Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.840
Filtrar
1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1186: 339086, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756249

RESUMO

Carbon fiber microelectrode arrays based on diazonium salt and single-walled carbon nanotubes composites (DS-SWCNT/CFMEA) have been fabricated, and it developed for the simultaneous monitoring of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) with differential pulse voltammary (DPV). The diazonium salt can improve the water-solubility of single-walled carbon nanotubes and show good selectivity to DA, thus DS-SWCNT/CFMEA exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of DA and 5-HT, and well antifouling ability to the other biomolecules. Moreover, DS-SWCNT/CFMEA shows the wider liner range, and the good performance of precision, reproducibility and biocompatibility. The excellent characteristics of the prepared microsensor array make it to be used to monitor the release of DA and 5-HT in the mouse brain striatum of different group over time. Meanwhile, the results of in vivo on line assay further confirmed the pharmacological effects of Uncaria alkaloid extract solution on DA and 5-HT. This research may provide a new method for monitoring the release of neurobiomolecules, and the microsensor array are expected to be a tool for the study of pharmacological and physiological processes on line in vivo.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Nanotubos de Carbono , Animais , Fibra de Carbono , Camundongos , Microeletrodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Serotonina
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770408

RESUMO

This paper presents a minimum signal model via the AC small-signal model and the uncertainty principle, which reveals the minimum AC signal that can be amplified by a bipolar transistor. The Ebers-Moll model (EM3) can describe the small signal amplification process, but it is difficult to define the minimum amplifiable signal of the bipolar transistor. In this study, the correspondence relationship between the non-equilibrium carrier and the electric injection is proved, and the relationship between the life of the non-equilibrium carrier and the measurable signal is proposed by the uncertainty principle. Next, the limit of perceived minimum voltage is also derived in this paper. Then, combining with EM3 model, the minimum AC signal model of bipolar transistor is presented to calculate the minimum voltage signal of bipolar transistor that can be amplified. Finally, a number of the simulation and experiment results show that when the minimum signal in the model is used as input, the carrier concentration of the bipolar transistor does not change and the base electrode cannot perceive the signal, which verifies the validity of the minimum AC signal model.


Assuntos
Microeletrodos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Simulação por Computador , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705653

RESUMO

Retinal prostheses are biomedical devices that directly utilize electrical stimulation to create an artificial vision to help patients with retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. A major challenge in the microelectrode array (MEA) design for retinal prosthesis is to have a close topographical fit on the retinal surface. The local retinal topography can cause the electrodes in certain areas to have gaps up to several hundred micrometers from the retinal surface, resulting in impaired, or totally lost electrode functions in specific areas of the MEA. In this manuscript, an MEA with dynamically controlled electrode positions was proposed to reduce the electrode-retina distance and eliminate areas with poor contact after implantation. The MEA prototype had a polydimethylsiloxane and polyimide hybrid flexible substrate with gold interconnect lines and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate electrodes. Ring shaped counter electrodes were placed around the main electrodes to measure the distance between the electrode and the model retinal surface in real time. The results showed that this MEA design could reduce electrode-retina distance up to [Formula: see text] with 200 kPa pressure. Meanwhile, the impedance between the main and counter electrodes increased with smaller electrode-model retinal surface distance. Thus, the change of electrode-counter electrode impedance could be used to measure the separation gap and to confirm successful electrode contact without the need of optical coherence tomography scan. The amplitude of the stimulation signal on the model retinal surface with originally poor contact could be significantly improved after pressure was applied to reduce the gap.


