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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1023-1031, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600302

RESUMO

Efforts to combat the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have placed a renewed focus on the use of transmission electron microscopy for identifying coronavirus in tissues. In attempts to attribute pathology of COVID-19 patients directly to tissue damage caused by SARS-CoV-2, investigators have inaccurately reported subcellular structures, including coated vesicles, multivesicular bodies, and vesiculating rough endoplasmic reticulum, as coronavirus particles. We describe morphologic features of coronavirus that distinguish it from subcellular structures, including particle size range (60-140 nm), intracellular particle location within membrane-bound vacuoles, and a nucleocapsid appearing in cross section as dense dots (6-12 nm) within the particles. In addition, although the characteristic spikes of coronaviruses may be visible on the virus surface, especially on extracellular particles, they are less evident in thin sections than in negative stain preparations.


Assuntos
Estruturas Celulares , Biópsia/métodos , /virologia , Estruturas Celulares/classificação , Estruturas Celulares/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , /ultraestrutura
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2244: 265-289, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555592

RESUMO

The generation and release of mature virions from human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infected cells is a multistep process, involving a profound reorganization of cellular structures and various stages of virus particle morphogenesis in different cellular compartments. Although the general steps of HCMV morphogenesis are known, it has become clear that the detailed molecular mechanisms are complex and dependent on various viral factors and cellular pathways. The lack of a full understanding of HCMV virion morphogenesis emphasizes the need of imaging techniques to visualize the different stages of virion assembly, such as electron microscopy. Here, we describe various electron microscopy techniques and the methodology of high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution for sample preparation to visualize HCMV morphogenesis. These methods are used in our laboratory in combination with a thorough quantification to characterize phenotypic alterations and to identify the function of viral and cellular proteins for the various morphogenesis stages.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Citomegalovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Humanos , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vírion/metabolismo , Montagem de Vírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2241: 113-132, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486732

RESUMO

Eosinophil apoptosis (programmed cell death) plays an important role in several inflammatory and allergic conditions. Apoptosis triggers various mechanisms including activation of cysteine-aspartic proteases (caspases) and is characterized by morphological and biochemical changes. These include cellular condensation, nuclear fragmentation, increased mitochondrial permeability with loss of membrane potential, and exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell membrane. A greater understanding of apoptotic mechanisms, subsequent phagocytosis (efferocytosis), and regulation of these processes is critical to understanding disease pathogenesis and development of potential novel therapeutic agents. Release of soluble factors and alterations to surface marker expression by eosinophils undergoing apoptosis aid them in signaling their presence to the immediate environment, and their subsequent recognition by phagocytic cells such as macrophages. Uptake of apoptotic cells usually suppresses inflammation by restricting proinflammatory responses and promoting anti-inflammatory and tissue repair responses. This, in turn, promotes resolution of inflammation. Defects in the apoptotic or efferocytosis mechanisms perpetuate inflammation, resulting in chronic inflammation and enhanced disease severity. This can be due to increased eosinophil life span or cell necrosis characterized by loss of cell membrane integrity and release of toxic intracellular mediators. In this chapter, we detail some of the key assays that are used to assess eosinophil apoptosis, as well as the intracellular signaling pathways involved and phagocytic clearance of these cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Eosinófilos/citologia , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Anexina A5/química , Apoptose/imunologia , Transporte Biológico , Caspases/metabolismo , Eosinófilos/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Microscopia/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Fagócitos/fisiologia , Fagocitose/imunologia , Propídio/química , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Nat Protoc ; 16(3): 1548-1580, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495626

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayered membrane structures released by all cells. Most EV studies have been performed by using cell lines or body fluids, but the number of studies on tissue-derived EVs is still limited. Here, we present a protocol to isolate up to six different EV subpopulations directly from tissues. The approach includes enzymatic treatment of dissociated tissues followed by differential ultracentrifugation and density separation. The isolated EV subpopulations are characterized by electron microscopy and RNA profiling. In addition, their protein cargo can be determined with mass spectrometry, western blot and ExoView. Tissue-EV isolation can be performed in 22 h, but a simplified version can be completed in 8 h. Most experiments with the protocol have used human melanoma metastases, but the protocol can be applied to other cancer and non-cancer tissues. The procedure can be adopted by researchers experienced with cell culture and EV isolation.


Assuntos
Centrifugação com Gradiente de Concentração/métodos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Western Blotting/métodos , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ácidos Tri-Iodobenzoicos/química , Ultracentrifugação/métodos
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2219: 99-118, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074536

RESUMO

Trichoplax adhaerens is an enigmatic animal with an extraordinarily simple morphology and a cellular organization, which are the focus of current research. Protocols outlined here provide detailed descriptions of advanced techniques for light and electron microscopic studies of Trichoplax. Studies using these techniques have enhanced our understanding of cell type diversity and function in placozoans and have provided insight into the evolution, development, and physiology of this little understood group.


Assuntos
Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Placozoa/ultraestrutura , Animais , Criopreservação/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Microtomia/métodos , Placozoa/citologia , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2208: 149-165, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856261

RESUMO

Nanoscale systems encapsulating biomacromolecules hold promise for cell and gene therapies. Common issues hampering progress include polydispersity, heterogeneity in size and shape, agglomeration, and poor stability. Much attention is given to the search of novel designs. However, reliable protocols for the validation of encapsulating systems in the continuum of their physicochemical properties, from design to ultrastructure, are lacking. Herein, we report electron microscopy protocols for biologically functional shell-like peptide capsids, which exhibit the physical characteristics of viruses including folding-mediated self-assembly, hollow shell morphology, and uniformity in size.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/ultraestrutura , Capsídeo/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Montagem de Vírus/fisiologia , Vírus/ultraestrutura
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2208: 255-264, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856268

RESUMO

Electron microscopy offers necessary precision for the characterization of peptide materials at the nanoscale. Analysis is typically performed for acellular material specimens, whereas measurements in more complex, cellular environments prompt additional considerations for sample processing. Herein, we describe a protocol for the ultramicrotomy analysis of peptide-treated bacterial and mammalian cells. An emphasis is made on cell analysis following peptide treatment, as opposed to peptide analysis in cells, and focuses on sample processing, including fixation and staining procedures, resin embedding, sectioning, and imaging. The application of the protocol is demonstrated for intracellular measurements using antimicrobial peptide materials.


Assuntos
Microtomia/métodos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mamíferos , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacologia , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2210: 113-121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815132

RESUMO

The type IX secretion system (T9SS) is the most recently discovered secretion system in the gram-negative bacteria and is specific to the Bacteroidetes phylum. It is comprised of at least 19 proteins, which together allows for the secretion and cell surface attachment of a specific group of proteins (T9SS substrates), that harbor a signal sequence at the C-terminus. Here we describe the structural characterization of the PorK, PorN and PorG components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis T9SS using electron microscopy and cross-linking mass spectrometry.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/metabolismo , Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Adesinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/genética , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas/genética
9.
PLoS Biol ; 18(12): e3000879, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382684

RESUMO

Correlative light, electron, and ion microscopy (CLEIM) offers huge potential to track the intracellular fate of antibiotics, with organelle-level resolution. However, a correlative approach that enables subcellular antibiotic visualisation in pathogen-infected tissue is lacking. Here, we developed correlative light, electron, and ion microscopy in tissue (CLEIMiT) and used it to identify the cell type-specific accumulation of an antibiotic in lung lesions of mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using CLEIMiT, we found that the anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug bedaquiline (BDQ) is localised not only in foamy macrophages in the lungs during infection but also accumulate in polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells.


Assuntos
Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Microscopia/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Antituberculosos , Diarilquinolinas/metabolismo , Diarilquinolinas/farmacologia , Feminino , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade
12.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(10): 925-933, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699321

RESUMO

The coronavirus (CoV) spike (S) protein, involved in viral-host cell fusion, is the primary immunogenic target for virus neutralization and the current focus of many vaccine design efforts. The highly flexible S-protein, with its mobile domains, presents a moving target to the immune system. Here, to better understand S-protein mobility, we implemented a structure-based vector analysis of available ß-CoV S-protein structures. Despite an overall similarity in domain organization, we found that S-proteins from different ß-CoVs display distinct configurations. Based on this analysis, we developed two soluble ectodomain constructs for the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein, in which the highly immunogenic and mobile receptor binding domain (RBD) is either locked in the all-RBDs 'down' position or adopts 'up' state conformations more readily than the wild-type S-protein. These results demonstrate that the conformation of the S-protein can be controlled via rational design and can provide a framework for the development of engineered CoV S-proteins for vaccine applications.


Assuntos
Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
13.
Microscopy (Oxf) ; 69(2): 79-91, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215571

RESUMO

Image processing is one of the most important applications of recent machine learning (ML) technologies. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs), a popular deep learning-based ML architecture, have been developed for image processing applications. However, the application of ML to microscopic images is limited as microscopic images are often 3D/4D, that is, the image sizes can be very large, and the images may suffer from serious noise generated due to optics. In this review, three types of feature reconstruction applications to microscopic images are discussed, which fully utilize the recent advancements in ML technologies. First, multi-frame super-resolution is introduced, based on the formulation of statistical generative model-based techniques such as Bayesian inference. Second, data-driven image restoration is introduced, based on supervised discriminative model-based ML technique. In this application, CNNs are demonstrated to exhibit preferable restoration performance. Third, image segmentation based on data-driven CNNs is introduced. Image segmentation has become immensely popular in object segmentation based on electron microscopy (EM); therefore, we focus on EM image processing.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Teorema de Bayes
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 541, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992713

RESUMO

The fast development of high-resolution electron microscopy (EM) demands a background-noise-free substrate to support the specimens, where atomically thin graphene membranes can serve as an ideal candidate. Yet the preparation of robust and ultraclean graphene EM grids remains challenging. Here we present a polymer- and transfer-free direct-etching method for batch fabrication of robust ultraclean graphene grids through membrane tension modulation. Loading samples on such graphene grids enables the detection of single metal atoms and atomic-resolution imaging of the iron core of ferritin molecules at both room- and cryo-temperature. The same kind of hydrophilic graphene grid allows the formation of ultrathin vitrified ice layer embedded most protein particles at the graphene-water interface, which facilitates cryo-EM 3D reconstruction of archaea 20S proteasomes at a record high resolution of ~2.36 Å. Our results demonstrate the significant improvements in image quality using the graphene grids and expand the scope of EM imaging.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Microscopia Eletrônica/instrumentação , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Fenômenos Químicos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Elétrons , Desenho de Equipamento , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Membranas , Polímeros , Proteínas
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(2)2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are selective inhibitors of osteoclasts, used for the treatment of bone disorders. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible effects of BPs on the tongue's mucosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens of the tongue of 20 female 12-month old Wistar rats were taken. Ten were used as control group, while in the remaining alendronate (Fosamax, Merck) was administered per os from 13 weeks. Observation of the harvested samples was made by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: In the experimental group, focal alterations were observed to various extent in all specimens. The basement membrane was intact. Furthermore, an increase at the intercellular space was observed, predominantly at the middle layer, and the desmosomes were disorganized. In the lamina propria focal edema was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Investigation on the effect of BPs on the tongue's mucosa through TEM hasn't been documented in the past. According to our results, BPs seem to cause mild mucosal lesions on the tongue.


Assuntos
Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Língua/efeitos dos fármacos , Língua/patologia , Língua/fisiopatologia
16.
Neuron ; 105(6): 992-1006.e6, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928842

RESUMO

How structural and functional properties of synapses relate to each other is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Electrophysiology has elucidated mechanisms of synaptic transmission, and electron microscopy (EM) has provided insight into morphological properties of synapses. Here we describe an enhanced method for functional EM ("flash and freeze"), combining optogenetic stimulation with high-pressure freezing. We demonstrate that the improved method can be applied to intact networks in acute brain slices and organotypic slice cultures from mice. As a proof of concept, we probed vesicle pool changes during synaptic transmission at the hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal neuron synapse. Our findings show overlap of the docked vesicle pool and the functionally defined readily releasable pool and provide evidence of fast endocytosis at this synapse. Functional EM with acute slices and slice cultures has the potential to reveal the structural and functional mechanisms of transmission in intact, genetically perturbed, and disease-affected synapses.


Assuntos
Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Sinapses/fisiologia , Vesículas Sinápticas/fisiologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/ultraestrutura , Endocitose/fisiologia , Técnica de Fratura por Congelamento/métodos , Camundongos , Fibras Musgosas Hipocampais/fisiologia , Optogenética/métodos , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Vesículas Sinápticas/ultraestrutura
18.
Acta Histochem ; 122(2): 151486, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862186

RESUMO

The prevalence of diabetes in the world is increasing rapidly. Kidney diseases are among the most common medical disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on the diabetic kidney. Thirty-five female Wistar albino rats were divided into seven groups. No procedure was performed on the Cont group. The Sham group received corn oil via gavage for 14 days. The curcumin (Curc) group received 30-mg/kg curcumin for 14 days, while the diabetes mellitus (DM) group received 50-mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) in a single dose intraperitoneally. The DM + curcumin 1 (DC1) group received 30 mg/kg curcumin for 14 days, seven days after the application of STZ, while the DM + curcumin 2 (DC2) received 30 mg/kg curcumin for 14 days, 21 days after the application of STZ, and the DM + curcumin 3 (DC3) group received single-dose STZ at the same time as the application of 30 mg/kg curcumin for 14 days. Medulla, cortex, tubule, and glomerulus volume ratios were calculated using stereological techniques. Cortex volumes in the Sham and DM groups were significantly lower than in the Cont group (p < 0.05). The cortex volume in the DC3 group was also significantly lower than in the Curc group (p < 0.05). Medullary volume was significantly higher in the DC3 group compared to the DM group (p < 0.05). Curcumin was determined to exhibit a protective effect on the diabetic kidney since the glomerulus in the curcumin-exposed group exhibited a well-protected structure following experimentally induced diabetes based on light and electron microscopic analysis findings. These findings suggest that curcumin used following experimentally induced diabetes exhibits protective effects on the diabetic kidney.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/patologia , Rim/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina/farmacologia
19.
Nat Methods ; 17(1): 55-58, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611693

RESUMO

Super-resolution correlative light and electron microscopy (SR-CLEM) is a powerful approach for imaging specific molecules at the nanoscale in the context of the cellular ultrastructure. Epon epoxy resin embedding offers advantages for SR-CLEM, including ultrastructural preservation and high quality sectioning. However, Epon embedding eliminates fluorescence from most fluorescent proteins. We describe a photocontrollable fluorescent protein, mEosEM, that can survive Epon embedding after osmium tetroxide (OsO4) treatment for improved SR-CLEM.


Assuntos
Resinas Epóxi/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Tetróxido de Ósmio/química , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Fluorescência , Imunofluorescência/métodos , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Imagem Molecular , Organelas/metabolismo
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(5): 720-725, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320505

RESUMO

The present study reports ecofriendly synthesis of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) using an extract of Rhus punjabensis as a reducing agent. NPs structural and composition analysis are evaluated by X-rays diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared, Energy dispersive spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, and Thermal analysis. The NPs have pure single phase monoclinic geometry with spherical structure and high stability toward heat and with average particle size of about 36.6 and 31.27 nm calculated by XRD and SEM, respectively. NPs are tested for antibacterial, protein kinase (PK) inhibition, SRB cytotoxic, and NF-κB activities. Antibacterial activity is observed against B. subtilis and E. coli. Significant PK and SRB cytotoxic activity is observed with some NF-κB inhibition. NPs IC50 values against HL-60 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells are 1.82 ± 1.22 and 19.25 ± 1.55 µg/mL. The results encourage further studies for antibacterial and anticancer drug development of NPs using animal models.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Cobre/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Rhus/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Difração de Raios X
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