Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 659
Filtrar
1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5231-5259, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men which remains a global public health issue. Treatment of prostate cancer is becoming increasingly intensive and aggressive, with a corresponding increase in resistance, toxicity and side effects. This has revived an interest in nontoxic and cost-effective preventive strategies including dietary compounds due to the multiple effects they have been shown to have in various oncogenic signalling pathways, with relatively few significant adverse effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To identify such dietary components and micronutrients and define their prostate cancer-specific actions, we systematically reviewed the current literature for the pertinent mechanisms of action and effects on the modulation of prostate carcinogenesis, along with relevant updates from epidemiological and clinical studies. RESULTS: Evidence from various recent experimental, clinical and epidemiological studies indicates that select dietary micronutrients (i.e., lycopene, epigallocatechin gallate, sulforaphane, indole-3-carbinol, resveratrol, quercetin, curcumin & piperine) and zinc play a key role in prostate cancer prevention and progression and therefore hold great promise for the future overall management of prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: A formulation that comprises these micronutrients using the optimal, safest form and dosing should be investigated in future prostate cancer chemoprevention studies and as part of standard prostate cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Animais , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Dieta/métodos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico
2.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 229, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including vitamins, minerals, herbals, and other dietary supplements, is widespread in the United States (ranging from 24% in Hispanics to 50% in American Indians). Pharmacists are an accessible source for healthcare information, but little is known about their use of CAM products and to whom they would recommend these products. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was sent via email to pharmacists licensed in one state in the United States in 2015. The survey included items about their use of 10 vitamins and minerals, and 21 herbal or other dietary supplements, as well as reasons for use, conditions used to treat, if they would recommend the product to patients, family, or friends, their perception of CAM safety and effectiveness, and four demographic questions. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data, and a chi-square test was used to determine differences between pharmacists' use of vitamins/minerals and herbals/other dietary supplements. The a priori alpha level was 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 639 pharmacists completed the survey. Female pharmacists used vitamins/minerals (p = 0.031) and herbals/others (p = 0.039) more than male pharmacists. Older pharmacists used herbals/others more than younger pharmacists (p < 0.001). Fifty-nine percent thought the dietary supplements in the survey were safe while 32% reported they were effective. Seventy-eight percent of respondents reported use of any vitamin or mineral product versus 42% who reported use of any herbal or other dietary supplement. Commonly used products included: multivitamins (91%), vitamin C (71%), fish oil (65%), probiotics (53%), and fiber (53%). The most commonly reported reason for use was general health and wellness (17-90%). Pharmacists most commonly recommend fiber/psyllium (94%) and calcium (90%) to patients, family, and friends. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacists in this survey selectively used vitamins, minerals, herbals and other dietary supplements, and recommended some of the more commonly used products to patients, family and friends. This is valuable information given that pharmacists are frontline healthcare professionals who may be asked to provide advice about these products.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Farmácia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Med Arch ; 73(2): 109-112, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391698

RESUMO

Introduction: Cataract surgery is a widely used procedure around the world. After cataract surgery, one of the important points is that oxidative stress may cause postoperative corneal edema and vision loss. Aim: In this study, we aim to reduce the oxidative stress and related conditions that may develop during intraoperative and postoperative FAKO + IOL implantation. Material and Methods: Total amount of 32 patients with cataract were included to the study. The patients were classified as two groups randomly and the same surgical procedure was applied to the patients in both groups, except using visudrop. Group I was defined as a control group and routine FAKO + IOL implantation surgery was performed. In Group II, after the sideport was opened at the beginning of the operation, 0.5 cc visudrop (coenzyme q + vitamin E + hypermellosis) was given to the anterior camara. After the operation, 0.5 cc visudrop was also given to the anterior camara. Postoperative examination findings were compared statistically. Results: In Group II, postoperative 1st day and postoperative 7th day visual acuities were significantly higher than in Group I. In Group II, postoperative 1st day and postoperative 7th day visual acuity increments were significantly higher than in Group I. In Group I, postoperative 1st day and 7th day pachymetry value increments were significantly higher than in Group II. Conclusion: Using visudrop during the FAKO + IOL implantation may be an effective method for postoperative corneal edema and vision.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Implante de Lente Intraocular/métodos , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Facoemulsificação/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Ubiquinona/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Administração Oftálmica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Edema da Córnea/epidemiologia , Paquimetria Corneana , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Tonometria Ocular
4.
Rev. méd. panacea ; 8(2): 69-72, mayo-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015988

