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1.
Food Chem ; 309: 125662, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704072

RESUMO

Strawberry cultivar "San Andreas" was grown under ambient (400 ppm CO2, 25 °C) and elevated (950 ppm CO2, 30 °C) growth conditions. The strawberries were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation to examine the accessibility of polyphenols, vitamin C and folates in fresh and frozen fruits using HPLC-UV analyses. Results revealed that elevated CO2 and higher temperature enhanced the amounts of accessible bioactive compounds in strawberries. Bioaccessibility of pelargonidin-3-glucoside increased from 67% to 88% in strawberries grown under elevated growth. Fresh strawberries grown under ambient growth contained 93.09 ±â€¯6.2 µg/100 g folates and 18.55 ±â€¯0.5 mg/100 g vitamin C as bioaccessible fractions under fed state while, elevated growth enhanced soluble folates and vitamin C up to 188.63 ±â€¯7.5 µg/100 g and 30.48 ±â€¯0.3 mg/100 g, respectively. Fresh strawberries contained higher amounts of accessible micronutrients than frozen strawberries, while increased bile contents in intestinal fluid (fed state) facilitated the release of bioactive compounds to gastrointestinal fluid.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fragaria/metabolismo , Micronutrientes/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/análise , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Congelamento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 296, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692868

RESUMO

Introduction: There is a growing interest on vital roles of micronutrients in the maintenance of good health and enhancement of the immune system for prevention of diseases. Methods: Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected micronutrients Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Potassium (K) in ten African indigenous leafy vegetables (AILVs) (Corchorus olitorius, Cucurbita moschata, Amaranthus blitum, Brassica carinata , Cleome gynandra, Solanum scabrum , Crotalaria ochroleuca, Urticadioica, Manihot esculenta, Vigna unguiculata) which are cultivated, marketed and consumed in Kenya and across East and West Africa. Results: In this study, the highest levels of Calcium, Zinc and Iron were found in Urticadioica leaves (75.0 mg/g), Manihot esculenta leaves (0.1 mg/g) and Cucurbita moschata leaves (1.0 mg/g). Amaranthus blitum leaves exhibited the highest content of Magnesium (9.5 mg/g) and Potassium (36.5 mg/g) respectively. This study demonstrated that based on weight and bioavailabilty, 10 g of Cucurbita moschata (dried weight) provides between 57% to 136% daily value of iron for children age between 7 and 10 years old and can provide up to 41%, 81% and 27% daily value of iron for female aged 18+, lactating females aged 18+ and males aged 18+ respectively. A 10 g portion of Urticadioica leaves (dried weight) will provide 75% or 58% of the daily value of calcium based on the North American or western European recommendation respectively while the same amount of Amaranthus leaves provides between 37% to 50 % of daily value of magnesium for adults of nineteen years and older based on their weight. The daily value of zinc despite its dependency with age, weight and Zinc bioavailability can be supplied by 10 g of Manihot esculenta leaves (dried weight) at a percentage ranged from 8% to 39%. Based on the 3510 mg daily recommendation, 10 g of Amaranthus, Brassica carinata, Cleome gynandra and Cucurbita moschata (dried weight) will provide 10.4%, 10.0%, 9.8% and 9.3% daily value for potassium respectively. Conclusion: The research findings are scientific evidences of the nutritional contribution of African indigenous leafy vegetables.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/análise , Necessidades Nutricionais , Verduras/química , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectrometria por Raios X
3.
Nature ; 574(7776): 95-98, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554969