Assuntos
Próteses Visuais , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletrodos Implantados , Humanos , Microeletrodos , Retina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(45)2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670842

RESUMO

Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other pathogens with pandemic potential requires safe, protective, inexpensive, and easily accessible vaccines that can be developed and manufactured rapidly at a large scale. DNA vaccines can achieve these criteria, but induction of strong immune responses has often required bulky, expensive electroporation devices. Here, we report an ultra-low-cost (<1 USD), handheld (<50 g) electroporation system utilizing a microneedle electrode array ("ePatch") for DNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The low cost and small size are achieved by combining a thumb-operated piezoelectric pulser derived from a common household stove lighter that emits microsecond, bipolar, oscillatory electric pulses and a microneedle electrode array that targets delivery of high electric field strength pulses to the skin's epidermis. Antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 induced by this electroporation system in mice were strong and enabled at least 10-fold dose sparing compared to conventional intramuscular or intradermal injection of the DNA vaccine. Vaccination was well tolerated with mild, transient effects on the skin. This ePatch system is easily portable, without any battery or other power source supply, offering an attractive, inexpensive approach for rapid and accessible DNA vaccination to combat COVID-19, as well as other epidemics.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Eletroporação/instrumentação , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Animais , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Eletroporação/economia , Eletroporação/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microeletrodos , Agulhas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Transfecção , Vacinação/economia , Vacinação/instrumentação , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 206: 114392, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607201

RESUMO

The projection of new biosensing technologies for genetic identification of SARS-COV-2 is essential in the face of a pandemic scenario. For this reason, the current research aims to develop a label-free flexible biodevice applicable to COVID-19. A nanostructured platform made of polypyrrole (PPy) and gold nanoparticles (GNP) was designed for interfacing the electrochemical signal in miniaturized electrodes of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). Oligonucleotide primer was chemically immobilized on the flexible transducers for the biorecognition of the nucleocapsid protein (N) gene. Methodological protocols based on cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the nanotechnological apparatus. The biosensor's electrochemical performance was evaluated using the SARS-CoV-2 genome and biological samples of cDNA from patients infected with retrovirus at various disease stages. It is inferred that the analytical tool was able to distinguish the expression of SARS-CoV-2 in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the early, intermediate and late stages. The biosensor exhibited high selectivity by not recognizing the biological target in samples from patients not infected with SARS-CoV-2. The proposed sensor obtained a linear response range estimated from 800 to 4000 copies µL-1 with a regression coefficient of 0.99, and a detection limit of 258.01 copies µL-1. Therefore, the electrochemical biosensor based on flexible electrode technology represents a promising trend for sensitive molecular analysis of etiologic agent with fast and simple operationalization. In addition to early genetic diagnosis, the biomolecular assay may help to monitor the progression of COVID-19 infection in a novel manner.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Anticorpos Imobilizados , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Ouro , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Microeletrodos , Polímeros , Pirróis , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5871, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620851

RESUMO

Optogenetics combined with electrical recording has emerged as a powerful tool for investigating causal relationships between neural circuit activity and function. However, the size of optogenetically manipulated tissue is typically 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than that can be electrically recorded, rendering difficulty for assigning functional roles of recorded neurons. Here we report a viral vector-delivery optrode (VVD-optrode) system for precise integration of optogenetics and electrophysiology in the brain. Our system consists of flexible microelectrode filaments and fiber optics that are simultaneously self-assembled in a nanoliter-scale, viral vector-delivery polymer carrier. The highly localized delivery and neuronal expression of opsin genes at microelectrode-tissue interfaces ensure high spatial congruence between optogenetically manipulated and electrically recorded neuronal populations. We demonstrate that this multifunctional system is capable of optogenetic manipulation and electrical recording of spatially defined neuronal populations for three months, allowing precise and long-term studies of neural circuit functions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Optogenética , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microeletrodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Opsinas/genética , Polímeros
7.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677342

RESUMO

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been recently studied as an alternative method for cost-effective diagnostics in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Recent reports document that LAMP-based diagnostic methods have a comparable sensitivity and specificity to that of RT-qPCR. We report the use of a portable Arduino-based LAMP-based amplification system assisted by pH microelectrodes for the accurate and reliable diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 during the first 3 min of the amplification reaction. We show that this simple system enables a straightforward discrimination between samples containing or not containing artificial SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in the range of 10 to 10,000 copies per 50 µL of reaction mix. We also spiked saliva samples with SARS-CoV-2 synthetic material and corroborated that the LAMP reaction can be successfully monitored in real time using microelectrodes in saliva samples as well. These results may have profound implications for the design of real-time and portable quantitative systems for the reliable detection of viral pathogens including SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/genética , Humanos , Microeletrodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/instrumentação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Tempo de Reação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia
8.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605824