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar el uso de los micronutrientes y grado de anemia en niños menores de 3 años atendidos en un Centro de Salud de Ica 2017. Materiales y métodos: El estudio fue cuantitativo, de tipo descriptivo, y transversal, la muestra estuvo conformada por 40 niños menores de tres años con sus respectivas madres, la técnica que se utilizó fue la observación y el análisis documental. Resultados: En relación a los datos generales de la madre, el 47.5% (19) tienen 19 a 34 años, el 50% (20) tienen instrucción superior, el 40% (16) son solteras y el 57.5% (23) trabaja fuera de casa; sobre los datos del niño, el 55% (22) tienen de 6 a 12 meses, el 72.5% (29) recibió solo lactancia materna hasta los seis meses y el 100% (40) inició la alimentación complementaria a los 6 meses. El uso de micronutrientes es adecuado en el 82.5% (33) de las madres y es inadecuado en el 17.5% (07). Según valores de hemoglobina, el 62.5% (25) de los niños no presentan anemia, el 37.5% (15) presentan anemia leve, no encontrando niños con anemia moderada ni anemia severa. Conclusiones: El uso de micronutrientes que administran las madres a sus niños es adecuado y los niños no presentan anemia en su mayoría, existiendo porcentajes menores de niños con anemia leve por lo que se sugiere que se continúe con el abastecimiento continuo de los micronutrientes realizando campañas educativas a fin de comprometer a las madres en la administración correcta de los micronutrientes en sus menores hijos aprovechando los momentos de contacto con las madres para la educación respectiva en las sala de espera, durante sus controles de inmunizaciones, controles CRED, y realizar un monitoreo periódico del control de hemoglobina. (AU)


Objective: To determine the use of micronutrients and the degree of anemia in children under 3 years of age served in an Ica Health Center 2017. Materials and methods: The study was quantitative, descriptive, and cross-sectional, the sample consisted of 40 children under three years with their respective mothers, the technique used was observation and documentary analysis. Results: In relation to the general data of the mother, 47.5% (19) are 19 to 34 years old, 50% (20) have higher education, 40% (16) are single and 57.5% (23) work ; On the data of the child, 55% (22) have from 6 to 12 months, 72.5% (29) received only breastfeeding until six months and 100% (40) started complementary feeding at 6 months. The use of micronutrients is adequate in 82.5% (33) of mothers and is inadequate in 17.5% (07). According to hemoglobin values, 62.5% (25) of the children do not have anemia, 37.5% (15) have mild anemia, and there are no children with moderate anemia or severe anemia. Conclusions: The use of micronutrients administered by mothers to their children is mostly adequate and children do not have anemia in their majority. There are smaller percentages of children with mild anemia, so it is suggested that continuous supply of the micronutrients conducting educational campaigns in order to engage mothers in the correct administration of micronutrients in their younger children, taking advantage of the moments of contact with mothers for the respective education in the waiting room, during their immunization controls, CRED controls, and perform periodic monitoring of hemoglobin control. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Anemia , Análise Quantitativa , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
5.
J Nutr Sci ; 8: e22, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275576

RESUMO

Inadequate protein quality may be a risk factor for poor growth. To examine the effect of a macronutrient-micronutrient supplement KOKO Plus (KP), provided to infants from 6 to 18 months of age, on linear growth, a single-blind cluster-randomised study was implemented in Ghana. A total of thirty-eight communities were randomly allocated to receive KP (fourteen communities, n 322), a micronutrient powder (MN, thirteen communities, n 329) and nutrition education (NE, eleven communities, n 319). A comparison group was followed cross-sectionally (n 303). Supplement delivery and morbidity were measured weekly and anthropometry monthly. NE education was provided monthly. Baseline, midline and endline measurements at 6, 12 and 18 months included venous blood draws, diet, anthropometry, morbidity, food security and socio-economics. Length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) was the primary outcome. Analyses were intent-to-treat using mixed-effects regressions adjusted for clustering, sex, age and baseline. No differences existed in mean LAZ scores at endline (-1·219 (sd 0·06) KP, -1·211 (sd 0·03) MN, -1·266 (sd 0·03) NE). Acute infection prevalence was lower in the KP than NE group (P = 0·043). Mean serum Hb was higher in KP infants free from acute infection (114·02 (sd 1·87) g/l) than MN (107·8 (sd 2·5) g/l; P = 0·047) and NE (108·8 (sd 0·99) g/l; P = 0·051). Compliance was 84·9 % (KP) and 87·2 % (MN) but delivery 60 %. Adjusting for delivery and compliance, LAZ score at endline was significantly higher in the KP v. MN group (+0·2 LAZ; P = 0·026). A macro- and micronutrient-fortified supplement KP reduced acute infection, improved Hb and demonstrated a dose-response effect on LAZ adjusting consumption for delivery.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimentos Fortificados , Hemoglobinas , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Antropometria , Biomarcadores , Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Gana , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Inflamação , Masculino , Morbidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181761

