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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 390, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100164

RESUMO

The implications and health effects of microplastics (MPs) ingestion are still unclear, yet researchers and organizations around the world are increasingly examining the levels of microplastics and nanoplastics in the environment. This study investigated the presence and the quantity of microplastics in bottled and tap water from five regions in Saudi Arabia and estimated the dietary intake of microplastics. Thirty samples of drinking water were collected from the retail markets in Saudi Arabia. The samples included plastic bottled drinking water, 2 glass bottles, and 2 samples of tap water to represent ground water and desalinated seawater. Sample preparation in the laboratory involved a vacuum-assisted filtration with an inorganic filter membrane (0.2-µm pore size). Identification and classification of microplastics particles using Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR microspectroscopy). The particle size range screened for in this study was 25-500 µm. Microplastics were identified in 17 out of 30 samples. The average of the detected microplastic particles was 1.9 pcs/L (lower bound estimate, LB) and 4.7 pcs/L (upper bound estimate, UB), respectively. The most frequently identified plastic type was polyethylene (PE), followed by polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Given an average recommended water intake of 3.7 and 2.7 L per day for men and women, respectively, the corresponding daily exposure to microplastics would result in 0.1-0.2 pcs/kg bw. The estimate for high water consumers increases to a daily exposure of 1.7-1.9 pcs/kg bw based on the recommended intake for water in hot weather by the WHO. From these results, we conclude that the level of dietary intake of microplastics from drinking water in Saudi Arabia is low, and according to current state of knowledge, microplastics from drinking water do not pose any concern to the consumers in Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água Potável/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Arábia Saudita , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072552

RESUMO

Indirect evidence has determined the possibility that microplastics (MP) induce constipation, although direct scientific proof for constipation induction in animals remains unclear. To investigate whether oral administration of polystyrene (PS)-MP causes constipation, an alteration in the constipation parameters and mechanisms was analyzed in ICR mice, treated with 0.5 µm PS-MP for 2 weeks. Significant alterations in water consumption, stool weight, stool water contents, and stool morphology were detected in MP treated ICR mice, as compared to Vehicle treated group. Also, the gastrointestinal (GI) motility and intestinal length were decreased, while the histopathological structure and cytological structure of the mid colon were remarkably altered in treated mice. Mice exposed to MP also showed a significant decrease in the GI hormone concentration, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) expression, and their downstream signaling pathway. Subsequent to MP treatment, concentrations of chloride ion and expressions of its channel (CFTR and CIC-2) were decreased, whereas expressions of aquaporin (AQP)3 and 8 for water transportation were downregulated by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. These results are the first to suggest that oral administration of PS-MP induces chronic constipation through the dysregulation of GI motility, mucin secretion, and chloride ion and water transportation in the mid colon.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Microplásticos/efeitos adversos , Fenótipo , Poliestirenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Biomarcadores , Fenômenos Químicos , Cloretos/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Colo/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Bombas de Íon/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Microplásticos/química , Mucinas/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/química , Transdução de Sinais , Água/metabolismo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147262, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088027

RESUMO

The rising use of contaminants such as nanoparticles and microplastics has taken a heavy toll on the marine environment. However, their combined toxic effects on the species across various trophic levels remain quite unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of three surface-functionalized (carboxylated, plain, and aminated) polystyrene microplastics on nano-TiO2 toxicity across two trophic levels containing Chlorella sp. as the prey and Artemia salina as the predator. The experiments carried out on Chlorella sp. include the toxicity assessment, oxidative stress determination, and uptake of nano-TiO2 (both in the presence and absence of microplastics). Results revealed that the aminated and plain polystyrene microplastics enhanced nano-TiO2 toxicity, while carboxylated microplastics decreased the toxic effects in Chlorella sp. On the other hand, toxicity assessment in Artemia salina was carried out using two different modes of exposure: aqueous and dietary routes. The aqueous route involving the direct exposure of nano-TiO2 and microplastics indicated greater toxicity, uptake, and accumulation in Artemia salina than the dietary route of exposure. Since dietary exposure decreased the toxicity, uptake, and accumulation of nano-TiO2, no change (p > 0.05) in the biomagnification factors of nano-TiO2 was noted for all the test concentrations of nano-TiO2 combined with and without microplastics. The computed values were less than 1, indicating negligible transfer of nano-TiO2 from Chlorella sp. to Artemia salina. Overall, the study highlights the two-level trophic toxicity and the transfer potential of nano-TiO2 under the influence of different microplastics.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Titânio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147055, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088132