RESUMO

Modern electrophysiology has been constantly fueled by the parallel development of increasingly sophisticated tools and materials. In turn, discoveries in this field have driven technological progress in a back-and-forth process that ultimately determined the impressive achievements of the past 50 years. However, the most employed devices used for cellular interfacing (namely, the microelectrode arrays and microelectronic devices based on transistors) still present several limitations such as high cost, the rigidity of the materials, and the presence of an external reference electrode. To partially overcome these issues, there have been developments in a new scientific field called organic bioelectronics, resulting in advantages such as lower cost, more convenient materials, and innovative fabrication techniques. Several interesting new organic devices have been proposed during the past decade to conveniently interface with cell cultures. This paper presents the protocol for the fabrication of devices for cellular interfacing based on the organic charge-modulated field-effect transistor (OCMFET). These devices, called micro OCMFET arrays (MOAs), combine the advantages of organic electronics and the peculiar features of the OCMFET to prepare transparent, flexible, and reference-less tools with which it is possible to monitor both the electrical and the metabolic activities of cardiomyocytes and neurons in vitro, thus allowing a multiparametric evaluation of electrogenic cell models.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Transistores Eletrônicos , Eletrônica , Microeletrodos , Neurônios
9.
J Neural Eng ; 18(5)2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492644

RESUMO

Objective.There is a growing interest in the use of carbon and its allotropes for microelectrodes in neural probes because of their inertness, long-term electrical and electrochemical stability, and versatility. Building on this interest, we introduce a new electrode material system consisting of an ultra-thin monoatomic layer of graphene (Gr) mechanically supported by a relatively thicker layer of glassy carbon (GC).Approach.Due to its high electrical conductivity and high double-layer capacitance, Gr has impressive electrical and electrochemical properties, two key properties that are useful for neural recording and stimulation applications. However, because of its two-dimensional nature, Gr exhibits a lack of stiffness in the transverse direction and hence almost non-existent flexural and out-of-plane rigidity that will severely limit its wider use. On the other hand, GC is one of carbon's important allotropes and consists of three-dimensional microstructures of Gr fragments with a natural molecular similarity to Gr. Further, GC has exceptional chemical inertness, good electrical properties, high electrochemical stability, purely capacitive charge injection, and fast surface electrokinetics coupled with lithography patternability. This makes GC an ideal candidate for addressing Gr's lack of out-of-plane rigidity through providing a matching sturdier and robust mechanical backing. Combining the strengths of these two allotropes of carbon, we introduce a new neural probe that consists of ∼1 nm thick layer of patterned Gr microelectrodes supported by another layer of 3-5µm thick patterned GC.Main results. We present the fabrication technology for the newGr on GC(graphene on glassy carbon) microelectrodes and the accompanying pattern transfer technology on flexible substrate and report on the bond between these two allotropes of carbon through FTIR, surface morphology through SEM, topography through atomic force microscopy, and microstructure imaging through scanning transmission electron microscopy. A long-term (18 weeks)in vivostudy of the use of theseGr on GCmicroelectrodes assessed the quality of the electrocorticography-based neural signal recording and stimulation through electrophysiological measurements. The probes were demonstrated to be functionally and structurally stable over the 18 week period with minimal glial response-the longest reported so far for Gr-based microelectrodes.Significance.TheGr on GCmicroelectrodes presented here offers a compelling case for expanding the potentials of Gr-based technology in the broad areas of neural probes.