RESUMO

Postprandial lipemia, which is one of the main characteristics of the atherogenic dyslipidemia with fasting plasma hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase of small and dense low-density lipoproteins is now considered a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Postprandial lipemia, which is mainly related to the increase in chylomicron production, is frequently elevated in individuals at high cardiovascular risk such as obese or overweight patients, type 2 diabetic patients and subjects with a metabolic syndrome who share an insulin resistant state. It is now well known that chylomicron production and thus postprandial lipemia is highly regulated by many factors such as endogenous factors: circulating factors such as hormones or free fatty acids, genetic variants, circadian rhythms, or exogenous factors: food components, dietary supplements and prescription drugs. In this review, we focused on the effect of nutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals but also on food structure on chylomicron production and postprandial lipemia.


Assuntos
Quilomícrons/biossíntese , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Nutrientes/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(6)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216637

RESUMO

Regarding cancer as a genetic multi-factorial disease, a number of aspects need to be investigated and analyzed in terms of cancer's predisposition, development and prognosis. One of these multi-dimensional factors, which has gained increased attention in the oncological field due to its unelucidated role in risk assessment for cancer, is diet. Moreover, as studies advance, a clearer connection between diet and the molecular alteration of patients is becoming identifiable and quantifiable, thereby replacing the old general view associating specific phenotypical changes with the differential intake of nutrients. Respectively, there are two major fields concentrated on the interrelation between genome and diet: nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. Nutrigenetics studies the effects of nutrition at the gene level, whereas nutrigenomics studies the effect of nutrients on genome and transcriptome patterns. By precisely evaluating the interaction between the genomic profile of patients and their nutrient intake, it is possible to envision a concept of personalized medicine encompassing nutrition and health care. The list of nutrients that could have an inhibitory effect on cancer development is quite extensive, with evidence in the scientific literature. The administration of these nutrients showed significant results in vitro and in vivo regarding cancer inhibition, although more studies regarding administration in effective doses in actual patients need to be done.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Nutrigenômica/métodos , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/uso terapêutico , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Nutrigenômica/instrumentação , Prebióticos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Selênio/farmacologia , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Vitamina A/farmacologia , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
9.
J Altern Complement Med ; 25(6): 613-622, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081672