RESUMO

Environmental pollutants like microplastics are posing health concerns on aquatic animals and the ecosystem. Microplastic toxicity studies using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a model are evolving but methodologically hindered from obtaining statistically strong data sets, detecting toxicity effects based on microplastics uptake, and correlating physiological and behavioural effects at an individual-worm level. In this paper, we report a novel microfluidic electric egg-laying assay for phenotypical assessment of multiple worms in parallel. The effects of glucose and polystyrene microplastics at two concentrations on the worms' electric egg-laying, length, diameter, and length contraction during exposure to electric signal were studied. The device contained eight parallel worm-dwelling microchannels called electric traps, with equivalent electrical fields, in which the worms were electrically stimulated for egg deposition and fluorescently imaged for assessment of neuronal and microplastic uptake expression. A new bidirectional stimulation technique was developed, and the device design was optimized to achieve a testing efficiency of 91.25%. Exposure of worms to 100 mM glucose resulted in a significant reduction in their egg-laying and size. The effects of 1 µm polystyrene microparticles at concentrations of 100 and 1000 mg/L on the electric egg-laying behaviour, size, and neurodegeneration of N2 and NW1229 (expressing GFP pan-neuronally) worms were also studied. Of the two concentrations, 1000 mg/L caused severe egg-laying deficiency and growth retardation as well as neurodegeneration. Additionally, using single-worm level phenotyping, we noticed intra-population variability in microplastics uptake and correlation with the above physiological and behavioural phenotypes, which was hidden in the population-averaged results. Taken together, these results suggest the appropriateness of our microfluidic assay for toxicological studies and for assessing the phenotypical heterogeneity in response to microplastics.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Microplásticos , Animais , Ecossistema , Microfluídica , Plásticos/toxicidade
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147154, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088136

RESUMO

The water bodies are greatly influenced by chemical contamination and global increasing temperature. As an emerging pollutant, microplastics are widely distributed in the freshwater environment, raising concerns regarding their potential toxicity to organisms. Especially for zooplankton filter feeders, many of microplastics are in similar size as their food. Individually, both microplastics and temperature have profound effects on zooplankton populations and their function in ecosystems. However, the strength and direction of their interactive effects are still not clear. Here, we performed a comprehensive biotoxicity assessment providing empirical evidence that the temperature played a key role in shaping the sensitivity of the zooplankter, Daphnia magna, against microplastic toxicity. We found that exposure to microplastics generally caused negative effects on Daphnia individual fitness, such as increased lethality, declined fecundity and reduced population growth rate. This microplastic toxicity was more prominent at 30 °C than at 20 °C, and was rather minor at 15 °C. Moreover, the warming accelerated the ingestion of microplastics, and triggered abnormal ultrastructure of intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, the expression profiling of candidate genes revealed oxidative damage, fecundity impairment and energy retardation by microplastics were amplified with increasing temperature, which may contribute to the enhancement of microplastic toxicity under warming. Given that high temperature fluctuations are becoming more common and difficult to predict, the interactive effects of microplastics and climate warming on Daphnia population dynamics and biomass production may become increasingly aggravated in nature. Collectively, extrapolation for environmental risk assessment studies conducted under different temperature contexts may broaden our knowledge microplastic toxicity on aquatic organism fitness.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Daphnia , Ecossistema , Expressão Gênica , Aptidão Genética , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147065, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088143