Assuntos
Carbono , Grafite , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletricidade , Microeletrodos
10.
J Neural Eng ; 18(5)2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592725

RESUMO

Objective. Maximizing the stability of implanted neural interfaces will be critical to developing effective treatments for neurological and neuromuscular disorders. Our research aims to develop a stable neural interface using wireless communication and intrafascicular microelectrodes to provide highly selective stimulation of neural tissue.Approach. We implanted a wireless floating microelectrode array into the left sciatic nerve of six rats. Over a 38 week implantation period, we recorded stimulation thresholds and movements evoked at each implanted electrode. We also tracked each animal's response to sensory stimuli and performance on two different walking tasks.Main results. Presence of the microelectrode array inside the sciatic nerve did not cause any obvious motor or sensory deficits in the hindlimb. Visible movement in the hindlimb was evoked by stimulating the sciatic nerve with currents as low as 4.1µA. Thresholds for most of the 96 electrodes we implanted were below 20µA, and predictable recruitment of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion was achieved by stimulating rat sciatic nerve with the intrafascicular microelectrode array. Further, motor recruitment patterns for each electrode did not change significantly throughout the study.Significance. Incorporating wireless communication and a low-profile neural interface facilitated highly stable motor recruitment thresholds and fine motor control in the hindlimb throughout an extensive 9.5 month assessment in rodent peripheral nerve. Results of this study indicate that use of the wireless device tested here could be extended to other applications requiring selective neural stimulation and chronic implantation.


Assuntos
Movimento , Nervo Isquiático , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica , Membro Posterior , Microeletrodos , Ratos
11.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 60: 255-260, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481335

RESUMO

Recent advances in microphysiological systems have made significant strides to include design features that reconstruct key elements found in the brain, and in parallel advance technologies to detect the activity of electrogenic cells that form neural networks. In particular, three-dimensional multielectrode arrays (3D MEAs) are being developed with increasing levels of spatial and temporal precision, difficult to achieve with current 2D MEAs, insertable MEA probes, and/or optical imaging of calcium dynamics. Thus, providing a means to monitor the flow of neural network activity within all three dimensions (X, Y, and Z) of the engineered tissue. In the last 6 years, 3D MEAs, using either bottom-up or top-down designs, have been developed to overcome the current technical challenges in monitoring the functionality of the in vitro systems. Herein, we will report on the design and application of novel 3D MEA prototypes for probing neural activity throughout the 3D neural tissue.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Neurônios , Cálcio , Microeletrodos , Engenharia Tecidual
12.
ACS Sens ; 6(10): 3621-3631, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546741

RESUMO

Proteases are critical signaling molecules and prognostic biomarkers for many diseases including cancer. There is a strong demand for multiplex bioanalytical techniques that can rapidly detect the activity of extracellular proteases with high sensitivity and specificity. This study demonstrates an activity-based electrochemical biosensor of a 3 × 3 gold microelectrode array for the detection of cathepsin B activity in human serum diluted in a neutral buffer. Proteolysis of ferrocene-labeled peptide substrates functionalized on 200 × 200 µm microelectrodes is measured simultaneously over the nine channels by AC voltammetry. The protease activity is represented by the inverse of the exponential decay time constant (1/τ), which equals to (kcat/KM)[CB] based on the Michaelis-Menten model. An enhanced activity of the recombinant human cathepsin B (rhCB) is observed in a low-ionic-strength phosphate buffer at pH = 7.4, giving a very low limit of detection of 8.49 × 10-4 s-1 for activity and 57.1 pM for the active rhCB concentration that is comparable to affinity-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cathepsin B presented in the human serum sample is validated by ELISA, which mainly detects the inactive proenzyme, while the electrochemical biosensor specifically measures the active cathepsin B and shows significantly higher decay rates when rhCB and human serum are activated. Analyses of the kinetic electrochemical measurements with spiked active cathepsin B in human serum provide further assessment of the protease activity in the complex sample. This study lays the foundation to develop the gold microelectrode array into a multiplex biosensor for rapid detection of the activity of extracellular proteases toward cancer diagnosis and treatment assessment.