RESUMO

Objectives: There is an increasing body of literature documenting the efficacy of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) interventions for the treatment of psychiatric problems in the short term; however, long-term safety is largely unexplored. The goal of this observational study was to investigate the safety of two commercially available broad-spectrum micronutrient formulas (EMPowerplus and Daily Essential Nutrients) given at doses above the Recommended Dietary Allowances for the long-term treatment of individuals with psychiatric symptoms. Design: Participants on long-term treatment with micronutrients (medication-free) for psychiatric problems (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD, n = 21], anxiety/depression [n = 13]) were identified from ongoing research studies and the community through purchasing records. Seventeen children and 17 adults had blood tests to assess their full blood count, coagulation profile, liver and kidney function, fasting glucose, iron studies, key nutrients, and prolactin. Questionnaires assessed psychological/psychiatric functioning. Seventeen of the participants had completed the same measures pretreatment. Results: The average length of consuming micronutrients was 2.66 years (standard deviation = 2.86). Excluding B12 (which was elevated for almost all participants), 94.6% of all blood test results were within the test reference ranges. One participant was diagnosed with hemochromatosis based on iron studies. No other clinically relevant adverse changes in blood results were identified pre- and post-treatment. No clinically significant adverse effects were reported. Post-treatment psychometrics identified that 85% of the participants were in nonclinical ranges for measures of ADHD, depression, anxiety, and stress. Conclusions: We report preliminary evidence for the safety of long-term commercially available micronutrients, although questions remain. Overall, the substantial psychiatric benefits observed appear to outweigh the minimal observed risks in these participants. Screening for potential medical problems is recommended before initiating treatment. Long-term pharmacovigilance monitoring is required to ascertain any rare but significant adverse events.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Minerais/efeitos adversos , Oligoelementos/efeitos adversos , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/efeitos adversos , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
10.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 36(1): 17-25, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE.: Objective. To assess the impact of micronutrient powder supplementation (MNP) in reducing anemia in children aged 10 to 35 months in Apurimac, Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: A secondary analysis of the database of the Evaluation of supplementation with MNP in the Apurímac region, conducted by the National Food and Nutrition Center (CENAN, in Spanish) between 2009 and 2010, was conducted. The intervention group was defined as children who consumed 60 or more packets of MNP; to generate the controls (children who did not consume MNP), we applied a propensity score matching (PSM); and, to estimate the impact of the MNP, we compared the prevalence of anemia in each study group, weighted by the probability of participation, applying three matching algorithms: nearest neighbor, kernel and local linear regression. All calculations were performed in the Stata 14 SE statistical program. RESULTS.: The prevalence of anemia was significantly lower by up to 11 percentage points in the intervention group compared to controls (p=0.001), and mean hemoglobin increased by 0.3 g/dL in the same group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS.: MNP supplementation showed impact in reducing anemia and increasing hemoglobin level in children who consumed 60 or more packets of MNP over a six-month period. Efforts to reduce anemia by using MNP to prevent this nutritional deficiency should continue.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Pós , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(Suppl_7): 852S-871S, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proper nutrition during early life is critical for growth and development. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe systematic reviews conducted by the Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review team for the USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project to answer the following: What is the relation between 1) timing of introduction of complementary foods and beverages (CFBs) or 2) types and/or amounts of CFBs consumed and micronutrient status (iron, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, folate, and fatty acid status)? METHODS: A literature search identified articles from developed countries published from January 1980 to July 2016 that met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and risk of bias assessed. Evidence was qualitatively synthesized to develop a conclusion statement, and the strength of the evidence was graded. RESULTS: Nine articles addressed the timing of CFB introduction and 31 addressed types or amounts or both of CFBs. Moderate evidence suggests that introducing CFBs at age 4 mo instead of 6 mo offers no advantages or disadvantages in iron status among healthy full-term infants. Evidence is insufficient on the timing of CFB introduction and other micronutrient status outcomes. Strong evidence suggests that CFBs containing iron (e.g., meat, fortified cereal) help maintain adequate iron status or prevent deficiency in the first year among infants at risk of insufficient iron stores or low intake. Benefits for infants with sufficient iron stores (e.g., infant formula consumers) are less clear. Moderate evidence suggests that CFBs containing zinc (e.g., meat, fortified cereal) support zinc status in the first year and CFB fatty acid composition influences fatty acid status. Evidence is insufficient with regard to types and amounts of CFBs and vitamin D, vitamin B-12, and folate status, or the relation between lower-iron-containing CFBs and micronutrient status. CONCLUSIONS: Several conclusions on CFBs and micronutrient status were drawn from these systematic reviews, but more research that addresses specific gaps and limitations is needed.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/sangue , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Micronutrientes/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Bebidas , Aleitamento Materno , Deficiências Nutricionais/etiologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Saúde do Lactente , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/sangue , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
12.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 63, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes, the most common maternally inherited mitochondrial disease, can present with a wide range of neurological manifestations including both central and peripheral nervous system involvement. The most frequent genetic mutation reported in mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome is A3243G in MT-TL1 gene. Stroke-like episodes, dementia, epilepsy, lactic acidemia, myopathy, recurrent headaches, hearing impairment, diabetes, and short stature constitute the known presentations in this syndrome. Among the abnormal involuntary movements in mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome, myoclonus is the commonest. Other movement disorders, including chorea, are rarely reported in this disorder. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old South Asian boy from rural Bengal (India), born of a second degree consanguineous marriage, with normal birth and development history, presented with abnormal brief jerky movements involving his trunk and limbs, with recurrent falls for 10 months. We present here a case of heteroplasmic mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome with A3251G mutation, in which the clinical picture was dominated by a host of involuntary abnormal movements including chorea-ballism, myoclonus, and oromandibular dystonia in a backdrop of cognitive decline, seizure, and stroke-like episode. A final diagnosis was established by muscle biopsy and genetic study. Haloperidol was administered to control the involuntary movements along with introduction of co-enzyme Q, besides symptomatic management for his focal seizures. Six months into follow-up his seizures and abnormal movements were controlled significantly with slight improvement of cognitive abilities. CONCLUSION: The dominance of hyperkinetic movements in the clinical scenario and the finding of a point mutation A3251G in MT-TL1 gene make this a rare presentation.