RESUMO

Many methods have been used to isolate and identify microplastics from biological matrices. In biological samples, Nile Red can stain undigested residues, such as fats, soaps, and gels formed during organic matter removal, hindering the identification of fluorescent microplastics (≥2 µm). Thus, adjustments on sample preparation (e.g., fat removal) are required for the accurate identification of Nile Red stained microplastics. Multiples tests allowed to identify that digestion with 10% KOH at 60 °C for 24 h, followed by treatments with boiling water, acetone, and staining, produced good results in fourteen biological samples, including vertebrates and invertebrates. Digestion efficiencies were 94-100%, except for feces, which were 87%. Recovery rates of spiked microplastics were 97-100%, and few effects were observed in the infrared spectra and carbonyl index of seven polymers, with only the occasional yellowing suggesting surface changes. Filtration rates were improved by reducing the amount of sample. Small fluorescent microplastics could be identified in all samples under the microscope. Overall, the proposed method was efficient in removing natural organic matter from biological samples for Nile Red staining, requiring minimal sample handling, improving sample throughput, and allowing quantification of fluorescent microplastics in biological samples.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oxazinas , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 146981, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088153

RESUMO

Freshwater riverbeds are a major repository of microplastics (MPs) from inland activities. Benthic macroinvertebrates that live in close contact with sediments seem to ingest a considerable amount of such plastic particles. The effects of MPs on life-history traits are relatively well-known, but the suborganismal mechanisms underlying such effects remain unclear. This study addressed the potential effects of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) MPs on Chironomus riparius larvae at cellular and molecular levels. Fourth instar C. riparius larvae were exposed to 0.025 and 2.5 g/kg LDPE of dry sediment (sizes: <32 and 32-45 µm; with irregular shape) under laboratory conditions for 48 h. These short-term exposures to environmental concentrations of LDPE MPs induced changes in the energy reserves (mostly by decreasing carbohydrates and increasing lipids), increased antioxidant and detoxification responses (tGSH, CAT, and GST), and induced increases in the activity of AChE (related to neurotransmission). In addition, at the gene level, exposure to MPs modified mRNA levels of InR, Dis, EcR, Dronc, Met (endocrine system), Def (immune system), PARP, ATM, NLK, and Decay (DNA repair), generating important alterations in the C. riparius development and response to unfavorable situations. This study provides new evidence of the effects of LDPE MPs at the suborganismal level, filling the gap in knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of MPs and spotlighting gene expression analyses as early indicators of MP toxicity in C. riparius which were confirmed by Integrated biomarker response analyses highlighting the gene expression as sensible and useful endpoints for LPDE pollution in freshwaters. These results, coupled with previous investigations on responses at the organismal level, emphasizes the potential adverse effects of LDPE MPs on C. riparius, which may compromise freshwater benthic communities, considering its ecological role within these habitats.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Larva , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Polietileno/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147076, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088154

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) attract global concern due to their ubiquitous existence in aquatic environments. However, the genotoxic effect of MPs on aquatic organisms in the natural environment remains controversial. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted by recompiling 44 individual studies from 12 publications to determine whether MPs could induce genotoxicity in aquatic organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations (≤1 mg/L, median = 0.5 mg/L). Multiple genotoxic endpoints were involved, including the percentage of DNA in tail (TDNA%), tail length (TL), olive tail moment (OTM), and the number of micronuclei (NM), and their increases represented the biologically adverse effects (i.e. genotoxicity). The results showed that all included endpoints tended to increase after exposure to MPs, among which TDNA%, TL and NM were significantly increased by 20%, 32% and 81% compared with the control group, respectively. The overall estimate of all endpoints in the MPs-treated groups was remarkably increased by 24%, with high statistical power and no obvious publication bias, suggesting the evident genotoxicity caused by MPs. In addition, the magnitudes of MPs-induced genotoxicity were independent of selected endpoint, MP composition, morphology, exposure concentration and duration, but closely correlated with particle size, living habitat and tested species. Overall, this work provided a reference for the health risk assessment of MPs in the natural environment, contributing to our understanding the action mode of MPs at environmentally relevant concentrations.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Organismos Aquáticos , Dano ao DNA , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Chemosphere ; 276: 130214, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088096