Assuntos
Catepsina B , Ouro , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microeletrodos , Peptídeo Hidrolases
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562938

RESUMO

Electrically controlled drug delivery of neurochemicals and biomolecules from conducting polymer microelectrode coatings hold great potentials in dissecting neural circuit or treating neurological disorders with high spatial and temporal resolution. The direct doping of a drug into a conducting polymer often results in low loading capacity, and the type of molecule that can be released is limited. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with sulfonated silica nanoparticles (SNP) has been developed as a more versatile platform for drug delivery. In this work, we demonstrate that neurochemicals with different surface charge, e.g., glutamate (GLU), gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA), 6,7-Dinitroquinoxaline- 2,3-dione (DNQX) and bicuculline, can be, respectively, incorporated into the SNP and electrically triggered to release repeatedly. The drug loaded SNPs were incorporated in PEDOT via electrochemical deposition on platinum microelectrodes. After PEDOT/SNP(drug) coating, the charge storage capacity (CSC) increased 10-fold to 55 ± 3 mC/cm2, and the impedance at 1 kHz was also reduced approximately 6-fold. With the aid of a porous SNP, the loading capacity and number of releases of GLU was increased >4-fold and 66-fold, respectively, in comparison to the direct doping of PEDOT with GLU (PEDOT/GLU). The focal release of GLU and GABA from a PEDOT/SNP (drug) coated microelectrode were tested in cultured neurons using Ca imaging. The change in fluo-4 fluorescence intensity after electrically triggered GLU (+6.7 ± 2.9%) or GABA (-6.8 ± 1.6%) release indicated the successful modulation of neural activities by neurotransmitter release. In addition to activating neural activities, glutamate can also act on endothelial cells to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) release. A dual functional device with two adjacent sensing and releasing electrodes was constructed and we tested this mechanism in endothelial cell cultures. In endothelial cells, approximately 7.6 ± 0.6 nM NO was detected in the vicinity of the NO sensor within 6.2 ± 0.5 s of GLU release. The rise time of NO signal, T0-100, was 14.5 ± 2.2 s. In summary, our work has demonstrated (1) a platform that is capable of loading and releasing drugs with different charges; (2) proof of concept demonstrations of how focal release of drugs can be used as a pharmacological manipulation to study neural circuitry or NO's effect on endothelial cells.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Microeletrodos , Animais , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Impedância Elétrica , Eletrodos Implantados , Células Endoteliais , Nanopartículas , Neurônios , Platina , Polímeros
14.
Neuron ; 109(19): 3164-3177.e8, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499856

RESUMO

Modern brain-machine interfaces can return function to people with paralysis, but current upper extremity brain-machine interfaces are unable to reproduce control of individuated finger movements. Here, for the first time, we present a real-time, high-speed, linear brain-machine interface in nonhuman primates that utilizes intracortical neural signals to bridge this gap. We created a non-prehensile task that systematically individuates two finger groups, the index finger and the middle-ring-small fingers combined. During online brain control, the ReFIT Kalman filter could predict individuated finger group movements with high performance. Next, training ridge regression decoders with individual movements was sufficient to predict untrained combined movements and vice versa. Finally, we compared the postural and movement tuning of finger-related cortical activity to find that individual cortical units simultaneously encode multiple behavioral dimensions. Our results suggest that linear decoders may be sufficient for brain-machine interfaces to execute high-dimensional tasks with the performance levels required for naturalistic neural prostheses.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Dedos/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Próteses Neurais , Algoritmos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletrodos Implantados , Dedos/inervação , Previsões , Modelos Lineares , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Microeletrodos , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Desenho de Prótese , Desempenho Psicomotor
15.
Lab Chip ; 21(21): 4223-4236, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559171