Assuntos
Antidiscinéticos/uso terapêutico , Coreia/diagnóstico , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Síndrome MELAS/diagnóstico , Mutação Puntual/genética , Adolescente , Coreia/genética , Coreia/fisiopatologia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Síndrome MELAS/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome MELAS/genética , Síndrome MELAS/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Ubiquinona/uso terapêutico
13.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211693, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759117

RESUMO

In developing countries, micronutrient deficiency in infants is associated with growth faltering, morbidity, and delayed motor development. One of the potentially low-cost and sustainable solutions is to use locally producible food for the home fortification of complementary foods. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that locally producible spirulina platensis supplementation would achieve the following: 1) increase infant physical growth, 2) reduce morbidity, and 3) improve motor development. We randomly assigned 501 Zambian infants into the control group or the spirulina group. Children in the control group (n = 250) received a soya-maize-based porridge for 12 months; those in the spirulina group (n = 251) received the same food with the addition of spirulina. We assessed the change in infants' anthropometric status, morbidity (probable pneumonia, cough, probable malaria, and fever), and motor development over 12 months. The baseline characteristics were not different between the two groups. The attrition rate (47/501) was low. The physical growth of infants in the two groups was similar at 12 months of intervention, as measured by height-for-age z-scores and weight-for-age z-scores. Infants in the spirulina group were 11 percentage points less likely to develop a cough (CI: -0.23, -0.00; P < 0.05) and were more likely to be able to walk alone at 15 months (0.96 ± 0.19) than infants in the control group (0.92 ± 0.28). Home-fortification of complementary foods using spirulina had positive effects on upper respiratory infection morbidity prevention and motor milestone acquisition among Zambian infants.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Destreza Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Spirulina , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Morbidade , Zâmbia
14.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 38, 2019 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thymic size in early infancy predicts subsequent survival in low-income settings. The human thymus develops from early gestation, is most active in early life and is highly sensitive to malnutrition. Our objective was to test whether thymic size in infancy could be increased by maternal and/or infant nutritional supplementation. METHODS: The Early Nutrition and Immune Development (ENID) Trial was a randomized 2 × 2 × 2 factorial, partially blinded trial of nutritional supplementation conducted in rural Gambia, West Africa. Pregnant women (N = 875) were randomized to four intervention groups (iron-folate (standard care), multiple micronutrients, protein energy or protein energy + multiple micronutrients at 'booking' (mean gestational age at enrolment = 13.6 weeks, range 8-20 weeks) until delivery. The iron-folate and multiple micronutrient arms were administered in tablet form and the protein energy arms as a lipid-based nutritional supplement. All intervention arms contained 60 mg iron and 400 µg folic acid per daily dose. From 24 to 52 weeks of age, infants from all groups were randomized to receive a daily lipid-based nutritional supplement, with or without additional micronutrients. Thymic size was assessed by ultrasonography at 1, 8, 24 and 52 weeks of infant age, and a volume-related thymic index calculated. Detailed data on infant growth, feeding status and morbidity were collected. RESULTS: A total of 724 (82.7%) mother-infant pairs completed the trial to infant age 52 weeks. Thymic size in infancy was not significantly associated with maternal supplement group at any post-natal time point. Infants who received the daily LNS with additional micronutrients had a significantly larger thymic index at 52 weeks of age (equivalent to an 8.0% increase in thymic index [95% CI 2.89, 13.4], P = 0.002). No interaction was observed between maternal and infant supplement groups. CONCLUSIONS: A micronutrient-fortified lipid-based supplement given in the latter half of infancy increased thymic size, a key mediator of immune function. Improving the micronutrient status of infants from populations with marginal micronutrient status may improve immune development and survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry (controlled-trials.com) Identifier: ISRCTN49285450.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Timo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Gâmbia , Humanos , Lactente , Micronutrientes/farmacologia
15.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629717