RESUMO

Transport characteristics of fragmental polyethylene glycol terephthalate (PET) microplastics in porous media were elucidated via column experiments under a series combination of electrolytes, pH, and humic acid (HA) conditions. Fragmental PET microplastics showed low mobility in porous media with a small mass recovery rate (<50.1%) even under unfavorable retention conditions. The electrolyte, pH, and HA showed combined impact on PET microplastic transport. PET microplastics mobility was enhanced with decreasing electrolyte concentration, increasing pH, and increasing HA concentration. Basic properties (e.g. destiny and shape) of PET microplastics showed stronger effect on their transport behaviors in porous media rather than the experimental chemical conditions. In general, both environmental factors and basic properties played important roles in controlling the retention and transport of PET microplastics in porous media. A numerical model considering the second order kinetic deposition sites was applied to depict the retention and transport of PET microplastics in porous media. Model simulations well matched the experimental breakthrough curves. Given the fragmental PET microplastics have more realistic and irregular shapes, results from this study can improve present knowledge of the environmental fate and risk of microplastics in underground soil and water systems.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Polietilenoglicóis , Porosidade
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 402, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109456

RESUMO

The disordered growth of large cities around water bodies causes environmental damage due to discarded plastics and microplastics (MPs) that aquatic organisms can ingest. This study analyzed the occurrence, type, and abundance of MPs in the gastrointestinal contents of four species of commercial fish (120 total specimens), namely, Brazilian mojarra (Eugerres brasilianus) and mullets (Mugil curema, Mugil curvidens, and Mugil liza), obtained in Porto Seguro in Bahia, Brazil, between March and May 2019. A priori probability distributions were generated using a Bayesian approach and simulations to assess MP intake based on varying exposure amounts (θ = 0.2, θ = 0.5, and θ = 0.8). E. brasilianus (53.33%) and Mugil spp. (41.66%) were contaminated with some types of MPs. Black, blue, and green MPs dominated in the extracted samples, and most measured 1.0 mm in length or smaller. The dominant polymers identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were polyester, polypropylene, semi-synthetic rayon fiber, and polyamide 6 (nylon). The a posteriori probabilities of more than half the E. brasilianus and Mugil spp. ingesting MPs were 0.336 and 0.008, respectively, indicating that E. brasilianus is much more likely to ingest MPs. These simulations can be useful tools for assessing the environmental quality and local anthropic impact of MP ingestion by fish populations.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125562, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030413

RESUMO

Pernicious effects of plastic particles, emergent contaminants worldwide, have been described in different species. In teleost species, alterations of immune function after exposure to nanoplastics (NPs) have been reported, but the interaction with cortisol - hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPI) axis has not yet been explored. Furthermore, the role of dissolved organic matter on the effects of NPs is poorly known. Thus, the aims of this research were to assess if polystyrene NPs (PSNPs) acted as a stressor on juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), interfering with the immune response, as well as to elucidate if humic acids (HA) modulated the potential effects of PSNPs. A short-term exposure to PSNPs and HA elicited an immuno-modulatory response, with an activation of steroidogenic stress-related pathways. An upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine (il10, tgfb) and stress-related (mc2r, gr1) transcripts were observed after exposure to HA and PSNPs both individually and in co-exposure. No notable alteration of inflammatory markers was consistently found, which may reflect a protective anti-inflammatory effect of HA in the presence of PSNPs. Nevertheless, there seems to be a more complex interaction between both components. Overall, data show that understanding the interaction of NPs with dissolved organic substances is key to deciphering their environmental risks.


Assuntos
Bass , Animais , Substâncias Húmicas , Imunidade , Microplásticos , Poliestirenos
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125581, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030420