RESUMO

In the neuromuscular system, signal transmission from motor neurons (MNs) to innervated muscle fibers is crucial for their synaptic function, viability, and maintenance. In order to better understand human neuromuscular junction (hNMJ) functionality, it is important to develop on-a-chip devices with human cells. To investigate this cell network, microfluidic platforms are useful to grow different cell types in isolated compartments. Such devices have already been developed to study in vitro neuronal circuitry. Here, we combined microfluidics with two techniques: soft lithography and custom microelectrodes array (MEA). Our goal was to create hNMJs on a specific pattern of electrodes to stimulate pre-synaptic axons and record post-synaptic muscle activity. Micromachining was used to create structurations to guide muscle growth above electrodes, without impairing axon propagation, therefore optimizing the effectiveness of activity recording. Electrodes were also arranged to be aligned with the microfluidic chambers in order to specifically stimulate axons that were growing between the two compartments. Isolation of the two cell types allows for the selective treatment of neurons or muscle fibers to assess NMJ functionality hallmarks. Altogether, this microfluidic/microstructured/MEA platform allowed mature and functional in vitro hNMJ modelling. We demonstrate that electrical activation of MNs can trigger recordable extracellular muscle action potentials. This study provides evidence for a physiologically relevant model to mimic a hNMJ that will in the future be a powerful tool, more sensitive than calcium imaging, to better understand and characterize NMJs and their disruption in neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Junção Neuromuscular , Axônios , Humanos , Microeletrodos , Neurônios Motores
16.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(11): 2916-2931, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interictal discharges (IIDs) and high frequency oscillations (HFOs) are established neurophysiologic biomarkers of epilepsy, while microseizures are less well studied. We used custom poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) microelectrodes to better understand these markers' microscale spatial dynamics. METHODS: Electrodes with spatial resolution down to 50 µm were used to record intraoperatively in 30 subjects. IIDs' degree of spread and spatiotemporal paths were generated by peak-tracking followed by clustering. Repeating HFO patterns were delineated by clustering similar time windows. Multi-unit activity (MUA) was analyzed in relation to IID and HFO timing. RESULTS: We detected IIDs encompassing the entire array in 93% of subjects, while localized IIDs, observed across < 50% of channels, were seen in 53%. IIDs traveled along specific paths. HFOs appeared in small, repeated spatiotemporal patterns. Finally, we identified microseizure events that spanned 50-100 µm. HFOs covaried with MUA, but not with IIDs. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these data suggest that irritable cortex micro-domains may form part of an underlying pathologic architecture which could contribute to the seizure network. SIGNIFICANCE: These results, supporting the possibility that epileptogenic cortex comprises a mosaic of irritable domains, suggests that microscale approaches might be an important perspective in devising novel seizure control therapies.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Microeletrodos , Adulto , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/instrumentação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
ACS Sens ; 6(9): 3377-3386, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410704

RESUMO

Accurate detection of the degree of isoflurane anesthesia during a surgery is important to avoid the risk of overdose isoflurane anesthesia timely. To address this challenge, a four-shank implantable microelectrode array (MEA) was fabricated for the synchronous real-time detection of dual-mode signals [electrophysiological signal and dopamine (DA) concentration] in rat striatum. The SWCNTs/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposites were modified onto the MEAs, which significantly improved the electrical and electrochemical performances of the MEAs. The electrical performance of the modified MEAs with a low impedance (16.20 ± 1.68 kΩ) and a small phase delay (-27.76 ± 0.82°) enabled the MEAs to detect spike firing with a high signal-to-noise ratio (> 3). The electrochemical performance of the modified MEAs with a low oxidation potential (160 mV), a low detection limit (10 nM), high sensitivity (217 pA/µM), and a wide linear range (10 nM-72 µM) met the specific requirements for DA detection in vivo. The anesthetic effect of isoflurane was mediated by inhibiting the spike firing of D2_SPNs (spiny projection neurons expressing the D2-type DA receptor) and the broadband oscillation rhythm of the local field potential (LFP). Therefore, the spike firing rate of D2_SPNs and the power of LFP could reflect the degree of isoflurane anesthesia together. During the isoflurane anesthesia-induced death procedure, we found that electrophysiological activities and DA release were strongly inhibited, and changes in the DA concentration provided more details regarding this procedure. The dual-mode recording MEA provided a detection method for the degree of isoflurane anesthesia and a prediction method for fatal overdose isoflurane anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Isoflurano , Animais , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Dopamina , Microeletrodos , Polímeros , Ratos
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372193