RESUMO

Micronutrient deficiency is one of the biggest public health concerns in Bangladesh. As per World Health Organisation (WHO) in the 2016 report, 40% women of reproductive age suffer from anaemia. According to the National Micronutrient Survey 2011-2012, 57% women suffer from zinc deficiency. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of fortified rice (FFR in addressing anaemia and zinc deficiency among vulnerable women. Baseline and endline surveys were conducted among female Vulnerable Group Development (VDG) beneficiaries in five districts in Bangladesh before and after 12 months of FFR distribution. The intervention group received 30 kg FFR; the control group received 30 kg non-FFR for every month from January 2013 to December 2013. The sample sizes were 870 women (435/group) at baseline and 800 (400/group) at endline. Difference-in-difference (DID) was estimated to measure the effect of FFR on anaemia and serum zinc. In the baseline survey, 39% of the FFR group and 34% of the non-FFR group had anaemia. At endline, 34% of women in the FFR group were anaemic compared to 40.7% in the non-FFR group. At endline, prevalence of anaemia was reduced in the FFR group by 4.8% but increased in the non-FFR group by 6.7%. The DID estimation showed the reduction in anaemia after 12 months of FFR consumption was significant (p = 0.035). The DID in mean haemoglobin level after 12 months of FFR consumption was also statistically significant (p = 0.002). Zinc deficiency decreased by 6% in the FFR group at endline, though the DID was not significant. Most of the respondents of the FFR group reported that they received their entitled rice on a regular basis however only half of the non-FFR respondents received every month in 12 months. Anaemia was significantly associated with not consuming fortified rice, geographical region, older age and heavy menstrual bleeding (P<0.05). FFR reduced anaemia and zinc deficiency prevalence. Replacement of regular rice with FFR in the VGD programme is recommended to reduce anaemia among vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Alimentos Fortificados , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Oryza , Zinco/metabolismo , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Oryza/química , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 188(1): 45-51, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705834

RESUMO

Serum magnesium (Mg) is reported to be reduced in individuals with obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus and has been suggested as a marker for metabolic syndrome. We have studied changes in serum Mg concentrations in a group of obese patients (n = 92) with and without diabetes mellitus after weight loss induced by dieting and bariatric surgery. At inclusion, 11% (10/92) of the population had severe Mg deficiency (< 0.75 mmol/L) and median serum Mg was lower in diabetic (n = 20) compared to non-diabetic (n = 72) patients (p = 0.002). A weight loss of 10 kg after 8 weeks of lifestyle interventions was accompanied by increased serum Mg of about 5% in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Serum Mg remained stable thereafter in the non-diabetic patients, while it continued to increase in the diabetic patients after bariatric surgery. Six months after bariatric surgery, there was no significant difference in serum Mg concentration between the groups (p = 0.08). The optimal range of circulating Mg concentration is not known, but as even small increments in serum Mg are reported to lower the risk of cardiovascular and ischemic heart disease, our results are interesting in a public health perspective.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Magnésio/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/terapia , Perda de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus/cirurgia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Deficiência de Magnésio , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 59(6): 965-981, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple micronutrient supplementation has been suggested to have a role on health outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF), but the evidence is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the role of multiple micronutrient supplementation in heart failure we performed a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS AND RESULTS: The search in databases included PUBMED (until June 2018) to detect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyzes that investigated the impact of micronutrient supplementation in HF. RESULTS: With more than 2357 titles and abstracts reviewed, we included only the studies suitable for the final review. Whether alone or in combination, micronutrients have been found to improve the health outcomes of patients with HF by improving symptoms, work capacity and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), thus increasing the quality of life in these patients. CONCLUSION: Future studies are needed to document the effects of multiple micronutrient associations in order to include them in nutritional guidelines to increase survival and to improve quality of life in patients with heart failure.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/dietoterapia , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Terapia Nutricional , Aminoácidos , Carnitina , Bases de Dados Factuais , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Ácido Fólico , Homocisteína , Humanos , Magnésio , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Potássio , Qualidade de Vida , Selênio , Taurina , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Vitaminas
18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 189(1): 18-27, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066063