RESUMO

The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in various marine and freshwater matrices has attracted great attention. However, the effect of MPs in natural environment on the locomotor performance of aquatic biota is still controversial. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted, involving 116 effect sizes from 2347 samples, to quantitatively evaluate the alteration in locomotor behavior of aquatic organisms induced by MPs at environmentally relevant concentrations (≤ 1 mg/L, median = 0.125 mg/L). It was shown that MP exposure significantly inhibited the average speed and moved distance of aquatic organisms by 5% and 8% (p < 0.05), respectively, compared with the control, resulting in an obvious reduction of locomotor ability by 6% (p < 0.05). Egger's test indicated that the results were stable without publication bias (p > 0.05). The complex influence of MPs on the locomotor ability were characterized through random-effects meta-regression analyses, presenting size-, time-, concentration-dependent manners and multi-factors interactions. In addition, several physiological changes, including energy reserve reduction, metabolism disorder, gut microbiota dysbiosis, inflammation response, neurotoxic response, and oxidative stress, of aquatic organisms triggered by MP exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations were also provided, which might account for the MPs-induced locomotor activity decline.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biota , Locomoção , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146487, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030230

RESUMO

Microplastics may affect the physiology, behaviour and populations of aquatic and terrestrial fauna through many mechanisms, such as direct consumption and sensory disruption. However, the majority of experimental studies have employed questionably high dosages of microplastics that have little environmental relevance. Predation, in particular, is a key trophic interaction that structures populations and communities and influences ecosystem functioning, but rarely features in microplastic research. Here, we quantify the effects of low (~65-114 MP/L) and high (~650-1140 MP/L) microplastic concentrations on the feeding behaviour of a ubiquitous and globally representative key marine predator, the shore crab, Carcinus maenas. We used a functional response approach (predator consumption across prey densities) to determine crab consumption rates towards a key marine community prey species, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, under low and high microplastic concentrations with acute (8h) and chronic (120h) microplastic exposure times. For both the acute and chronic microplastic exposure experiments, proportional prey consumption by crabs did not differ with respect to microplastic concentration, but significantly decreased over increasing prey densities. The crabs thus displayed classical, hyperbolic Type II functional responses in all experimental groups, characterised by high consumption rates at low prey densities. Crab attack rates, handling times and maximum feeding rates (i.e. functional response curves) were not significantly altered under lower or higher microplastics concentrations, or by acute or chronic microplastic exposures. Here, we show that functional response analyses could be widely employed to ascertain microplastic impacts on consumer-resource interactions. Furthermore, we suggest that future studies should adopt both acute and chronic microplastic exposure regimes, using environmentally-relevant microplastic dosages and types as well as elevated future scenarios of microplastic concentrations.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Comportamento Predatório , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146523, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030247

RESUMO

Microplastics and nanoplastics can accumulate in organisms after being ingested, be transported in the food web, and ultimately threaten human health. An understanding of the cellular internalization and release of micro(nano)plastics is important to predict their cytotoxicity. In this study, 50 nm, 500 nm and 5 µm polystyrene particles (PS50, PS500 and PS5000) were exposed to both model cell membranes and rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. PS50 and PS500 absorb on the model membrane due to hydrophobic interactions and Van der Waals' forces, and may also penetrate the model membrane. PS50 and PS500 are internalized into living cells via both passive membrane penetration and active endocytosis. The passive membrane penetration is due to the partition of polystyrene particles in the water-phospholipid system. The endocytosis of PS50 occurs through the clathrin-mediated pathway, the caveolin-mediated pathway and macropinocytosis, but endocytosis of PS500 is mainly via the macropinocytosis. PS5000 cannot adhere to the cell membrane or be internalized into cells due to its large size and weak Brownian motion. The endocytosed PS50 and PS500 mainly accumulate in the lysosomes. The passively internalized PS50 and PS500 initially distribute in the cytoplasm not in lysosomes, but are transported to lysosomes with energy supply. PS50 and PS500 are excreted from cells via energy-free penetration and energy-dependent lysosomal exocytosis. The masses of the internalized PS50 inside the cells and the excreted PS50 outside the cells were both higher than the masses of PS500, indicating that the smaller particles are more easily enter or leave cells than do their larger counterparts. Our findings will contribute to the risk assessment of micro(nano)plastics and their safe application.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poliestirenos , Membrana Celular , Endocitose , Plásticos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 780: 146534, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030291

RESUMO

The pervasive spread of microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) has raised significant concerns on their toxicity in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. These polymer-based materials have implications for plants, wildlife and human health, threatening food chain integrity and ultimate ecosystem resilience. An extensive - and growing - body of literature is available on MP- and NP-associated effects, including in a number of aquatic biota, with as yet limited reports in terrestrial environments. Effects range from no detectable, or very low level, biological effects to more severe outcomes such as (but not limited to) increased mortality rates, altered immune and inflammatory responses, oxidative stress, genetic damage and dysmetabolic changes. A well-established exposure route to MPs and NPs involves ingestion with subsequent incorporation into tissues. MP and NP exposures have also been found to lead to genetic damage, including effects related to mitotic anomalies, or to transmissible damage from sperm cells to their offspring, especially in echinoderms. Effects on the proteome, transcriptome and metabolome warrant ad hoc investigations as these integrated "omics" workflows could provide greater insight into molecular pathways of effect. Given their different physical structures, chemical identity and presumably different modes of action, exposure to different types of MPs and NPs may result in different biological effects in biota, thus comparative investigations of different MPs and NPs are required to ascertain the respective effects. Furthermore, research on MP and NP should also consider their ability to act as vectors for other toxicants, and possible outcomes of exposure may even include effects at the community level, thus requiring investigations in mesocosm models.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biota , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146395, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030364

RESUMO

There has been an ever-increasing attention over years for investigating microplastics in feces of lower to higher trophic organisms from diverse environments. Focusing on the standardization of methodologies for reliable generation and comparison of data is one of the important aspects in microplastic area. This first review, comprising 20 studies in total, critically summarizes and compares the methodological approaches for the determination of microplastics in feces as well outlines the levels and characteristics of microplastics detected in feces worldwide. Contaminations and QA/QC measures are also discussed. Despite variations among the approaches, most studies (n = 12) described herein rely on the digestion processes involving H2O2 (n = 7) and KOH (n = 6) for the separation of microplastics, whereas very few included wet sieving (n = 5), density separation using NaCl (n = 3) and NaI (n = 1) and enzymatic digestion (n = 2). Microscopical sorting and spectroscopic methods such as infrared and Raman were combined for identification and characterization of microplastics. The detected microplastics varied by size, shape, color and polymer types and the differences in reporting units of microplastic abundance make comparison across studies difficult. Taking advantage of the current knowledge, our review identified analytical challenges and suggested appropriate methods on research into microplastic contamination in feces. This work will serve as a valuable information of available analytical methods for examining microplastics in feces and will stimulate further research to advance our understanding of microplastics from feces.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146088, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030367

RESUMO

Microplastics have been found in all compartments of the environment, and numerous life forms are known to take up the anthropogenic particles. Marine filter feeders are particularly susceptible to ingest suspended microplastics, but long-term studies on the potential effects of this uptake are scarce. We exposed juvenile Mytilus spp. to environmentally realistic doses of irregularly shaped polyvinylchloride (PVC) particles (15, 1500, 15,000, 150,000, 1,500,000 particles/individual/week calibrated in the size range 11-60 µm) and regularly shaped polystyrene (PS) beads (15, 1500, 15,000 particles/individual/week, 40 µm) over 42 weeks. During this period, we monitored physiological traits such as clearance rate, byssus production, growth rate, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and the condition index (CI). Negative effects of the tested microplastics on mussel performance emerged late in the experiment and were rather weak. Interestingly, even after having received the lowest particle dose of PS, SOD activity in the gill was significantly lower in mussels exposed to microplastics compared to a group of conspecifics that were kept in clean water. However, growth and CI, which are both closely related to the fitness of the mussels, were not found to be impaired at the end of the exposure phase. This is the so far longest laboratory microplastic exposure study on mussels and we worked with particle doses that reflect todays pollution levels. The small effect sizes we observed for the response variables assessed suggest that these specific microplastics pose only a minor threat to blue mussel populations.