RESUMO

We present the integration of a flow focusing microfluidic device in a dielectrophoretic application that based on a tapered aluminum microelectrode array (TAMA). The characterization and optimization method of microfluidic geometry performs the hydrodynamic flow focusing on the channel. The sample fluids are hydrodynamically focused into the region of interest (ROI) where the dielectrophoresis force (FDEP) is dominant. The device geometry is designed using 3D CAD software and fabricated using the micro-milling process combined with soft lithography using PDMS. The flow simulation is achieved using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.5 to study the effect of the flow rate ratio between the sample fluids (Q1) and the sheath fluids (Q2) toward the width of flow focusing. Five different flow rate ratios (Q1/Q2) are recorded in this experiment, which are 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0. The width of flow focusing is increased linearly with the flow rate ratio (Q1/Q2) for both the simulation and the experiment. At the highest flow rate ratio (Q1/Q2 = 1), the width of flow focusing is obtained at 638.66 µm and at the lowest flow rate ratio (Q1/Q2 = 0.2), the width of flow focusing is obtained at 226.03 µm. As a result, the flow focusing effect is able to reduce the dispersion of the particles in the microelectrode from 2000 µm to 226.03 µm toward the ROI. The significance of flow focusing on the separation of particles is studied using 10 and 1 µm polystyrene beads by applying a non-uniform electrical field to the TAMA at 10 VPP, 150 kHz. Ultimately, we are able to manipulate the trajectories of two different types of particles in the channel. For further validation, the focusing of 3.2 µm polystyrene beads within the dominant FDEP results in an enhanced manipulation efficiency from 20% to 80% in the ROI.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Alumínio , Eletroforese , Microeletrodos , Microfluídica
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372233

RESUMO

pH value plays an important role in many fields such as chemistry and biology; therefore, rapid and accurate pH measurement is very important. Because of its advantages in preparation, wide test range, rapid response, and good biocompatibility, iridium oxide material has received more and more attention. In this paper, we present a method for preparing iridium oxide pH microelectrodes based on the sputter deposition method. The sputtering parameters of iridium oxide are also studied and optimized. Open-circuit potential tests show that microelectrodes exhibit near-Nernstian pH response with good linearity (about 60 mV/pH), fast response, high stability (a slight periodic fluctuation of potential change <2.5 mV in 24 h), and good reversibility in the pH range of 1.00-13.00.


Assuntos
Irídio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microeletrodos
20.
Anal Chem ; 93(32): 11312-11320, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355899

RESUMO

As one of the significant intracellular signaling molecules, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) regulates some vital biological processes. However, it remains a challenge to develop noninvasive electrodes that can be used for sensing trace H2O2 at the cellular level. Here, we evaluated a high-performance solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) H2O2 sensor based on MIL-88B(Fe) nanocrystal-anchored Ti microwires. Semiconducting TiO2 nanotubes (TiNTs) vertically grown around a Ti wire via an anodization technique act as an intrinsic ECL luminophore. By integrating with MIL-88B(Fe), the synergistic effect of the TiO2 luminophore and the remarkable peroxidase-like activity of MIL-88B(Fe) enable the resulting H2O2 sensor an ultrahigh sensitivity featuring a minimum detection limit of 0.1 nM (S/N = 3), long-term stability, high durativity, and wide-range linear response to a concentration of up to 10 mM. To demonstrate the concept of a MIL-88B(Fe)@TiO2 microelectrode for single-cell sensing, the electrode was used to detect intracellular H2O2 in a single cell. Moreover, benefiting from the heterojunction of MIL-88B(Fe)/TiO2, the microelectrode was found to exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity in the visible-light range, that is, the sensor surface can be self-cleaning after a short visible-light treatment. These advanced sensor characteristics involving easy reusability reveal that the MIL-88B(Fe)@TiO2 microelectrode is a new platform for cytosensing. This study provides a new strategy to design semiconductor materials with arbitrary shape and size, allowing for profound applications in biomedical and clinical analysis.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Nanotubos , Neoplasias , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/análogos & derivados , Microeletrodos , Titânio
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...