RESUMO

Micronutrient deficiencies account for an estimated one million premature deaths annually, and for some nations can reduce gross domestic product1,2 by up to 11%, highlighting the need for food policies that focus on improving nutrition rather than simply increasing the volume of food produced3. People gain nutrients from a varied diet, although fish-which are a rich source of bioavailable micronutrients that are essential to human health4-are often overlooked. A lack of understanding of the nutrient composition of most fish5 and how nutrient yields vary among fisheries has hindered the policy shifts that are needed to effectively harness the potential of fisheries for food and nutrition security6. Here, using the concentration of 7 nutrients in more than 350 species of marine fish, we estimate how environmental and ecological traits predict nutrient content of marine finfish species. We use this predictive model to quantify the global spatial patterns of the concentrations of nutrients in marine fisheries and compare nutrient yields to the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in human populations. We find that species from tropical thermal regimes contain higher concentrations of calcium, iron and zinc; smaller species contain higher concentrations of calcium, iron and omega-3 fatty acids; and species from cold thermal regimes or those with a pelagic feeding pathway contain higher concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. There is no relationship between nutrient concentrations and total fishery yield, highlighting that the nutrient quality of a fishery is determined by the species composition. For a number of countries in which nutrient intakes are inadequate, nutrients available in marine finfish catches exceed the dietary requirements for populations that live within 100 km of the coast, and a fraction of current landings could be particularly impactful for children under 5 years of age. Our analyses suggest that fish-based food strategies have the potential to substantially contribute to global food and nutrition security.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Peixes/metabolismo , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Internacionalidade , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cálcio/análise , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/economia , Pesqueiros/economia , Peixes/classificação , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Selênio/análise , Vitamina A/análise , Zinco/análise
4.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0219680, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374090

RESUMO

Due to their limited access to the external productive inputs and the dependency on rain-fed agricultural production, small scale farmers in sub-Saharan Africa have continued to face undernutrition despite the significant advancements in agriculture. They however often live in areas endowed with high agrobiodiversity which could contribute, if explored, to improved diets and nutrition. Few studies have linked the contribution of agrobiodiversity to the micronutrient adequacy of the diets of young children among smallholder farmers. The study explored this relationship and contributes to the growing body of literature linking agrobiodiversity to nutrition of young children. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted as part of baseline assessment for an intervention study, one in the lean and a second in the plenty season in Vihiga county, Kenya. Household level interviews were administered to 634 households with children 12-23 months. Agrobiodiversity was defined as the number of crop species cultivated or harvested from the wild and the number of livestock maintained by the household across two agricultural seasons. Dietary data were collected using two-non-consecutive quantitative 24-hour recalls and analyzed using Lucille software. Diet quality was assessed using dietary diversity score based on seven food groups and mean probability of micronutrient adequacy computed for eleven micronutrients. A total of 80 species were maintained or harvested from the wild by the households. Mean household species richness was 9.9 ± 4.3. One in every four children did not meet the minimum dietary diversity score. The average mean probability of micronutrient adequacy was 68.11 ± 16.08 in plenty season compared to 56.37± 19.5% in the lean season. Iron, zinc and calcium were most limiting micronutrients in the diet, with less than 30% average probability of adequacy in both seasons. Household agrobiodiversity was positively associated with both dietary diversity score (r = 0.09, p = 0.029) and micronutrient adequacy (r = 0.15, p<0.000) in the pooled sample. One unit increase in species diversity was associated with 12.7% improvement in micronutrient adequacy. Despite the rich agrobiodiversity in the study area the diets were low in diversity and there is an unrealized opportunity to improve micronutrient intake through greater promotion and consumption of locally available agrobiodiversity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Dieta , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Masculino , Micronutrientes/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tools for the rapid and accurate analysis of nutrient intakes from diets of individuals in Southern Ethiopia are lacking. The Calculator of Inadequate Micronutrient Intake program for Ethiopia (CIMI-Ethiopia) has been developed to overcome this problem. CIMI-Ethiopia also computes protein and energy intakes from the diet. The objectives of the current study were to validate CIMI-Ethiopia for the dietary pattern of Southern Ethiopia, and assess the nutrient intakes in postharvest dry and lean wet seasons. METHODS: 24-h dietary recall (24HR) data was collected from 578 women of a reproductive age in postharvest dry and lean wet seasons in 2017. For analysis, 24HR data was entered into NutriSurvey (NS), which was the reference nutrition software, and then into CIMI-Ethiopia. For validation, the mean and standard deviation (SD) of the difference between CIMI-Ethiopia and NS were computed. The percentage of participants with an inadequate intake was calculated. The correlation between CIMI-Ethiopia and NS results was determined. The nutrient intakes in postharvest dry and lean seasons were compared. RESULTS: Among the nutrients, pantothenic acid, vitamin B1, and protein showed a very high accuracy in CIMI-Ethiopia calculation (|difference (D)| < 5.0% of the NS result). Nutrients with a good accuracy (|D| = 5%-15%) were iron, zinc, magnesium, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and energy. The accuracy for calcium, niacin, and vitamin A was moderate (|D| = 15%-30%). The intakes calculated by CIMI-Ethiopia and NS of iron, zinc, magnesium, calcium, B-complex vitamins, vitamin A, protein, and energy were highly correlated (r = 0.85-0.97, p < 0.001). NS analysis identified a significant reduction in the mean intake of iron; zinc; magnesium; pantothenic acid; vitamin B1, B12, and D; protein; and energy in the lean wet season; however, calcium and vitamin A intake increased. CONCLUSIONS: It has been found that CIMI-Ethiopia is a valid tool for estimating nutrient intakes at an individual level in Southern Ethiopia. The study demonstrated a decline in intakes of iron; zinc; magnesium; pantothenic acid; vitamin B1, B12, and D; protein; and energy in the lean wet season. This result provides some hint for fortification and supplementation programs that aim to combat maternal malnutrition in rural Southern Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Mães , Musa , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/análise , Estações do Ano
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443343

