Computador , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Microcomputadores
17.
Anal Chem ; 90(22): 13207-13211, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272953

RESUMO

As a new analysis tool, photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensors have been widely studied in recent years. However, common PEC biosensors usually require a highly stable light source to excite the electrical signal and an electrochemical workstation to collect and process the signal data, which limited the development of portable PEC devices. Herein, we propose the design of a sunlight powered portable PEC biosensor that uses sunlight as the light source. The sunlight intensity changes over time and weather and results in varied background PEC currents. To eliminate the interference caused by unstable excitation light, the potentiometric resolve ratiometric principle was introduced. Coupled with a miniature electrochemical workstation and a laptop, a sensitive and portable PEC sensing platform was successfully developed. The detection may be achieved under the irradiation of sunlight and will no longer need an extra light source. In a proof of concept experiment, this platform was successfully applied in aflatoxin B1 analysis, which was promising in the development of portable biosensors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Fotoquímica/métodos , Luz Solar , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxina B1/química , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Sequência de Bases , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , DNA/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Grafite/química , Grafite/efeitos da radiação , Hidrogéis/química , Limite de Detecção , Microcomputadores , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/efeitos da radiação , Nitrilos/química , Nitrilos/efeitos da radiação , Fotoquímica/instrumentação , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Prata/química , Prata/efeitos da radiação , Titânio/química , Titânio/efeitos da radiação
18.
Work ; 61(2): 237-255, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laptop use may be associated with poor health among University students. However, no psychometrically-sound instrument is available to measure biomechanical issues during laptop computer use in this population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of the Student Laptop Use and Musculoskeletal Posture (SLUMP) questionnaire among undergraduate University students. PARTICIPANTS: We invited 179 undergraduate students from two Health Sciences courses at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology to participate in the study in October 2015. METHODS: We conducted a test-retest reliability study. The SLUMP questionnaire, which includes 51 questions, was administered twice at a seven-day interval. We used weighted Kappa statistics to calculate test-retest reliability. RESULTS: Ninety-one students completed the study. 72.5% of the 51 questions achieved a Kw≥0.60 with 29.4% of questions achieving a Kw≥0.80. The reliability was similar for males and females. CONCLUSION: The SLUMP offers a promising method to measure biomechanical issues during laptop use among University students.


Assuntos
Microcomputadores , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário , Postura , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes
19.
Work ; 61(2): 257-266, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternative methods of accessing the internet and performing computing-related work tasks are becoming common, e.g., using tablets or standing workstations. Few studies examine postural differences while using these alternative methods. OBJECTIVE: To assess neck and upper limb kinematics while using a tablet, laptop and desktop computer (sitting and standing). METHODS: Differences in neck flexion/extension, lateral flexion, rotation; elbow flexion/extension; wrist flexion/extension, radial/ulnar deviation; and shoulder elevation in 30 participants were assessed in four conditions, three in sitting (tablet, laptop and desktop computer) and one in standing (desktop computer). Three-dimensional motion capture recorded posture variables during an editing task. Differences between variables were determined using one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc tests. RESULTS: Compared to the desktop (sitting), tablet and laptop use resulted in increased neck flexion (mean difference tablet 16.92°, 95% CI 12.79-21.04; laptop 10.92, 7.86-13.97, P < 0.001) and shoulder elevation (right; tablet 10.29, 5.27-15.11; laptop 7.36, 3.72-11.01, P < 0.001). There were no meaningful posture differences between the sitting and standing desktop. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that using a tablet or laptop may increase neck flexion, potentially increasing posture strain. Regular users of tablets/laptops should consider adjustments in their posture, however, further research is required to determine whether posture adjustments prevent or reduce musculoskeletal symptoms.


Assuntos
Microcomputadores , Postura Sentada , Posição Ortostática , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205093, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289921

RESUMO

Slope ambulation is a challenge for trans-femoral amputees due to a relative lack of knee function. The assessment of prosthetic ankles on slopes is required for supporting the design, optimisation, and selection of prostheses. This study assessed two hydraulic ankle-foot devices (one of the hydraulic ankles is controlled by a micro-processor that allows real-time adjustment in ankle resistance and range of motion) used by trans-femoral amputees in ascending and descending a 5-degree slope walking, against a rigid ankle-foot device. Five experienced and active unilateral trans-femoral amputees performed ascending and descending slope tests with their usual prosthetic knee and socket fitted with a rigid ankle-foot, a hydraulic ankle-foot without a micro-processor, and a hydraulic ankle-foot with a micro-processor optimised for ascending and descending slopes. Peak values in hip, knee and ankle joint angles and moments were collected and the normalcy Trend Symmetry Index of the prosthetic ankle moments (as an indication of bio-mimicry) were calculated and assessment. Particular benefits of the hydraulic ankle-foot devices were better bio-mimicry of ankle resistance moment, greater range of motion, and improved passive prosthetic knee stability according to the greater mid-stance external knee extensor moment (especially in descending slope) compared to the rigid design. The micro-processor controlled device demonstrated optimised ankle angle and moment patterns for ascending and descending slope respectively, and was found to potentially further improve the ankle moment bio-minicry and prosthetic knee stability compared to the hydraulic device without a micro-processor. However the difference between the micro-processor controlled device and the one without a micro-processor does not reach a statistically significant level.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Microcomputadores , Caminhada , Adulto , Amputados , Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fêmur , , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Desenho de Prótese , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA