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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2231-2234, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018451

RESUMO

Enrichment and separation of Micro/Nano-scale specimens are fundamental requirements in biomedical researches. In this paper, we demonstrated a simple and efficient microfluidic chip for the continuous enrichment and separation of nanoscale polystyrene particles using the acoustic streaming induced by gigahertz(GHz) bulk acoustic waves(BAW). The bulk acoustic resonator released ultrahigh frequency (2GHz) acoustic waves into the fluid and triggered the acoustic streaming. The nanoparticles were continuous concentrated and segregated by the combination action of the viscosity force and the acoustic radiation force. The separation of 300 and 100 nm particles was achieved with the high purity (92.4%). These data contribute proof-in-principle that acoustic streaming is a label-free strategy that can be used to enrich and separate nanoscale specimens with high efficiency.


Assuntos
Acústica , Nanopartículas , Microfluídica , Poliestirenos , Som
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3544-3548, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018768

RESUMO

Direct current (DC) has potential as a clinical and scientific tool to accelerate wound healing, increase the permeability of the skin to drug treatment and modulate neural activity. But long duration delivery of DC unavoidably causes hazardous electrolysis at the tissue-electrode interface. To be able to deliver long duration DC, we previously proposed a design for a safe direct current stimulator (SDCS). This device uses alternating current that does not cause chemical reactions at the metal electrodes within the device, but delivers ionic direct current output to the tissue via microfluidic valves. We previously developed and published designs of multiple SDCS components including microfluidic, electronic, data processing, and energy systems. In this paper we focus on the development of the integrated microfluidics needed by the SDCS system. We developed a fabrication method and characterized valve performance within the multi-valve microfluidic system. We used poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to fabricate three microfluidic chips that integrated valves actuated by 50-µm Nitinol (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA) wire. We tested system operation by driving SMA valves with a current pulse and recording the valve response with an electrical assay. The valve operation complied with the SDCS system requirements. The time for valves to open was rapid at 0.177 ± 0.04 seconds, and the time for the valves to close was 0.265 ± 0.05 seconds. Open microfluidic channel impedance for unrestricted ionic current flow was 15.90 ± 8.28 kΩ and it increased by a factor of 40 to restrict ionic current flow at 678 ± 102 kΩ for the closed valves.


Assuntos
Microfluídica , Ligas de Memória da Forma , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4085-4088, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018896

RESUMO

A wide variety of electrochemical sweat sensors are recently being developed for real-time monitoring of biomarkers. However, from a physiological perspective, little is known about how sweat biomarkers change over time. This paper presents a method to collect and analyze sweat to identify inter and intraindividual variations of electrolytes during exercise. A new microfluidic sweat collection system is developed which consists of a patch covering the collection surface and a sequence of reservoirs. Na+, Cl- and K+ are measured with ion chromatography afterwards. The measurements show that with the new collector, variations in these ion concentrations can be measured reliably over time.


Assuntos
Microfluídica , Suor , Eletrólitos , Exercício Físico , Sudorese
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4278-4281, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018941

RESUMO

Resistive pulse sensors (RPS) are based on the detection principle of partial and non-permanent obstruction of an electrically conducting channel. The integration of RPS in microfluidics has the potential for detections at the molecular level. Current challenges involve limitations in fabrication technology, most notably the finite structure accuracy and fabrication repeatability, which have a direct and strong impact on RPS device performance. In this work, we analyzed the geometrical structure and performance of a nanofabricated RPS device and iteratively used the experimental data to propose an adequate numerical model which also accounts for fabrication imperfections beyond the optical resolution limit. The proposed model for a nano-RPS was validated and able to augment the understating of the structure and operation of a microdevice.Clinical Relevance- This work is part of a greater effort to bring microfluidics devices closer to patients for bedside analysis of blood, or other human fluids, for instance. These devices can potentially perform screening for multiple targets in one sample. New devices often need to go through design, prototyping and bench tests, simulation models as the one presented can increase the chances of the device to get to the market in reduced time.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Nanoporos , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Microfluídica
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4502-4505, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018994

RESUMO

A dynamic and low-profile unloader tibiofemoral knee brace is designed and prototyped by synergizing concepts from the fields of microfluidics and soft robotics. Microfluidics provides strategies for miniaturization and multiplexing while soft robotics afford the tools to create soft fluidic actuators and allow compliant and inherently safe robotic assistance as part of clothing. The unloader knee brace provides dynamic response during the gait cycle, where a three-point leverage torque is provided only during the stance phase to contribute to joint stability when required and enhance comfort and compliance.Clinical Relevance- This novel soft robotic brace has the potential to reduce device abandonment due to aesthetics, user non-compliance and discomfort due to a constant three-point leverage torque during the gait cycle. Also, this air microfluidics enabled soft robotic knee brace could be expanded upon to improve the efficacy of braces in general and augment the effects of physical therapy, rehabilitation and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Robótica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Braquetes , Humanos , Microfluídica , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5025-5028, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019115

RESUMO

We present in this work an array of microfluidic valves altogether with a corresponding custom control interface. This microfluidic network is an integrated drug delivery system intended for Organ-On-Chip (OOC) applications. Recent research works have achieved high-quality OOC platforms. The latter platforms require an increasing complexity and efficient and flexibile drug delivery systems. As many organs can be integrated in a single chip, a large number of micro-fluidic channels is needed to access various specific locations. Thus, we propose to drive the expected large number of switching valves with an embedded on-chip controller. The presented system includes a control interface of 5n channels using n-line control unit.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Microfluídica , Cateteres
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5037-5040, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019118

RESUMO

Since the introduction of microfluidics in the 1990s, the community has investigated numerous methods for their fabrication. However, there is interest for their inexpensive rapid prototyping. PCB technology as a low-cost, massfabrication approach for the realization of sensors has attracted attention, while its use for microfluidics is also gaining ground. In this paper the development and characterization of a microfluidic Y-channel is presented. The proposed design and assembly process for realizing the device is described in detail and the flow rate and mixing within the microchannel are characterized, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed novel technology for lab-on-PCB devices.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Microfluídica
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5271, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077832

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture technologies, such as organoids, are physiologically relevant models for basic and clinical applications. Automated microfluidics offers advantages in high-throughput and precision analysis of cells but is not yet compatible with organoids. Here, we present an automated, high-throughput, microfluidic 3D organoid culture and analysis system to facilitate preclinical research and personalized therapies. Our system provides combinatorial and dynamic drug treatments to hundreds of cultures and enables real-time analysis of organoids. We validate our system by performing individual, combinatorial, and sequential drug screens on human-derived pancreatic tumor organoids. We observe significant differences in the response of individual patient-based organoids to drug treatments and find that temporally-modified drug treatments can be more effective than constant-dose monotherapy or combination therapy in vitro. This integrated platform advances organoids models to screen and mirror real patient treatment courses with potential to facilitate treatment decisions for personalized therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Automação , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/instrumentação , Humanos , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 318: 124258, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099100

RESUMO

One of the goals of metabolic engineering is to engineer strains that can optimally produce target metabolites. However, the current workflow for rational engineering of the metabolic pathway is sometimes time-consuming and labor-intensive. Here, we have established a cost-effective approach for screening for variants secreting metabolites. Different surface display systems were adopted and verified, which anchored pHluorin to the Candida glabrata cell surface to associate pyruvic acid detection with the read out of this reporter. A generalizable simulation approach based on computational fluid dynamics and regularity of generated droplet dimension was presented, which was found to be an efficient design tool to explore microfluidic characteristics or optimization. Finally, a microfluidic platform based on simulation coupled with surface display system was constructed. A mutant exhibiting a 73.6% increase in pyruvic acid production was identified. This ultrahigh-throughput screening pattern offers a practical guide for identifying microbial strains with many traits of interest.