Assuntos
Mytilus edulis , Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Environ Res ; 198: 111243, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933493

RESUMO

Plastic has created a new man-made ecosystem called plastisphere. The plastic pieces including microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) have emerged as a global concern due to their omnipresence in ecosystems and their ability to interact with the biological systems. Nevertheless, the long-term impacts of MPs on biotic and abiotic resources are not completely understood, and existing evidence suggests that MPs are hazardous to various keystones species of the global biomes. MP-contaminated ecosystems show reduced floral and faunal biomass, productivity, nitrogen cycling, oxygen-generation and carbon sequestration, suggesting that MPs have already started affecting ecological biomes. However, not much is known about the influence of MPs towards the ecosystem services (ESs) cascade and its correlation with the biodiversity loss. MPs are perceived as a menace to the global ecosystems, but their possible impacts on the provisional, regulatory, and socio-economic ESs have not been extensively studied. This review investigates not only the potentiality of MPs to perturb the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic biomes, but also the associated social, ecological and economic repercussions. The possible long-term fluxes in the ES network of terrestrial and aquatic niches are also discussed.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Humanos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145111, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940717

RESUMO

Plastics are globally used for a variety of benefits. As a consequence of poor recycling or reuse, improperly disposed plastic waste accumulates in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to a considerable extent. Large plastic waste items become fragmented to small particles through mechanical and (photo)chemical processes. Particles with sizes ranging from millimeter (microplastics, <5 mm) to nanometer (nanoplastics, NP, <100 nm) are apparently persistent and have adverse effects on ecosystems and human health. Current research therefore focuses on whether and to what extent microorganisms or enzymes can degrade these NP. In this study, we addressed the question of what information isothermal titration calorimetry, which tracks the heat of reaction of the chain scission of a polyester, can provide about the kinetics and completeness of the degradation process. The majority of the heat represents the cleavage energy of the ester bonds in polymer backbones providing real-time kinetic information. Calorimetry operates even in complex matrices. Using the example of the cutinase-catalyzed degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanoparticles, we found that calorimetry (isothermal titration calorimetry-ITC) in combination with thermokinetic models is excellently suited for an in-depth analysis of the degradation processes of NP. For instance, we can separately quantify i) the enthalpy of surface adsorption ∆AdsH = 129 ± 2 kJ mol-1, ii) the enthalpy of the cleavage of the ester bonds ∆EBH = -58 ± 1.9 kJ mol-1 and the apparent equilibrium constant of the enzyme substrate complex K = 0.046 ± 0.015 g L-1. It could be determined that the heat production of PET NP degradation depends to 95% on the reaction heat and only to 5% on the adsorption heat. The fact that the percentage of cleaved ester bonds (η = 12.9 ± 2.4%) is quantifiable with the new method is of particular practical importance. The new method promises a quantification of enzymatic and microbial adsorption to NP and their degradation in mimicked real-world aquatic conditions.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Polietilenotereftalatos , Calorimetria , Ecossistema , Humanos , Plásticos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145536, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940730

RESUMO

Plastic pollution is a contaminant of global concern, as it is present even in remote ecosystems - like the Arctic. Arctic seabirds are vulnerable to ingesting plastic pollution, and these ingested particles are shed in the form of microplastics via guano. This suggests that Arctic seabird guano may act as a vector for the movement of microplastics into and around northern ecosystems. While contaminant-laden guano deposition patterns create a clear concentration gradient of chemicals around seabird colonies, this has not yet been investigated with plastic pollution. Here we tested whether a contaminant gradient of plastic pollution exists around a seabird colony that is primarily comprised of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in the Canadian Arctic. Atmospheric deposition, surface water, and surface sediment samples were collected below the cliff-side of the colony and at increasing intervals of 1 km from the colony. Fulmars were also collected when foraging away from their colony. Microplastics and other anthropogenic microparticles were identified in all three environmental matrices as well as fulmar guano. Fibers were the most common shape in fulmar guano, atmospheric deposition and surface sediment, and fragments were the most common shape in surface water. We did not find a gradient of microplastic concentrations in environmental matrices related to distance from the colony. Combined, these results suggest that fulmars are not the primary source of microplastic around this colony. Further research is warranted to understand sources of microplastics to the areas around the colonies, including to what extent seabirds transport and concentrate microplastics in Arctic ecosystems, and whether concentrations proximate to large colonies may be species dependent.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Aves , Canadá , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental
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