RESUMO

People with obesity in Romania are often under medical supervision, which is aimed to decrease body weight and treat accompanying metabolic disorders and cardiovascular implications. However, there is limited information regarding the implementation of dietary recommendations in adults with obesity. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of reaching the recommended intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients in adults with obesity under medical supervision. Individuals with obesity, recruited in the context of a study with a larger scope (NutriGen ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02837367), who were under medical supervision underwent four 24 h recalls in order to assess daily food intakes. Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes were computed, and the prevalence of reaching recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for each nutrient was calculated. The majority of subjects did not meet the recommended intakes for most nutrients. Energy from fat exceeded the threshold of 35% recommended intake, even in the lowest quartile of energy intake. The micronutrients with less than 5% of individuals reaching the RDAs were vitamin D, vitamin E, fluoride, and omega-3 fatty acids for both males and females, and choline, magnesium, and potassium in females. The burden of inadequate nutrition in individuals with obesity should be acknowledged and properly addressed within efforts to reduce obesity rates and associated disorders.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Micronutrientes/análise , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/classificação , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Romênia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6364-6371, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biofortification with selenium (Se) elevates its concentration in feed and fodder plants and helps to prevent health problems in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to describe Se-induced modifications in the accumulation of elements important for the proper functioning of wheat, one of the most popular cereals. The presence of Se correlated with carbohydrate synthesis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). This explained the mechanisms of Se's antioxidant activity. RESULTS: Selenium accumulation in vegetative and generative leaves, and in the grains of three wheat genotypes (cv. Parabola, cv. Raweta and cv. Manu), differing in their stress tolerance and grown hydroponically in the presence of 10 or 20 µM Na2 SeO4, , was proportional to its content in the medium. Stronger Se accumulation was typical of a stress-sensitive genotype. Selenium generally promoted the uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients but their distribution depended on tissue and genotype. Changes in the Se-induced EPR signals of paramagnetic metals and organic radicals corresponded with stress tolerance of the tested genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Se application increased the accumulation of nutrients and carbohydrates that are vital for proper plant growth and development. Accelerated uptake of molybdenum (Mo), an element improving dietary properties of grains, may be an additional advantage of Se fertilization. The mechanisms of Se-induced changes in removing Mn and iron (Fe) ions from macromolecules may be one of the factors that differentiate plant tolerance to oxidative stress. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Selênio/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Genótipo , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Selênio/análise , Açúcares/análise , Triticum/química , Triticum/genética
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277328

RESUMO

Background and objective: Often micronutrient deficiencies cannot be detected when patient is already following a long-term gluten-free diet with good compliance (LTGFDWGC). The aim of this narrative review is to evaluate the most recent literature that considers blood micronutrient deficiencies in LTGFDWGC subjects, in order to prepare dietary supplementation advice (DSA). Materials and methods: A research strategy was planned on PubMed by defining the following keywords: celiac disease, vitamin B12, iron, folic acid, and vitamin D. Results: This review included 73 studies. The few studies on micronutrient circulating levels in long-term gluten-free diet (LTGFD) patients over 2 years with good compliance demonstrated that deficiency was detected in up to: 30% of subjects for vitamin B12 (DSA: 1000 mcg/day until level is normal, then 500 mcg), 40% for iron (325 mg/day), 20% for folic acid (1 mg/day for 3 months, followed by 400-800 mcg/day), 25% for vitamin D (1000 UI/day or more-based serum level or 50,000 UI/week if level is <20 ng/mL), 40% for zinc (25-40 mg/day), 3.6% of children for calcium (1000-1500 mg/day), 20% for magnesium (200-300 mg/day); no data is available in adults for magnesium. Conclusions: If integration with diet is not enough, starting with supplements may be the correct way, after evaluating the initial blood level to determine the right dosage of supplementation.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dieta Livre de Glúten/efeitos adversos , Micronutrientes/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Cálcio/análise , Cálcio/sangue , Doença Celíaca/sangue , Doença Celíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Dieta Livre de Glúten/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/análise , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Ferro/sangue , Masculino , Micronutrientes/sangue , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Vitamina B 12/análise , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina D/análise , Vitamina D/sangue , Zinco/análise , Zinco/sangue
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8096-8106, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260296

RESUMO

Field experiments were conducted on wheat to study the effects of foliar-applied iodine(I) alone, Zn (zinc) alone, and a micronutrient cocktail solution containing I, Zn, Se (selenium), and Fe (iron) on grain yield and grain concentrations of micronutrients. Plants were grown over 2 years in China, India, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, and Turkey. Grain-Zn was increased from 28.6 mg kg-1 to 46.0 mg-1 kg with Zn-spray and 47.1 mg-1 kg with micronutrient cocktail spray. Foliar-applied I and micronutrient cocktail increased grain I from 24 µg kg-1 to 361 µg kg-1 and 249 µg kg-1, respectively. Micronutrient cocktail also increased grain-Se from 90 µg kg-1 to 338 µg kg-1 in all countries. Average increase in grain-Fe by micronutrient cocktail solution was about 12%. The results obtained demonstrated that foliar application of a cocktail micronutrient solution represents an effective strategy to biofortify wheat simultaneously with Zn, I, Se and partly with Fe without yield trade-off in wheat.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Iodo/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Índia , Iodo/análise , Ferro/análise , México , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Selênio/análise , África do Sul , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Turquia , Zinco/análise
10.
Vopr Pitan ; 88(2): 73-82, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233691

RESUMO

Knowledge about food composition is necessary both for specialists to assess the state of nutrition of the population and develop recommendations on nutrition, as well as for consumers to organize healthy individual nutrition. Russian Union of Juice Producers together with research organizations is working to systematize and expand knowledge about the composition of juices, as one of the important elements in the structure of human nutrition. Aim is to establish the nutrient profile of pineapple juice. Material and methods. Data analysis of reference books and scientific publications, conducting physic-chemical studies of industrially produced pineapple juice. Results and discussion. The nutrient profile shows the content of more than 30 nutritive and bioactive compounds in pineapple juice. Sugars in pineapple juice are represented by glucose, fructose and sucrose in an average ratio of 1:1:1.6, organic acids are mainly citric and L-malic acids, while the content of citric acid is 2-4 times higher than that of L-malic. A portion of industrially produced pineapple juice on average contains 10% of the daily human requirement for potassium and magnesium, about 15% for copper, 60-70% for vitamin C. The content of vitamin B1 and folate is about 7% of daily recommended level, vitamin B6 - about 12%. Pineapple juice is a source of manganese - a portion contains more than 100% of the adequate level of daily consumption of this trace element. Polyphenolic compounds are mainly represented by hydroxycinnamic acids, among which synaptic acid and its derivatives and p-coumaroyl chinic acid predominate (45-80% of all hydroxycinnamic acids in total). The content of hydroxycinnamic acids per serving averages 30% of the adequate level of their daily intake. Pineapple juice shows proteolytic activity (about 1 pe per 1 g of dry matter), which is associated with the content of the complex of proteolytic enzymes in pineapples. Conclusion. The most significant from the point of view of providing a human body with micronutrients and minor bioactive compounds for pineapple juice are manganese, vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, copper, potassium, magnesium, and B vitamins (B1, B6, folates).


Assuntos
Ananas/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Cítrico/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Humanos , Malatos/análise , Micronutrientes/análise
11.
Vopr Pitan ; 88(2): 83-90, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233692

RESUMO

The Far Eastern region is rich in fruit and berry raw materials with a high content of bioactive substances. The aim of the work is to study the chemical composition of wild berries of the Amur region of the Far Eastern region. Material and methods. The objects of the research were the berries of Sargent viburnum (Viburnum sargentii Koechne), Chinese Schisandra [Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill], and Amursky grapes (Vitis amurensis Rupr) harvested from 2011 to 2016. The content of organic acids and tannins was determined by titration, anthocyanins - spectrophotometrically, polyphenolic substances and ß-carotene - photoelectrocolo rimetrically, vitamins B1, B2 - fluorometrically, vitamins B6 and E - by HPLC, hydroxycinnamine acids - by direct spectrophotometry. Results and discussion. The maximum amount of polyphenolic substances and vitamin C was found in V. sargentii berries, the average value of which was 1.01±0.04% and 85.2±2.4 mg/100 g, respectively. A high content of potassium was found in V. amurensis (an average of 188.5±2.2 mg/100 g) and V. sargentii (176.6±1.2 mg/100 g). The highest content of vitamins B1, B2, B6 was found in the berries of V. amurensis, the average content of which was, respectively, 0.071±0.002 mg/100 g, 0.065±0.002 mg/100 g and 0.081±0.004 mg/100 g. It was also found that in V. sargentii berries the level of all minerals and trace elements was the highest: calcium content in 100 g of berries was 41.4±0.8 mg, magnesium - 17.3±0.4 mg, phosphorus - 227.7±4.6 mg, manganese - 0.69±0.08 mg, iron - 0.60±0.08 mg, zinc - 0.90±0.08 mg. When consumed 100 g of V. sargentii berries, practically fully satisfies the need of an adult in vitamin C, in phosphorus and manganese - by about a quarter; in potassium, iron, and zinc, by 4-8%. 100 g of Sch. chinensis contains about 50% of the recommended daily intake of vitamin C, and 100 g of V. amurensis - about 10% of vitamin C and ß-carotene, 7% of potassium, about 4% of group B vitamins. The studied berries can serve as a source of hydroxycinnamic acids and pectins. Conclusion. Studies of the chemical composition of the berries V. sargentii, Sch. chinensis, V. amurensis harvested in 2011-2016 indicates a wide range of bioactive compounds, the proportion of each of which varies.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Micronutrientes/análise , Minerais/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Sibéria , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181761

RESUMO

Postprandial lipemia, which is one of the main characteristics of the atherogenic dyslipidemia with fasting plasma hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase of small and dense low-density lipoproteins is now considered a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Postprandial lipemia, which is mainly related to the increase in chylomicron production, is frequently elevated in individuals at high cardiovascular risk such as obese or overweight patients, type 2 diabetic patients and subjects with a metabolic syndrome who share an insulin resistant state. It is now well known that chylomicron production and thus postprandial lipemia is highly regulated by many factors such as endogenous factors: circulating factors such as hormones or free fatty acids, genetic variants, circadian rhythms, or exogenous factors: food components, dietary supplements and prescription drugs. In this review, we focused on the effect of nutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals but also on food structure on chylomicron production and postprandial lipemia.


Assuntos
Quilomícrons/biossíntese , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Nutrientes/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
13.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 54: 175-182, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109609

RESUMO

Inadequate micronutrient intake in childhood harms growth and development, and it is related to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the dietary intake and prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake in preschool children (1-4 years old) attending two-day care centers. To assess children's dietary micronutrient intake, 24-h duplicate diets (n = 64) were collected for one week-day, including everything the children ate and drank both at home and in kindergarten. Anthropometric measurements were carried out to evaluate the children's nutritional status. The micronutrients copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, selenium, zinc, potassium, sodium, and manganese were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Calcium and selenium were found with high inadequate intake rates: 50% and 42%, respectively, for children aged 1-3 years old, and 93% and 90% for children aged 4 years. Potassium was consumed in very low amounts, 13% and 5% of children aged 1-3 and 4 years old, respectively, achieved the adequate intake for the nutrient. Sodium intakes were excessive: 23% of the 1-3-year old and 42% of the 4-year-old children, respectively, had an intake higher than the tolerable upper levels. Regarding the nutritional status, overweight and obesity prevalence was 17%. Therefore, considering the damaging health effects for children of micronutrient deficiency and overweight and obesity status, it is necessary that government authorities be aware and update public policies and educational programs in order to promote healthy eating habits in early childhood.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Brasil , Cálcio/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Magnésio/análise , Masculino , Micronutrientes/análise , Estado Nutricional , Potássio/análise , Selênio/análise , Sódio/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Zinco/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 292: 66-74, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054694

RESUMO

In this work, the ultrasound-assisted extraction was employed for the first time as a sample treatment in the determination of Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg and Ca in non-centrifugal sugar by F AAS. Parameters that influence the extraction, such as composition of the extraction solvent, sample mass and sonication time were optimized in this work. The optimum condition for the extraction was the proportion of 60:40% (v/v) of HNO3:H2O2 as an extraction solution, 0.100 g of non-centrifugal sugar and 60 min of sonication. Analytical curves were built in an aqueous solution. Low quantification limits for Mn (0.021), Zn (0.008), Fe (0.030), Ca (0.389) and Mg (0.009) mg L-1 were determined, suggesting a good detectability of the methodology. Estimates of repeatability and intermediate precision demonstrated that the precision observed was within the limits recommended in the literature. Good accuracy of the method was verified through the high recovery rates (91-108%).


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Metais/análise , Ultrassom/métodos , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Limite de Detecção , Micronutrientes/análise , Sonicação , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos
15.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 137-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991282

RESUMO

Fly ash generated from coal-fired power plants is a source of potential pollutants, but can be used as a soil ameliorant to increase plant biomass and yield in agriculture. However, the effects of fly ash soil application on plant biomass and the accumulation of both nutrient and toxic elements in plants remain unclear. Based on 85 articles, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate changes in plant biomass and concentrations of 21 elements in plants in response to fly ash application. These elements included macro-nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, and S), micro-nutrients (B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn), and metal(loid)s (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Se). Overall, fly ash application decreased plant biomass by 15.2%. However, plant biomass was enhanced by fly ash application by 11.6-29.2% at lower application rates (i.e. <25% of soil mass), and decreased by 45.8% at higher application rates (i.e. 50-100%). Belowground biomass was significantly reduced while yield was enhanced by fly ash application. Most of the element concentrations in plants were enhanced by fly ash application, and followed a descending order with metal(loid)s > micro-nutrients > macro-nutrients. Concentrations of elements tended to increase with an increase in fly ash application rate. Our syntheses indicated that fly ash should be applied at less than 25% in order to enhance plant biomass and yield but avoid high accumulations of metal(loid)s.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cinza de Carvão/farmacologia , Metais/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia , Biomassa , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Centrais Elétricas , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9692053, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001559

RESUMO

Deficiency of metals, primarily Fe and Zn, affects over half of the world's population. Human diets dominated by cereal products cause micronutrient malnutrition, which is common in many developing countries where populations depend heavily on staple grain crops such as wheat, maize, and rice. Biofortification is one of the most effective approaches to alleviate malnutrition. Genetically stable mutant spring wheat lines (M7 generation) produced via 100 or 200 Gy gamma treatments to broaden genetic variation for grain nutrients were analyzed for nutritionally important minerals (Ca, Fe, and Zn), their bioavailability, and grain protein content (GPC). Variation was 172.3-883.0 mg/kg for Ca, 40.9-89.0 mg/kg for Fe, and 22.2-89.6 mg/kg for Zn. In mutant lines, among the investigated minerals, the highest increases in concentrations were observed in Fe, Zn, and Ca when compared to the parental cultivar Zhenis. Some mutant lines, mostly in the 100 Gy-derived germplasm, had more than two-fold higher Fe, Zn, and Ca concentrations, lower phytic acid concentration (1.4-2.1-fold), and 6.5-7% higher grain protein content compared to the parent. Variation was detected for the molar ratios of Ca:Phy, Phy:Fe, and Phy:Zn (1.27-10.41, 1.40-5.32, and 1.78-11.78, respectively). The results of this study show how genetic variation generated through radiation can be useful to achieve nutrient biofortification of crops to overcome human malnutrition.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Ferro/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Triticum , Zinco/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/genética , Humanos , Oryza/química , Oryza/genética , Triticum/química , Triticum/genética
17.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nut consumption has been associated with improved nutrient adequacy and diet quality in healthy adult populations but this association has never been explored in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: to assess the associations between consumption of nuts and nutrient adequacy and diet quality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. DESIGN: baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6060, men and women, with ages 55⁻75 years old, with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. METHODS: nut intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants who reported consuming zero quantity of nuts were classified as 'non-nut consumers'. 'Nut consumers' were participants who reported consuming any quantity of nuts. Nineteen micronutrients were examined (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine). The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was estimated using the estimated average requirements (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) cut-points. Diet quality was also assessed using a 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire (Mediterranean diet score, MDS), a carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and a fat quality index (FQI). RESULTS: eighty-two percent of participants were nut consumers (median of nut consumption 12.6 g/day; interquartile range: 6.0⁻25.2). Nut consumers were less likely to be below the EAR for vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E, folic acid, and Ca, Mg, Se and Zn than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers were also more likely to be above the AI for K and Cr than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers had lower prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes, but also higher CQI, higher FQI, and better scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean diet score, MDS). CONCLUSIONS: nut consumers had better nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and adherence to the MedDiet than those non-nut consumers.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Nozes , Obesidade/complicações , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 4985-4992, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Calçot' is the Catalan name for the immature floral stems of second-year onion resprouts of the Blanca Tardana de Lleida (BTL) landrace. Highly appreciated for their sensory attributes, these resprouts are typically consumed after roasting on an open fire. Now new preparations are appearing, helping to expand the market for 'calçots'. This study aimed (i) to compare the nutritional and sensory characteristics of BTL 'calçots' versus other onion varieties; (ii) to analyze the effects of cooking and / or in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the nutritional properties of 'calçots'; and (iii) to determine the influence of the environment on the antioxidant properties of 'calçots'. RESULTS: The nutritional and sensory characteristics of both raw and cooked 'calçots' differed between varieties, with the exception of some minerals. Flavonoid content decreased by 85% during cooking, and total phenolic content decreased by 30%. By contrast, antioxidant activity increased after cooking. Most traits had a nonlinear response to heating, and differences between varieties generally decreased after cooking. Location also had a strong effect on antioxidant activity. In vitro digestion of cooked 'calçots' sharply decreased antioxidant activity after the intestinal phase. The only significant genotypic correlation between sensory and nutritional quality was the correlation between sweetness and ash content (R = -0.97). CONCLUSION: Cooked BTL 'calçots' are within the limits of the onion domain for nutritional properties, and the variability reported for onion bulbs is also present in resprouts. The effects of the environment, cooking, and in vitro digestion clearly overlap the genetic effects. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Cebolas/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Agricultura/métodos , Antioxidantes/análise , Digestão , Flavonoides/análise , Genótipo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Micronutrientes/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Cebolas/genética , Fenóis/análise , Sensação , Espanha , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 70(8): 924-931, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987487

RESUMO

Current prune composition data are outdated and require a comprehensive and comparative re-analysis. This novel study aimed to: (i) analyse and compare prune composition from major countries of origin; and (ii) provide a comprehensive compositional analysis of prunes of USA origin and compare this with UK and USA database data. Prune samples were analysed for major nutrients and bioactive compounds and compared between countries of origin. Total fibre was higher in prunes from the USA (12.0 g/100 g) and Chile (11.5 g/100 g) compared with France (8.4 g/100 g) and Argentina (8.9 g/100 g), while prunes from all countries contained high levels of sorbitol (11.2-15.5 g/100 g). Differences in energy and starch values compared with national databases reflected different approaches to sampling and analysis. In conclusion, prunes contain high levels of fibre and other bioactive compounds. Variations between country of origin and database values highlight the importance of transparency in documenting sampling and analysis methods.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Frutas/química , Micronutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Prunus domestica/química , Sorbitol/análise , Argentina , Chile , Bases de Dados Factuais , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , França , Polifenóis/análise , Prunus domestica/classificação , Estados Unidos
20.
Food Nutr Bull ; 40(1): 26-40, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India has made important strides in reducing nutritional deficiencies over the past several decades. However, for micronutrients such as zinc, previous studies have suggested a worsening situation, contrary to most other dietary indicators. Adding to this burden, higher carbon dioxide (CO2) levels of 550 ppm, projected to potentially occur within decades, could reduce the zinc content of many staple crops. OBJECTIVE: To assess the historical prevalence of inadequate zinc intake, as well as to estimate the future prevalence attributable to rising CO2. METHODS: Seven household food consumption surveys between 1983 and 2012 were used to calculate total dietary zinc, phytate, and absorbable zinc intakes and to assess the prevalence of historic inadequacy in zinc intake. The added nutritional effect of elevated CO2 on zinc intake is then modeled. RESULTS: Prevalence of inadequate absorbable zinc intake has increased from 17.1% (15.3%-19.0%) in 1983 to 24.6% (22.3%-27.1%) in 2011-12, corresponding to an additional 82 million people consuming inadequate zinc than would have otherwise if 1983 rates had persisted. These increases in inadequacy have been driven by a relatively constant zinc intake being increasingly insufficient to meet a 5% growth in zinc requirements due to the aging of the population. Reaching 550 ppm CO2 by 2050 could potentially increase the prevalence of inadequate zinc intake by another 3.9 percentage points (2.1-5.8), corresponding to 65 million additional people having inadequate zinc intake. CONCLUSIONS: The persistently worsening trend for zinc-opposite most other measures of human nutrition-shows that it may pose an ongoing risk unless addressed.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Dieta/tendências , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Oligoelementos/deficiência , Zinco/deficiência , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/análise , Necessidades Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Prevalência , Oligoelementos/análise , Zinco/análise
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