RESUMO

Lithium compounds have been widely used in psychopharmacology, particularly in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Their normothymic and neuroprotective properties when used at high doses have been well established. However, a number of observations suggest that environmentally relevant lithium doses may also exert beneficial health effects, leading to a decrease in the rate of suicides and levels of violence. Despite the fact that this element is not officially considered to be a micronutrient, some authors have suggested provisional recommended intakes set at 1000 µg/day for a 70-kg adult (14.3 µg/kg body weight). The present paper reviews the biological action of lithium, its bioavailability and metabolism, and content in different foodstuffs and water. It also assesses epidemiological data on potential correlations between lithium intake and suicide rate as well as examines the concept of fortifying food with this element as a strategy in the primary prevention of mood disorders and pre-suicidal syndrome.


Assuntos
Lítio/uso terapêutico , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lítio/administração & dosagem , Transtornos do Humor/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intent-to-treat analyses from a randomized controlled trial showed significant between-group differences favouring micronutrient treatment on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement, but no group differences on clinician, parent and teacher ratings of overall ADHD symptoms. There was an advantage of micronutrients over placebo in improving overall function, emotional regulation, aggression, and reducing impairment as well as improving inattention based on clinician but not parent observation. No group differences were observed on hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. We investigated predictors of response defined by pre-treatment variables. METHOD: We conducted analyses of data from a clinical trial of children (7-12 years) with ADHD, whereby participants were randomized to receive micronutrients or placebo for 10 weeks followed by a 10 week open-label (OL) phase. We included only children who had been exposed to micronutrients for a full 10 week period and demonstrated satisfactory adherence, either in RCT phase (n = 40) or OL phase (those who received placebo during RCT phase; n = 31). Seven outcomes were examined: change in ADHD symptoms (clinician/parent), ADHD responder, overall responder, change in mood, change in functioning, and change in aggression. Demographic, developmental variables, current clinical and physical characteristics, MTHFR genotype at two common variants, and pre-treatment serum/plasma levels (vitamin D, B12, folate, zinc, copper, iron, ferritin, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and homocysteine) were all considered as putative predictors. RESULTS: Substantial nutrient deficiencies pre-treatment were observed only for vitamin D (13%) and copper (15%), otherwise most children entered the trial with nutrient levels falling within expected ranges. Regression analyses showed varying predictors across outcomes with no one predictor being consistently identified across different variables. Lower pre-treatment folate and B12 levels, being female, greater severity of symptoms and co-occurring disorders pre-treatment, more pregnancy complications and fewer birth problems were identified as possible predictors of greater improvement for some but not all outcome measures although predictive values were weak. Lower IQ and higher BMI predicted greater improvement in aggression. CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates Rucklidge et al. (2014b) showing the limited value of using serum nutrient levels to predict treatment response although we cannot rule out that other non-assayed nutrient levels may be more valuable. Additionally, no specific demographic or clinical characteristics, including MTHFR genetic status, were identified that would preclude children with ADHD from trying this treatment approach.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/sangue , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Transtornos Nutricionais/sangue , Transtornos Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Nutricionais/genética , Transtornos Nutricionais/terapia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
IUBMB Life ; 71(4): 516-522, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592129

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide. NAFLD manifests as hepatic lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, and inflammation, and can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of NAFLD, including those that drive its progression, are unclear. Both liver-resident (Kupffer cells) and recruited macrophages play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance and NASH. Therefore, NALFD could potentially be ameliorated by modifying the polarization of macrophages/Kupffer cells. Reactive oxygen species induce oxidative stress, which is implicated in the progression of NASH. Micronutrients, including vitamins, are potent antioxidants that exert anti-inflammatory effects, and are used in the treatment of NAFLD. We review here the molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of NAFLD and the potential utility of vitamin E in its prevention and/or treatment. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 71(4):516-522, 2019.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo , Vitamina E/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA