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1.
Se Pu ; 39(10): 1055-1064, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505427

RESUMO

“Seeing is believing” is the central philosophy of life science research, which runs through the continuous understanding of individual molecules, molecular complexes, molecular dynamic behavior, and the entire molecular network. Living and dynamic molecules are functional in nature; therefore, fluorescence microscopy has emerged as an irreplaceable tool in life science research. However, when fluorescence imaging is performed at the molecular level, some artificial signals may lead to erroneous experimental results. This obstacle is due to the limitation of the optical diffraction limit, and the fluorescence microscope cannot distinguish the target in the diffraction-limited space. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging technology breaks through the diffraction limit, allows visualization of biomolecules at the nanometer scale to the single-molecule level, and allows us to study the structure and dynamic processes of living cells with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. It has become a powerful tool for life science research and is gradually being applied to material science, catalytic reaction processes, and photolithography as well. The principle of super-resolution imaging technologies is different; therefore, it has different technical performances, thus limiting their specific technical characteristics and application scope. Current mainstream super-resolution imaging technologies can be classified into three types: structured illumination microscopy (SIM), stimulated emission depletion (STED), and single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM). These microscopes use different complex technologies, but the strategy is the same and simple, i.e. two adjacent luminous points in a diffraction-limited space can be spatially resolved by time resolution. SIM has been used for three-dimensional real-time imaging in multicellular organisms; however, compared with other technologies, its lower horizontal and vertical resolutions need to be further optimized. STED is limited by its small imaging field of view and high photobleaching; however, the best time resolution can be considered at a high spatial resolution, and it has been proven that three-color STED imaging can be performed. In SMLM super-resolution imaging, the time resolution is affected by the time required to locate all fluorophores, which is closely related to the switching and luminescence properties of the fluorophore. With the improvement in horizontal and vertical resolution of imaging, the image acquisition speed, photobleaching characteristics, and the possibility of multi-color and dynamic imaging have increasingly become the key determinants of super-resolution fluorescence imaging. Thus far, the main use of super-resolution imaging technology has been focused on biological applications for studying structural changes less than 200 nm in dimension. In addition to the combination of structural and morphological characterization with biomolecular detection and identification, super-resolution imaging technology is rapidly expanding into the fields of interaction mapping, multi-target detection, and real-time imaging. In the latter applications, super-resolution imaging technology is particularly advantageous because of more flexible sample staining, higher labeling efficiency, faster and simpler readings, and gentler sample preparation procedures. In this article, we compare the principles of these three technologies and introduce their application progress in biology. We expect the results described herein will help researchers clarify the technical advantages and applicable application directions of different super-resolution imaging technologies, thus facilitating researchers in making reasonable choices in future research.


Assuntos
Imagem Óptica , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Corantes Fluorescentes , Microscopia de Fluorescência
2.
Curr Protoc ; 1(9): e243, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516049

RESUMO

Traditional arc-based light sources and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are described, and the pros and cons of these sources with respect to fluorescence microscopy are discussed. For multi-color applications, arc-based light sources offer white light ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (IR), while LEDs come in a range of colors spanning the same wavelengths. The power of traditional arc-based sources is controlled with neutral density (ND) filters, reducing power across the entire range of wavelengths, while LED-based sources can be controlled directly by modulating current passing through the electronics. Similarly, arc-based sources use physical shutters to control sample exposure to light in a range of tens to hundreds of milliseconds (ms), while LEDs can be turned ON/OFF electronically in <1 ms. The complexity of comparing and measuring light power on the sample, due to normalization of available light source spectra and complex power measurements, is discussed. The superiority of LEDs for stability of light power output is covered. Direct coupling of light sources to the microscope is more cost effective and leads to higher available light power. Various options for setting up multi-color imaging, including high-speed imaging with multiple LEDs and a triple cube, are described. A brief introduction to lasers, with suggested further reading, is included in this article. Finally, the smaller environmental footprint of LEDs relative to arc-based light sources is highlighted. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Fluorescência
3.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21788, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425031

RESUMO

Hypoxia increases fetal hepatic insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) phosphorylation mediated by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition. Whether maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) causes fetal hypoxia remains unclear. We used fetal liver from a baboon (Papio sp.) model of intrauterine growth restriction due to MNR (70% global diet of Control) and liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells as a model for human fetal hepatocytes and tested the hypothesis that mTOR-mediated IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in response to hypoxia requires hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and regulated in development and DNA-damage responses-1 (REDD-1) signaling. Western blotting (n = 6) and immunohistochemistry (n = 3) using fetal liver indicated greater expression of HIF-1α, REDD-1 as well as erythropoietin and its receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor at GD120 (GD185 term) in MNR versus Control. Moreover, treatment of HepG2 cells with hypoxia (1% pO2 ) (n = 3) induced REDD-1, inhibited mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) activity and increased IGFBP-1 secretion/phosphorylation (Ser101/Ser119/Ser169). HIF-1α inhibition by echinomycin or small interfering RNA silencing prevented the hypoxia-mediated inhibition of mTORC1 and induction of IGFBP-1 secretion/phosphorylation. dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) induced HIF-1α and also REDD-1 expression, inhibited mTORC1 and increased IGFBP-1 secretion/phosphorylation. Induction of HIF-1α (DMOG) and REDD-1 by Compound 3 inhibited mTORC1, increased IGFBP-1 secretion/ phosphorylation and protein kinase PKCα expression. Together, our data demonstrate that HIF-1α induction, increased REDD-1 expression and mTORC1 inhibition represent the mechanistic link between hypoxia and increased IGFBP-1 secretion/phosphorylation. We propose that maternal undernutrition limits fetal oxygen delivery, as demonstrated by increased fetal liver expression of hypoxia-responsive proteins in baboon MNR. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of restricted fetal growth.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Feto/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Animais , Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Peso Fetal , Feto/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/química , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Tamanho do Órgão , Papio , Fosforilação , Proteína Quinase C-alfa/metabolismo , Receptores da Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361578

RESUMO

Nitroreductase as a potential biomarker for aggressive tumors has received extensive attention. In this work, a novel NIR fluorescent probe for nitroreductase detection was synthesized. The probe Py-SiRh-NTR displayed excellent sensitivity and selectivity. Most importantly, the confocal fluorescence imaging demonstrated that HepG-2 cells treated with Py-SiRh-NTR under hypoxic conditions showed obvious enhanced fluorescence, which means that the NTR was overexpressed under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, the probe showed great promise that could help us to study related anticancer mechanisms research.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias , Nitrorredutases/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacocinética , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/enzimologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4838, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376698

RESUMO

Macropinosomes are formed by shaping actin-rich plasma membrane ruffles into large intracellular organelles in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-coordinated manner. Here, we utilize lattice lightsheet microscopy and image visualization methods to map the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of macropinosome formation relative to PI3K activity. We show that multiple ruffling morphologies produce macropinosomes and that the majority form through collisions of adjacent PI3K-rich ruffles. By combining multiple volumetric representations of the plasma membrane structure and PI3K products, we show that PI3K activity begins early throughout the entire ruffle volume and continues to increase until peak activity concentrates at the base of the ruffle after the macropinosome closes. Additionally, areas of the plasma membrane rich in ruffling had increased PI3K activity and produced many macropinosomes of various sizes. Pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K activity had little effect on the rate and morphology of membrane ruffling, demonstrating that early production of 3'-phosphoinositides within ruffles plays a minor role in regulating their morphology. However, 3'-phosphoinositides are critical for the fusogenic activity that seals ruffles into macropinosomes. Taken together, these data indicate that local PI3K activity is amplified in ruffles and serves as a priming mechanism for closure and sealing of ruffles into macropinosomes.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Pinocitose/fisiologia , Animais , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cromonas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Pinocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445682

RESUMO

Dysregulation of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is recognized as one of the key hallmarks for identifying non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGTxC). Currently, there is a demand for in vitro assays addressing the gap junction hallmark, which would have the potential to eventually become an integral part of an integrated approach to the testing and assessment (IATA) of NGTxC. The scrape loading-dye transfer (SL-DT) technique is a simple assay for the functional evaluation of GJIC in various in vitro cultured mammalian cells and represents an interesting candidate assay. Out of the various techniques for evaluating GJIC, the SL-DT assay has been used frequently to assess the effects of various chemicals on GJIC in toxicological and tumor promotion research. In this review, we systematically searched the existing literature to gather papers assessing GJIC using the SL-DT assay in a rat liver epithelial cell line, WB-F344, after treating with chemicals, especially environmental and food toxicants, drugs, reproductive-, cardio- and neuro-toxicants and chemical tumor promoters. We discuss findings derived from the SL-DT assay with the known knowledge about the tumor-promoting activity and carcinogenicity of the assessed chemicals to evaluate the predictive capacity of the SL-DT assay in terms of its sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for identifying carcinogens. These data represent important information with respect to the applicability of the SL-DT assay for the testing of NGTxC within the IATA framework.


Assuntos
Testes de Carcinogenicidade/métodos , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Animais , Bioensaio/métodos , Carcinógenos , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Corantes/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Ratos
7.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110528, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399506

RESUMO

Lactobacillus spp. are known to accumulate large amounts of inorganic manganese, which protects against oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals. The ability of probiotic L. paracasei ATCC 55544 to maintain viability during long-term ambient storage may be enhanced by this microorganism's ability to accumulate manganese, which may act as a free radical scavenger. To investigate this hypothesis, X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) was employed to determine the changes in the elemental composition of L. paracasei during growth in the MRS medium with or without added manganese. Moreover, manganese uptake by cells as a function of physiological growth state, early log vs. stationary phase was evaluated. The semiquantitative X-ray fluorescence microscopy results revealed that lower levels of manganese accumulation occurred during the early log phase of bacterial growth of L. paracasei cells (0.0064 µg/cm2) compared with the stationary phase cells (0.1355 µg/cm2). L. paracasei cells grown in manganese deficient MRS medium resulted in lower manganese uptake by cells (0.0027 µg/cm2). The L. paracasei cells were further embedded in milk powder matrix using a fluidized-bed drying technique and stored at a water activity (aw) of 0.33 at 25 °C for 15 days. The viability counts of L. paracasei cells grown in MRS medium harvested after 18 h growth and embedded in milk powder matrix retained viability of (9.19 ± 0.12 log CFU/g). No viable L. paracasei cells were observed in the case of embedded L. paracasei cells grown in manganese-deficient MRS medium harvested after 18 h growth or in the case of L. paracasei cells harvested after 4 h when grown in MRS medium. The lower level of manganese accumulation was found to be related to the loss of bacterial viability during storage.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus paracasei , Probióticos , Manganês , Viabilidade Microbiana , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Síncrotrons , Raios X
8.
Curr Protoc ; 1(8): e210, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416099

RESUMO

Methods for assessing mammalian cell death are presented in this article, which is divided into six sections: (1) a brief overview of cytotoxicity and pathways of cell death; (2) a method to measure cell death using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release as a marker of membrane integrity; (3) a flow cytometry method that simultaneously measures two types of cell death, necrosis and apoptosis; (4) use of fluorescence microscopy and nuclear morphology to assess apoptosis and necrosis; (5) the use of multi-well plates and high-content analysis imaging systems to assess nuclear morphology; and (6) a discussion of the use of cytotoxicity assays to determine the mechanisms of cell death. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Measurement of plasma membrane integrity and viability using LDH release Basic Protocol 2: Measurement of necrosis and apoptosis using flow cytometry Basic Protocol 3: Determination of nuclear morphology and membrane integrity Alternate Protocol 1: Assessment of nuclear morphology and membrane integrity using DAPI and PI Alternate Protocol 2: Assessment of nuclear morphology using multi-well plates Basic Protocol 4: Measurement of time-dependent toxicity using cell death markers.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Animais , Morte Celular , Citometria de Fluxo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Necrose
9.
Methods Enzymol ; 657: 443-480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353498

RESUMO

Near-infrared (NIR) targeting contrast agents have been investigated as great photoabsorbers to improve photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), OCT, and fluorescence imaging contrast for visualization of various diseases. In ophthalmology, a limited number of NIR contrast agents have been approved for clinical use. Recently, gold nanoparticles with different size and shapes have been developed for molecular imaging. This chapter provides the principles of multimodality PAM, OCT, and fluorescence imaging as well as a brief overview of contrast agents for optical imaging. A detailed protocol for the fabrication of discrete colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNPs), synthesis of functionalized RGD-conjugated chain-like GNP (CGNP) clusters labeled with indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence dye (ICG@CGNP clusters-RGD), and validation of the synthesized nanoparticles to evaluate newly developed blood vessels in the retina, named choroidal neovascularization (CNV), is described. Using RGD peptide, ICG@CGNPs clusters-RGD can bind integrin which is expressed on activated endothelial cells and newly developed CNV. The targeting efficiency of nanoparticles is monitored by multimodality PAM, OCT, and fluorescence imaging longitudinally.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Meios de Contraste , Células Endoteliais , Ouro , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Retina
10.
Talanta ; 234: 122606, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364419

RESUMO

Mercury and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are common pollutants in the ecological environment, which are important factors causing many diseases of organisms. The lack of appropriate analytical tools has limited the further understanding of the relationship between ionic mercury (Hg2+) and SO2. Herein, a bifunctional fluorescent probe LJ was designed and explored to simultaneously detect Hg2+ and SO2 via desulfurization reaction and Michael addition reaction, respectively. Probe LJ showed distinct fluorescence responses which a large near-infrared fluorescence enhancement towards Hg2+ at λem = 713 nm and a blue shift at λem = 450 nm towards SO2 without any spectral cross interferences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fluorescent probe with dual fluorescent emission channels to detect Hg2+ and SO2 with the detection limit of 187 nM and 354 nM, respectively. Moreover, cell fluorescent imaging experiments indicated that the probe was mitochondria targetable and provided evidence that SO2 could be used as an antidote to attenuate the toxicity of Hg2+ in living cells.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Mercúrio , Células HeLa , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Mitocôndrias , Dióxido de Enxofre
11.
Talanta ; 234: 122639, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364448

RESUMO

Three-photon absorption (3 PA) in the near IR region is among the most prominent nonlinear optical (NLO) effects and has attractive applications in chemical/biological sensing and imaging. Yet, rationally constructed molecules with small molecular weight and reasonable 3 PA cross-section has been rarely reported. Herein, we designed a novel three-photon absorption photostable luminogen (namely X1) with enhanced aggregation induced emission (AIE) and the ability to achieve multi-photon imaging with femtosecond laser excitation. X1 was constructed from diaminobenzene and diethylamino salicylaldehyde forming a novel di-Schiff base. It possesses a large conjugated delocalization which exhibits large three-photon absorption (3 PA) cross-section values. We also showed that by using a suitable delivery vector, X1 compound could applied as a live cell imaging probe thus providing a valuable tool to study lipid droplets/lysosome interaction in depth tissues.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Fótons , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Bases de Schiff
12.
Analyst ; 146(16): 4985-5007, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337638

RESUMO

Multi-spectral imaging flow cytometry (MIFC) has become one of the most powerful technologies for investigating general analytics, molecular and cell biology, biotechnology, medicine, and related fields. It combines the capabilities of the morphometric and photometric analysis of single cells and micrometer-sized particles in flux with regard to thousands of events. It has become the tool of choice for a wide range of research and clinical applications. By combining the features of flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, it offers researchers the ability to couple the spatial resolution of multicolour images of cells and organelles with the simultaneous analysis of a large number of events in a single system. This provides the opportunity to visually confirm findings and collect novel data that would otherwise be more difficult to obtain. This has led many researchers to design innovative assays to gain new insight into important research questions. To date, it has been successfully used to study cell morphology, surface and nuclear protein co-localization, protein-protein interactions, cell signaling, cell cycle, cell death, and cytotoxicity, intracellular calcium, drug uptake, pathogen internalization, and other applications. Herein we describe some of the recent advances in the field of multiparametric imaging flow cytometry methods in various research areas.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular , Ciclo Celular , Morte Celular , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445509

RESUMO

Ischemia-like conditions reflect almost the entire spectrum of events that occur during cerebral ischemia, including the induction of oxidative stress, Ca2+ overload, glutamate excitotoxicity, and activation of necrosis and apoptosis in brain cells. Mechanisms for the protective effects of the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin-6 (Prx-6) on hippocampal cells during oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) were investigated. Using the methods of fluorescence microscopy, inhibitory analysis, vitality tests and PCR, it was shown that 24-h incubation of mixed hippocampal cell cultures with Prx-6 does not affect the generation of a reversible phase of a OGD-induced rise in Ca2+ ions in cytosol ([Ca2+]i), but inhibits a global increase in [Ca2+]i in astrocytes completely and in neurons by 70%. In addition, after 40 min of OGD, cell necrosis is suppressed, especially in the astrocyte population. This effect is associated with the complex action of Prx-6 on neuroglial networks. As an antioxidant, Prx-6 has a more pronounced and astrocyte-directed effect, compared to the exogenous antioxidant vitamin E (Vit E). Prx-6 inhibits ROS production in mitochondria by increasing the antioxidant capacity of cells and altering the expression of genes encoding redox status proteins. Due to the close bond between [Ca2+]i and intracellular ROS, this effect of Prx-6 is one of its protective mechanisms. Moreover, Prx-6 effectively suppresses not only necrosis, but also apoptosis during OGD and reoxygenation. Incubation with Prx-6 leads to activation of the basic expression of genes encoding protective kinases-PI3K, CaMKII, PKC, anti-apoptotic proteins-Stat3 and Bcl-2, while inhibiting the expression of signaling kinases and factors involved in apoptosis activation-Ikk, Src, NF-κb, Caspase-3, p53, Fas, etc. This effect on the basic expression of the genome leads to the cell preconditions, which is expressed in the inhibition of caspase-3 during OGD/reoxygenation. A significant effect of Prx-6 is directed on suppression of the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1ß and factor TNFα, as well as genes encoding NMDA- and kainate receptor subunits, which was established for the first time for this antioxidant enzyme. The protective effect of Prx-6 is due to its antioxidant properties, since mutant Prx-6 (mutPrx-6, Prx6-C47S) leads to polar opposite effects, contributing to oxidative stress, activation of apoptosis and cell death through receptor action on TLR4.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Peroxirredoxina VI/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Citosol/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Peroxirredoxina VI/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 379(5): 33, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346011

RESUMO

Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are typically a broad class of compounds that possess various uses such as insecticides, pesticides, etc. One of the most evil utilizations of these compounds is as chemical warfare agents, which pose a greater threat than biological weapons because of their ease of access. OP compounds are highly toxic compounds that cause irreversible inhibition of enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is essential for hydrolysis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, leading to series of neurological disorders and even death. Due to the extensive use of these organophosphorus compounds in agriculture, there is an increase in the environmental burden of these toxic chemicals, with severe environmental consequences. Hence, the rapid and sensitive, selective, real-time detection of OP compounds is very much required in terms of environmental protection, health, and survival. Several techniques have been developed over a few decades to easily detect them, but still, numerous challenges and problems remain to be solved. Major advancement has been observed in the development of sensors using the spectroscopic technique over recent years because of the advantages offered over other techniques, which we focus on in the presented review.


Assuntos
Agentes Neurotóxicos/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Praguicidas/química , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Carbocianinas/química , Transporte de Elétrons , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Agentes Neurotóxicos/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4693, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344862

RESUMO

Many cellular processes, including cell division, development, and cell migration require spatially and temporally coordinated forces transduced by cell-surface receptors. Nucleic acid-based molecular tension probes allow one to visualize the piconewton (pN) forces applied by these receptors. Building on this technology, we recently developed molecular force microscopy (MFM) which uses fluorescence polarization to map receptor force orientation with diffraction-limited resolution (~250 nm). Here, we show that structured illumination microscopy (SIM), a super-resolution technique, can be used to perform super-resolution MFM. Using SIM-MFM, we generate the highest resolution maps of both the magnitude and orientation of the pN traction forces applied by cells. We apply SIM-MFM to map platelet and fibroblast integrin forces, as well as T cell receptor forces. Using SIM-MFM, we show that platelet traction force alignment occurs on a longer timescale than adhesion. Importantly, SIM-MFM can be implemented on any standard SIM microscope without hardware modifications.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Humanos , Integrinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Sondas Moleculares/metabolismo , Células NIH 3T3 , Paxilina/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
16.
Anal Chem ; 93(35): 12011-12021, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428029

RESUMO

Compartmentalization and integration of molecular processes through diffusion are basic mechanisms through which cells perform biological functions. To characterize these mechanisms in live cells, quantitative and ultrasensitive analytical methods with high spatial and temporal resolution are needed. Here, we present quantitative scanning-free confocal microscopy with single-molecule sensitivity, high temporal resolution (∼10 µs/frame), and fluorescence lifetime imaging capacity, developed by integrating massively parallel fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (mpFCS/FLIM); we validate the method, use it to map in live cell location-specific variations in the concentration, diffusion, homodimerization, DNA binding, and local environment of the oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 fused with the enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (OLIG2-eGFP), and characterize the effects of an allosteric inhibitor of OLIG2 dimerization on these determinants of OLIG2 function. In particular, we show that cytoplasmic OLIG2-eGFP is largely monomeric and freely diffusing, with the fraction of freely diffusing OLIG2-eGFP molecules being fD,freecyt = (0.75 ± 0.10) and the diffusion time τD,freecyt = (0.5 ± 0.3) ms. In contrast, OLIG2-eGFP homodimers are abundant in the cell nucleus, constituting ∼25% of the nuclear pool, some fD,boundnuc = (0.65 ± 0.10) of nuclear OLIG2-eGFP is bound to chromatin DNA, whereas freely moving OLIG2-eGFP molecules diffuse at the same rate as those in the cytoplasm, as evident from the lateral diffusion times τD,freenuc = τD,freecyt = (0.5 ± 0.3) ms. OLIG2-eGFP interactions with chromatin DNA, revealed through their influence on the apparent diffusion behavior of OLIG2-eGFP, τD,boundnuc (850 ± 500) ms, are characterized by an apparent dissociation constant Kd,appOLIG2-DNA = (45 ± 30) nM. The apparent dissociation constant of OLIG2-eGFP homodimers was estimated to be Kd,app(OLIG2-eGFP)2 ≈ 560 nM. The allosteric inhibitor of OLIG2 dimerization, compound NSC 50467, neither affects OLIG2-eGFP properties in the cytoplasm nor does it alter the overall cytoplasmic environment. In contrast, it significantly impedes OLIG2-eGFP homodimerization in the cell nucleus, increasing five-fold the apparent dissociation constant, Kd,app,NSC50467(OLIG2-eGFP)2 ≈ 3 µM, thus reducing homodimer levels to below 7% and effectively abolishing OLIG2-eGFP specific binding to chromatin DNA. The mpFCS/FLIM methodology has a myriad of applications in biomedical research and pharmaceutical industry. For example, it is indispensable for understanding how biological functions emerge through the dynamic integration of location-specific molecular processes and invaluable for drug development, as it allows us to quantitatively characterize the interactions of drugs with drug targets in live cells.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Fator de Transcrição 2 de Oligodendrócitos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
17.
Anal Chem ; 93(36): 12464-12471, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459585

RESUMO

Single-molecule localization allows determining the underlying biological and biochemical processes and promotes the development of super-resolution imaging techniques. Here, we present an optical technique of tracking the motion of a single nanoparticle linked to a substrate via a biomolecule tether to reveal the localization of single biomolecules and the transient states of single nanoparticle switching between specific binding pairs. The affinities, steric hindrance, and conformational variation of a single-molecule binding pair uncover the dynamic details and intrinsic mechanism of binding processes with high specificity and accuracy (a few nanometers). The application of tracking motions of single soft liposomes on different modified surfaces was further demonstrated, which revealed the characteristic behavior related to surface chemistry. Our results show that the trajectory of nanoscale liposomes loaded with small-drug molecules is linked to the compositional inhomogeneity, which provides a route for thorough comprehension of the fundamental biotechnological process.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Nanotecnologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Imagem Individual de Molécula
18.
Anal Chem ; 93(34): 11826-11835, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461732

RESUMO

Cancer ranks as a leading cause of death in every country of the world. However, if they are discovered early, a lot of cancers can be prevented or cured. Discovering and monitoring cancer markers are the main methods for early diagnosis of cancer. To date, many fluorescent probes designed and used for early cancer diagnosis can only react with a single marker, which always causes insufficient accuracy in complex systems. Herein, a novel near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe (CyO-DNP) for the sequential detection of H2S and H+ is synthesized. In this probe, a heptamethine dye is selected as the fluorophore and a 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) ether is chosen as recognition group. In the presence of H2S, CyO-DNP is transformed into CyO, which exhibits an intense fluorescence at 663 nm. Then, H+ induces the protonation of CyO to obtain CyOH, and the final fluorescence emission at 793 nm significantly enhances. Owing to the low cytotoxicity and the NIR fluorescence emission, CyO-DNP can sequentially monitor endogenous H2S and H+ in cancer cells and image exogenous and endogenous H2S and H+ in mice. It is worth mentioning that CyO-DNP can effectively avoid the false positive signal caused by the liver and kidney and discriminate normal mice and tumor mice accurately. For all we know, CyO-DNP is the first fluorescent probe for early accurate diagnosis of cancer by sequentially detecting H2S and H+.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Neoplasias , Animais , Corantes Fluorescentes , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
19.
Anal Chem ; 93(33): 11479-11487, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380310

RESUMO

Multimodal optical imaging of tissue has significant potential to become an indispensable diagnostic tool in clinical pathology. Conventional bright-field microscopy provides contrast based on attenuation or reflectance of light, having no depth-related information and no molecular specificity. Recent developments in biomedical optics have introduced a variety of optical modalities, such as Raman spectroscopy (RS), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of endogenous fluorophores, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and others, which provide a distinct characteristic, i.e., molecular, chemical, and morphological information, of the sample. To harvest the full analytical potential of those modalities, we have developed a novel multimodal imaging system, which allows the co-registered acquisition of OCT/FLIM/RS on a single device. The present implementation allows the investigation of biological tissues in the mesoscale range, 0.1-5 mm in a correlated manner. Due to the co-registered acquisition of the modalities, it is possible to directly compare and evaluate the corresponding information between the three modalities. Moreover, by additionally preparing and characterizing entire pathological hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of head and neck biopsies, it is also possible to correlate the multimodal spectroscopic information to any location of the ground truth H&E information. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first development and implementation of a compact and clinically applicable multimodal scanning microscope, which combines OCT, FLIM, and RS together with the possibility for co-registering H&E information for a morpho-chemical tissue characterization and a correlation with the pathological ground truth (H&E) of the underlying signal origin directly in a clinical environment.


Assuntos
Análise Espectral Raman , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Cintilografia
20.
Anal Chem ; 93(33): 11612-11616, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382767

RESUMO

N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) is an excitotoxic amino acid used to identify a specific subset of glutamate receptors. The activity of NMDA receptors is closely related to the redox level of the biological system. Glutathione (GSH) as an antioxidant plays a key role with regard to modulation of the redox environment. In this work we designed and developed a GSH-specific fluorescent probe with the capability of targeting NMDA receptors, which was composed of a two-photon naphthalimide fluorophore, a GSH-reactive group sulfonamide, and an ifenprodil targeting group for the NMDA receptor. This probe exhibited high selectivity toward GSH in comparison to other similar amino acids. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy allowed this probe to successfully monitor GSH in neuronal cells and hippocampal tissues with an excitation at 750 nm. It could serve as a potential practical imaging tool to explore the function of GSH and related biological processes in the brain.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Glutationa/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Fótons
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