Assuntos
Candida glabrata , Ácido Pirúvico , Candida glabrata/genética , Engenharia Metabólica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Microfluídica
11.
Mutat Res ; 856-857: 503218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928366

RESUMO

The Ames microplate format (MPF™) is a miniaturized version of the plate agar Ames tests that takes advantage of a liquid microplate approach in 384-well plates with a color change-based readout. This method, already compared to the Ames test in Petri dishes, is used to assess the genotoxic potential of a variety of test items, including (but not limited to) chemicals, environmental samples, and drug candidates. 61 chemicals were selected from the updated recommended lists of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals for assessment of the performance of new or improved genotoxicity tests and tested in up to five bacterial strains. The agreement with the data from the scientific literature (over 90%) confirms the reliability of the Ames MPF™ as a cost-effective and 3R-compliant alternative to the regulatory Ames test that allows to predict and evaluate chemicals' mutagenicity in a faster, less laborious and, if available, automatable manner.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Mutagênicos/farmacologia , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Microfluídica/métodos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(10): 1331-1337, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908098

RESUMO

The development of actuators for power sources is essential for the efficient manipulation of fluids in microfluidics systems. In this work, a capacitor-type three-layer paper actuator was fabricated by sandwiching a polyelectrolyte layer between two films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS). The paper actuator exhibited stable large electromechanical deformations in bilateral symmetry under alternating square-wave electric field. The actuation properties were examined in a function of voltage (±0.5, ±1, ±1.5, ±2, and ±2.5 V) and frequency (1, 0.5, 0.2, and 0.05 Hz). In addition, the PEDOT/PSS electrode films with different thicknesses were prepared, and the effects of actuator thickness on actuation properties were examined. As a result, it was found that the actuator displacement increased considerably with reducing actuator thickness. In addition, the actuator with a thickness of 48 µm demonstrated a maximum displacement of 5.8 mm at a voltage of 1.5 V and a frequency of 0.05 Hz. The proposed actuator can be potentially used in the development of power sources for micropumps and check valves of microfluidic devices.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Eletrodos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica , Papel , Polímeros/química , Poliestirenos/química , Tiofenos/química , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/classificação , Eletricidade , Polímeros/classificação
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4405, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879320

RESUMO

Active biofluid management is central to the realization of wearable bioanalytical platforms that are poised to autonomously provide frequent, real-time, and accurate measures of biomarkers in epidermally-retrievable biofluids (e.g., sweat). Accordingly, here, a programmable epidermal microfluidic valving system is devised, which is capable of biofluid sampling, routing, and compartmentalization for biomarker analysis. At its core, the system is a network of individually-addressable microheater-controlled thermo-responsive hydrogel valves, augmented with a pressure regulation mechanism to accommodate pressure built-up, when interfacing sweat glands. The active biofluid control achieved by this system is harnessed to create unprecedented wearable bioanalytical capabilities at both the sensor level (decoupling the confounding influence of flow rate variability on sensor response) and the system level (facilitating context-based sensor selection/protection). Through integration with a wireless flexible printed circuit board and seamless bilateral communication with consumer electronics (e.g., smartwatch), contextually-relevant (scheduled/on-demand) on-body biomarker data acquisition/display was achieved.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Microfluídica , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Epiderme/química , Humanos , Suor/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(7): 1405-1413, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748598

RESUMO

In vitro compartmentalization (IVC) links genotype and phenotype by compartmentalizing individual genes (including expression system) or cells into a micro-droplet reaction region. Combined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), it can detect and separate single droplets in ultra-high throughput. IVC-FACS screening method has been widely used in protein engineering, enzyme directed evolution, etc. However, it is difficult to control the homogeneity of droplet size by mechanical dispersion method in previous studies, which seriously affects the quantitative detection of droplets and reduces the efficiency and accuracy of this screening method. With the rapid development of microfluidic chip manufacturing technology, the microfluidic chip-based methods for droplet generation are becoming more efficient and controllable. In this study, firstly, the water-in-oil (W/O) single-layer droplet generation chip was used to prepare single-layer monodisperse W1/O droplets at a high generation frequency, and then the W1/O droplets were reinjected into water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double-layer droplet generation chip to prepare uniform W1/O/W2 double-layer emulsion droplets. By optimizing the flow rate and ratio of the oil and water phases, a single-layer micro-droplet can be generated with a diameter range from 15.4 to 23.2 µm and remain stable for several days under normal incubation. Then the single-layer droplets were reinjected into the double emulsion generation chip. By adjusting the flow rate of drop phase, oil phase and water phase, the double-layer emulsion droplets with a diameter range from 30 to 100 µm at a rate of 1 000 droplets/s could be obtained. Escherichia coli embedded in the double-layer emulsion droplets could be cultured and induced for protein expression. This study lays a foundation for the establishment of a high-throughput screening method based on the droplet and flow cytometry.


Assuntos
Emulsões , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Microfluídica , Citometria de Fluxo , Microfluídica/métodos
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461391, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823097

RESUMO

In this study, a three-phase laminar flow microfluidic chip (TPL chip) combined with HPLC was developed for monitoring free and total concentrations of paclitaxel (PTX) in blood simultaneously. A diluted whole blood sample (aqueous phase) was introduced into the chip, ethyl acetate (organic phase) was introduced into the chip for extraction, and an interphase was used to prevent the blood sample from coming into direct contact with the organic phase. Because only free drug can quantitatively diffuse into the organic extraction phase and the free drug fraction has a linear relationship with the dilution factor of blood, both the free and total drug concentrations can be obtained by detecting the concentration of paclitaxel in the organic extraction phase. The governing factor such as flow rate for extraction was optimized. Docetaxel was used as an internal standard. The reliability of the quantitative diffusion of molecules in the TPL chip was proved by the methodological investigation of PTX in PBS sample, which showed a good linearity in the concentration range of 0.5 - 100 µg/mL and a detection limit of 7 ng/mL. Good repeatibilities for retention time (RSD of PTX is 1.23%, docetaxel is 1.14%, n = 5) and peak area ratio of PTX to docetaxel (RSD is 4.38%) were obtained. For blood sample analysis, only 100 µL of sample was needed and whole pretreatment was finished in 35 min, and a recovery of 94~117% were obtained. The provided method showed advantages in fast analysis speed, minimum sample handing, and potential ability of automation, and integration.


Assuntos
Microfluídica/métodos , Paclitaxel/sangue , Reologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Albumina Sérica Humana/análise
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461379, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797854

RESUMO

Ordered porous materials are attracting enormous attention due to their uniform pore structures, particularly the magnetic photonic crystal microspheres (PCMs) which not only possess unique photonic crystal structure but also can achieve separation easily based on magnet. Here, a two-phase microfluidic self-assembly synthetic system was established simply and employed for the preparation of three dimensional PCMs (3DPCMs) by using the emulsion droplet approach. One phase (dispersed phase) was an aqueous emulsion containing Fe3O4, silica (SiO2) and polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles; another phase (continuous phase) was pure silicone oil. The droplets were formed by introducing the dispersed phase into the continuous phase through a tee valve. By heating the droplets, the water would evaporate and the nanoparticles would finally assemble into solid microspheres, which could be changed into macroporous 3DPCMs after removal of the PS nanoparticles by calcination. The contents and particle sizes of Fe3O4, SiO2 and PS nanoparticles in the dispersed phase were investigated in detail and optimized to prepare macroporous magnetic 3DPCMs with high quality. The morphologies, surface crystal structure, magnetic property, particle size distribution, specific surface area and pore size of the macroporous magnetic 3DPCMs were characterized. The expected 3DPCM displayed regular and uniform photonic crystal structure, narrow particle size distribution and strong magnetic property. The macroporous magnetic 3DPCMs grafted with vomitoxin (DON)-antibodies could be applied for selective enrichment of DON in real samples.


Assuntos
Magnetismo , Microfluídica/métodos , Microesferas , Tricotecenos/análise , Anticorpos/imunologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Poliestirenos/química , Porosidade , Dióxido de Silício/química , Espectrofotometria , Tricotecenos/imunologia
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461421, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823116

RESUMO

Herein we present an efficient, column-switching method that relies on a custom-made T-union passive diffusion micromixer to assist water dilution and promote trap solute focusing of a high sample volume dissolved in pure organic solvent using a 0.075 mm i.d. nano-LC column. This method allows injecting 20 µL (or higher) of sample volume, speeding up the analysis time, with a 400-fold increase of the limits of quantitation for selected compounds. Five pesticides in different media were used as model compounds, and the analyses were carried out with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with a Liquid Electron Ionization (LEI) LC-MS interface working in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The system microfluidics were investigated using COMSOL modeling software. Robustness of the entire system was evaluated using a post-extraction addition soil extracts with limits of detection values spanning from 0.10 to 0.45 µg/L. Reproducible results in terms of peak area, peak shape, and retention times were achieved in soil matrix. Repeatability test on peak area variations were lower than 10%.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Elétrons , Microfluídica/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Água/química , Acetonitrilos/química , Difusão , Limite de Detecção , Praguicidas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3465, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651368

RESUMO

Mechanistic understanding of biochemical reactions requires structural and kinetic characterization of the underlying chemical processes. However, no single experimental technique can provide this information in a broadly applicable manner and thus structural studies of static macromolecules are often complemented by biophysical analysis. Moreover, the common strategy of utilizing mutants or crosslinking probes to stabilize intermediates is prone to trapping off-pathway artefacts and precludes determining the order of molecular events. Here we report a time-resolved sample preparation method for cryo-electron microscopy (trEM) using a modular microfluidic device, featuring a 3D-mixing unit and variable delay lines that enables automated, fast, and blot-free sample vitrification. This approach not only preserves high-resolution structural detail but also substantially improves sample integrity and protein distribution across the vitreous ice. We validate the method by visualising reaction intermediates of early RecA filament growth across three orders of magnitude on sub-second timescales. The trEM method reported here is versatile, reproducible, and readily adaptable to a broad spectrum of fundamental questions in biology.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Biofísica , Cinética , Microscopia de Fluorescência
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461270, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709322

RESUMO

In sample pre-treatment, millifluidic electromembrane platforms have been developed to extract and pre-concentrate target molecules with good clean-up that minimize matrix effects. Optimal operation conditions are normally determined experimentally, repeating the extractions at different conditions and determining the efficiencies by an analytical technique. To shorten and simplify the optimization protocol, millifluidic platforms have been electrically characterized by impedance spectroscopy. The magnitude of the resistance of the electromembrane has been found very predictive of the migration capacity and extraction efficiency of three different parabens on real time. The optimal conditions (4 V of applied potential) (Electromembrane extraction low voltage) have been successfully applied in the extraction of parabens from urine samples, that not only improves the extraction efficiency (100% for all compounds) but also provides a very low current intensity (7 µA), which is very important in electromembrane to minimize electrolysis phenomena. The possibility to optimize one of the most critical and important parameters such as the voltage with a simple electrical model may accelerate the production of application-specific millifluidic electromembrane platforms in a short development time. The results showed that millifluidic electromembrane extraction based low voltage has a future potential as a simple, selective, and time-efficient sample preparation technique allowing a simple battery as power supply.


Assuntos
Impedância Elétrica , Membranas Artificiais , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Modelos Teóricos , Parabenos/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Eletrólise , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reologia , Soluções
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 16743-16748, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611809

RESUMO

Mammalian nervous systems, as natural ionic circuitries, stand out in environmental perception and sophisticated information transmission, relying on protein ionic channels and additional necessary structures. Prosperously emerged ionic regulated biomimetic nanochannels exhibit great potentialities in various application scenarios, especially signal transduction. Most reported direct current systems possess deficiencies in informational density and variability, which are superiorities of alternating current (AC) systems and necessities in bioinspired nervous signal transmission. Here, inspired by myelinated saltatory conduction, alternating electrostatic potential controlled nanofluidics are constructed with a noncontact application pattern and MXene nanosheets. Under time-variant external stimuli, ions confined in the interlaminar space obtain the capability of carriers for the AC ionic circuit. The transmitted information is accessible from typical sine to a frequency-modulated binary signal. This work demonstrates the potentiality of the bioinspired nervous signal transmission between electronics and ionic nanofluidics, which might push one step forward to the avenue of AC ionics.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Microfluídica/métodos , Modelos Neurológicos , Nanoestruturas/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Transporte de Íons , Microfluídica/instrumentação
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