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1.
Parasitol Res ; 120(8): 2887-2895, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331137

RESUMO

Few data are available on the genetic identity of enteric protists Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in humans in Thailand. In this study, 254 stool samples were collected from primary school children from Ratchaburi Province at the Thai-Myanmar border and examined for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cyclospora cayetanensis using PCR techniques. The genotype identity of the pathogens was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products. Cryptosporidium felis was found in 1 stool sample, G. duodenalis in 19 stool samples, and E. bieneusi in 4 stool samples. For G. duodenalis, sub-assemblage AII was the dominant genotype, but one infection with assemblage F was found. The E. bieneusi genotypes found included known genotypes D and J, and one novel genotype (HPTM1). Cyclospora cayetanensis was not detected in any samples. Results of the preliminary study indicate that children at the Thai-Myanmar border from Ratchaburi Province, Thailand are infected with diverse zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enterocytozoon , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Microsporidiose , Criança , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Mianmar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tailândia
2.
Parasite ; 28: 57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283021

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate intracellular parasitic fungi that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts. However, the literature is lacking information regarding the presence and diversity of E. bieneusi genotypes in domesticated dogs in Northwestern China. Fecal samples from 604 pet dogs were obtained in 5 cities (Urumqi, Korla, Hotan, Aksu, and Shihezi) in Xinjiang. Screening for E. bieneusi was performed, and isolates were genotyped via nested-PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The infection rate of E. bieneusi was 6.3% (38/604). The prevalence of E. bieneusi infections in adult animals (>1 year, 10.3%, 15/145) was higher than that in younger (≤1 year) dogs (5.0%, 23/459), which was statistically significant (p = 0.021). No significant difference was observed between the different collection sites or between sexes. Eight distinct genotypes were identified, including 5 known genotypes (PtEb IX, EbpC, D, CD9, and Type IV) and 3 novel genotypes (CD11, CD12, CD13). The most prevalent was genotype PtEb IX, being observed in 50.0% (19/38) of the samples, followed by EbpC (31.6%, 12/38), D (5.3%, 2/38), and the remaining genotypes (CD9, Type IV, CD11, CD12, and CD13) were observed in 1 sample (2.6%, 1/38) each. These findings suggest that genotypes PtEb IX and CD9 are canine host-adapted, and likely pose little risk of zoonotic transmission. Moreover, known zoonotic genotypes EbpC, D, and Type IV represent a public health concern and should undergo further molecular epidemiological investigation.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Cães , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Filogenia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 213, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi, a microsporidian species, is a zoonotic pathogen found in both humans and animals. Here, we determined the prevalence, explored the different genotypes of E. bieneusi in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) (Hainan Island of China), and assessed their zoonotic potential. METHODS: We collected 173 fecal specimens from wild rhesus macaques living in Nanwan Monkey Island, Hainan, China. Subsequently, we identified and genotyped E. bieneusi using nested PCR analysis amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the rRNA gene. Lastly, a neighbor-joining tree was built based on gene sequences from the ITS region of E. bieneusi. RESULTS: Of the 173 specimens from wild rhesus macaques, 26 (15%) were infected with E. bieneusi. We identified six genotypes of E. bieneusi, of which five were known: PigEBITS7 (n = 20), D (n = 2), Type IV (n = 1), Peru6 (n = 1), Henan-III (n = 1), and a novel genotype: HNM-IX (n = 1). From the phylogenetic analysis, the six genotypes identified here were all clustered into zoonotic group 1. CONCLUSION: This study is the first report to detect E. bieneusi infection in wild rhesus macaques from Hainan, China. Human-pathogenic genotypes D, Henan-III, Peru6, PigEbITS7, and Type IV in the wild rhesus macaques support these animals infected with E. bieneusi have a public health significance.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/genética , Macaca mulatta/virologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , China/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Zoonoses/virologia
4.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13665, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microsporidiosis has been largely reported in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, but emerged as a cause of persistent diarrhea in solid organ transplant patients. METHODS: Through the French Microsporidiosis Network and the Groupe français de recherche en greffe de foie, we collected all microsporidiosis cases identified in liver transplant patients between 1995 and 2020 in France. RESULTS: We identified 24 liver transplant recipients with microsporidiosis. Sex ratio was balanced and median age was 58.8 (3.5-83.5) years (there were 4 children). Microsporidiosis occurred at a median time of 3.9 (0.1-18.9) years post-transplant. Median duration of diarrhea before diagnosis was 22 days (12-45). Therapeutic care included immunosuppressive therapy changes in 20 patients, as follows: stop cyclosporine or tacrolimus (n = 2), dose reduction of cyclosporine or tacrolimus (n = 12), stop MMF (n = 5), and dose reduction of corticosteroids (n = 1). In addition, 15 patients received specific therapy against microsporidiosis: fumagillin (n = 11) or albendazole (n = 4). Median duration of treatment was 14 days (8-45 days). Finally, 7 patients had immunosuppressive treatment tapering only. Microsporidiosis was complicated by renal failure in 15 patients, requiring dialysis in one case. Two patients had infection relapse. No patient presented proven rejection within the 3 months after microsporidiosis. None of the patients died within the 3 months after microsporidiosis. CONCLUSIONS: Microsporidiosis is a very rare infection after liver transplantation but can induce severe dehydration and renal failure. Therefore, it must be systematically sought in any case of persistent diarrhea after first line screening of frequent infectious causes.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Microsporidiose , Transplante de Órgãos , Criança , Ciclosporina , Rejeição de Enxerto , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Microsporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 144: 209-220, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042068

RESUMO

Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus is an important cultural and subsistence resource for Inuit communities. Muscular infections by microsporidia were diagnosed for the first time in Arctic char originating from 2 different lakes in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada). The consumption of these infected fish was associated with digestive tract disorders in people. To better characterize microsporidiosis in these char populations, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 91 fish. The microsporidium was classified as a member of the Microsporidium collective genus by morphological evaluation and phylogenetic analysis using small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence data. The presence and severity of infection were determined histologically. Microsporidian infection occurred in 61% of the fish (56/91) and was significantly associated with an increase in their age, length and weight. The severity of infection (percentage of muscle area affected by microsporidia) was mild in most cases (<1% of the total muscle area). Based on multiple linear regression modeling, the severity of infection was significantly greater in females and negatively correlated with the body condition. Despite a high prevalence, the low pathogenicity of the infection suggests that microsporidiosis has little impact on these char populations. Moreover, since digestive-tract disorders following ingestion of fish infected by microsporidia have never been reported in humans, it seems unlikely that it was responsible for the reported clinical signs. Anisakid larvae are occasionally observed in these char populations. Digestive-tract infection associated with ingestion of these larvae should thus be considered as a potential differential diagnosis in these Inuit communities.


Assuntos
Microsporidiose , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Filogenia , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Truta
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 186, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that can infect nearly all invertebrates and vertebrates, posing a threat to public health and causing large economic losses to animal industries such as those of honeybees, silkworms and shrimp. However, the global epidemiology of these pathogens is far from illuminated. METHODS: Publications on microsporidian infections were obtained from PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science and filtered according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Infection data about pathogens, hosts, geography and sampling dates were manually retrieved from the publications and screened for high quality. Prevalence rates and risk factors for different pathogens and hosts were analyzed by conducting a meta-analysis. The geographic distribution and seasonal prevalence of microsporidian infections were drawn and summarized according to sampling locations and date, respectively. RESULTS: Altogether, 287 out of 4129 publications up to 31 January 2020 were obtained and met the requirements, from which 385 epidemiological data records were retrieved and effective. The overall prevalence rates in humans, pigs, dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, nonhuman primates and fowl were 10.2% [2429/30,354; 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.2-11.2%], 39.3% (2709/5105; 95% CI 28.5-50.1%), 8.8% (228/2890; 95% CI 5.1-10.1%), 8.1% (112/1226; 95% CI 5.5-10.8%), 16.6% (2216/12,175; 95% CI 13.5-19.8%), 24.9% (1142/5967; 95% CI 18.6-31.1%), 18.5% (1388/7009; 95% CI 13.1-23.8%) and 7.8% (725/9243; 95% CI 6.4-9.2%), respectively. The higher prevalence in pigs suggests that routine detection of microsporidia in animals should be given more attention, considering their potential roles in zoonotic disease. The highest rate was detected in water, 58.5% (869/1351; 95% CI 41.6-75.5%), indicating that water is an important source of infections. Univariate regression analysis showed that CD4+ T cell counts and the living environment are significant risk factors for humans and nonhuman primates, respectively. Geographically, microsporidia have been widely found in 92 countries, among which Northern Europe and South Africa have the highest prevalence. In terms of seasonality, the most prevalent taxa, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon, display different prevalence trends, but no significant difference between seasons was observed. In addition to having a high prevalence, microsporidia are extremely divergent because 728 genotypes have been identified in 7 species. Although less investigated, microsporidia coinfections are more common with human immunodeficiency virus and Cryptosporidium than with other pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the largest-scale meta-analysis to date on microsporidia prevalence in mammals, birds and water worldwide. The results suggest that microsporidia are highly divergent, widespread and prevalent in some animals and water and should be further investigated to better understand their epidemic features.


Assuntos
Aves/parasitologia , Saúde Global , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Microsporídios/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Água/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Genótipo , Geografia , Humanos , Microsporídios/classificação , Microsporídios/genética , Microsporídios/patogenicidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/parasitologia
7.
Parasite ; 28: 31, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812463

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a common intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of hosts, including humans and companion animals, raising concerns of zoonotic transmission. However, there is limited epidemiological information on the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in sheltered dogs and cats in Sichuan province, southwestern China. A total of 880 fecal samples were collected from shelters in different cities of Sichuan province, including 724 samples from dogs, and 156 samples from cats. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was determined by sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Overall, the prevalence of E. bieneusi was 18% (158/880), and the parasite was detected in 18.8% (136/724) and 14.1% (22/156) of the dogs and cats examined, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of five genotypes in dogs, including three known genotypes CD9 (n = 92), PtEb IX (n = 41), and Type IV (n = 1), and two novel genotypes SCD-1 (n = 1) and SCD-2 (n = 1). Similarly, four genotypes were identified in cats, including CD9 (n = 11), Type IV (n = 6), D (n = 4), and PtEb IX (n = 1). Genotypes D and Type IV have previously been identified in humans and are reported in sheltered dogs and cats in the present study, indicating that these animals could be as potential sources of human microsporidiosis infections.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiose , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Filogenia , Prevalência , Zoonoses
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 337-342, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827196

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common species of microsporidia that infects humans and animals worldwide. However, no information is available on E. bieneusi infection among zoo animals in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Here, we investigated the prevalence of E. bieneusi among animals kept in zoos and the zoonotic potential of the E. bieneusi identified. E. bieneusi was detected only in one African lion (Panthera leo) with diarrhea, using PCR and sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA gene. A phylogenetic analysis based on the ITS gene showed that the lion isolate was classified into a novel genotype KPL belonging to Group 2. The KPL genotype identified in this study differed from genotype I in 6 nucleotides and from genotype I-like in 3 nucleotides, respectively, indicating that Group 2 has the capacity to infect a wide range of hosts. This is the first report of the presence of E. bieneusi in an African lion housed in a zoo in the ROK. Further investigation is necessary to study E. bieneusi infection among zoo animals in various regions and to determine the transmission route, in order to control E. bieneusi infection.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Leões , Microsporidiose/veterinária , República da Coreia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Filogenia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
9.
Microb Pathog ; 154: 104823, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689811

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are common and important enteric parasites that can infect humans and animals, causing diarrhoea and systemic diseases. The objectives of the present study were to examine the prevalence and genetic variations of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in pigs transferred from northeastern China to Ningbo city in Zhejiang Province. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 0.9% (2/216) of these samples and belonged to the zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum. A high E. bieneusi infection rate (25.0%, 54/216) was observed in this study, with 7 possible novel ITS genotypes (JLNB-1 to JLNB-7) and 10 known genotypes (EbpA, CM11, H, CM6, pigEBITS1, EbpC, CS-4, pigEBITS5, CHS5, and Henan-Ⅳ) identified, and zoonotic EbpA was the dominant genotype. Genotypes H and pigEBITS1 were reported for the first time in pigs in China. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the genotypes found in these samples belonged to zoonotic group 1. These findings indicated the potential threat of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi to humans or the environment during cross-regional transportation. An effective management control system should be built to avoid parasitic transmission as well as other animal diseases while travelling across different regions. In further studies, attention should be given to the transmission routes and the role of pigs as a potential source of human Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi infections in China.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Filogenia , Prevalência , Suínos , Zoonoses
10.
Prev Vet Med ; 188: 105278, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548904

RESUMO

Microsporidiosis in pet and stray cats is an emerging zoonotic threat with public health significance worldwide. However, the epidemiological patterns of feline microsporidiosis is still neglected around the world. Hence, current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at characterizing the prevalence estimates and genotypes of microsporidian parasites among cats of the world. Several databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google scholar) were systematically explored to find relevant studies. Evaluation of the weighted prevalences among included studies was done using random-effects model. Totally, 30 studies (34 datasets) reported from 19 countries were included in the present work. Microsporidia infection demonstrated higher prevalence rates using microscopy 29.7 % (19.7-42.2 %), followed by serology and molecular techniques with 11 % (4.6-24.2 %) and 8.2 % (5.9-11.4 %), respectively. Moreover, molecular data showed Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most dominant reported species with 7.4 % (5.1-10.5 %). Also, investigations (11 studies) mostly isolated D genotype among all E. bieneusi genotypes. These results highlight cats as a potential reservoir for acquisition of microsporidia infection in humans, and surveillance programs should be implemented in high-risk areas.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/parasitologia
11.
Adv Parasitol ; 111: 1-73, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482973

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a microsporidian microorganism that causes intestinal disease in animals including humans. E. bieneusi is an obligate intracellular pathogen, typically causing severe or chronic diarrhoea, malabsorption and/or wasting. Currently, E. bieneusi is recognised as a fungus, although its exact classification remains contentious. The transmission of E. bieneusi can occur from person to person and/or animals to people. Transmission is usually via the faecal-oral route through E. bieneusi spore-contaminated water, environment or food, or direct contact with infected individuals. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes are usually identified and classified by PCR-based sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. To date, ~600 distinct genotypes of E. bieneusi have been recorded in ~170 species of animals, including various orders of mammals and reptiles as well as insects in >40 countries. Moreover, E. bieneusi has also been found in recreational water, irrigation water, and treated raw- and waste-waters. Although many studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of E. bieneusi, prevalence surveys of animals and humans are scant in some countries, such as Australia, and transmission routes of individual genotypes and related risk factors are poorly understood. This article/chapter reviews aspects of the taxonomy, biology and epidemiology of E. bieneusi; the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of microsporidiosis; critically appraises the naming system for E. bieneusi genotypes as well as the phylogenetic relationships of these genotypes; provides new insights into the prevalence and genetic composition of E. bieneusi populations in animals in parts of Australia using molecular epidemiological tools; and proposes some areas for future research in the E. bieneusi/microsporidiosis field.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiose , Zoonoses , Animais , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/patogenicidade , Enterocytozoon/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Prevalência , Microbiologia da Água , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
12.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 44(4): 232-238, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269566

RESUMO

Objective: Microsporidia are opportunistic obligate intracellular pathogens which infect many vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. This study aimed at investigating all evidence about microsporidia infection in human and other vertebrate hosts in Turkey. Methods: This study covered all prevalence studies, related to microsporidiosis in Turkey until April 2020, that were found in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and ULAKBIM databases were considered in this meta-analysis. A total of 168 studies were identified in the systematic literature research. After the initial assessment, only 15 articles (12 humans and three other vertebrates) were included for meta-analysis. Data analysis was carried out using the Revman 5.3 (Review Manage 5.3) software. Results: With the evaluation of these studies, it was found that the prevalence of microsporidia in humans (n=6.707) and other vertebrate hosts (n=506) was 13.4% and 15.2%, respectively. The risk ratio in the patient groups was 2.87 compared to the control group [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-6.87, I2=87%, p<0.00001]. There was no difference between genders and parasite prevalence (95% CI: 1.00-1.39, I2=18%, p=0.29). The prevalence of microsporidia was also found to be high in patients with diarrhea (95% CI: 1.09-1.58, I2=86%, p=0.0001) and in immunosuppressed individuals (95% CI: 1.86-3.70, I2=16%, p=0.31). Conclusion: Although there are few studies on the prevalence of these parasites, the results of this meta-analysis provides extensive information about the current situation in Turkey.


Assuntos
Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microsporídios/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vertebrados
13.
Parasite ; 27: 65, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231548

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an intestinal pathogen that infects a wide range of species, including humans. Cattle constitute an important host for E. bieneusi; however, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence and genotyping of E. bieneusi in cattle in the Hainan Province of China. In this study, PCR analysis of 314 fecal samples from cattle in six cities of Hainan was performed for genotype identification. The average prevalence of E. bieneusi in these animals was 9.9% (31/314), and ranged from 0.0% (0/12) to 20.5% (8/39). Five known genotypes - EbpC (n = 14), BEB4 (n = 12), J (n = 2), I (n = 1), and CHG5 (n = 1) - and a novel genotype: HNC-I (n = 1) - were identified. Genotypes EbpC and HNC-I were placed in zoonotic Group 1, and the remaining four genotypes (BEB4, J, I, and CHG5) were placed in Group 2. Since 93.5% of the genotypes found in the cattle (29/31) (EbpC, BEB4, J, and I) have previously been found in humans, these genotypes are probably involved in the transmission of microsporidiosis to humans.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/transmissão , Filogenia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
14.
Microb Pathog ; 149: 104526, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010364

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two important zoonotic pathogens that can cause diarrhea and other gastrointestinal illnesses in humans and animals. However, the prevalence and genotype of the parasites in Longjiang Wagyu cattle in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China have not been reported. In the present study, a total of 423 fecal samples of Longjiang Wagyu cattle collected from different farms in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR. The overall infection rates for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi were 6.38% (n = 27) and 7.09% (n = 30), respectively. The prevalence in different age groups ranged from 3.80% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-6.59) to 8.36% (95% CI 4.83-11.90) for Cryptosporidium spp. and 5.97% (95% CI 2.52-9.43) to 7.94% (95% CI 4.49-11.40) for E. bieneusi. By analyzing the DNA sequences of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, two Cryptosporidium species were detected in this study, namely C. parvum (n = 25) and C. ryanae (n = 2). The IIdA20G1 subtype was further identified by using the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene of C. parvum. E. bieneusi was identified using three known sequences through the analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences: J (n = 23), I (n = 5), and BEB4 (n = 2), and all belonged to group 2. The results indicated that some of the Cryptosporidium species and E. bieneusi genotypes identified in Longjiang Wagyu cattle in the study areas might have zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Filogenia , Prevalência
15.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 73: 101550, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032191

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common species responsible for human and animals microsporidiasis. A total of 250 samples were collected weekly from 25 newborn dairy calves of a farm in Southern Xinjiang, China at one to ten weeks of age. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was identified and genotyped by nested PCR amplification and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region.The cumulative prevalence of E. bieneusi infection was 100% (25/25), and the average infection was 52.0% (130/250). The highest infection rate was recorded at six weeks of age (92.0%, 23/25), and no infection was observed at one and two weeks of age. Sequencing analysis showed nine E. bieneusi genotypes (J, EbpC, PigEBITS5, CHV4, CHC3, CS-9, KIN-1, CH5, and CAM5) were identified. The highest genetic polymorphism was observed at ten weeks of age. Genotype J was the predominant E. bieneusi genotype. Phylogenetic analysis clustered genotype J into Group 2 and other eight genotypes (EbpC, PigEBITS5, CHV4, CHC3, CS-9, KIN-1, CH5, and CAM5), detected in 22 (16.9%, 22/130) samples, into Group 1. Among the genotypes, EbpC, KIN-1, and J have been identified in humans. The highest E. bieneusi infection rate (57.9%, 124/214) was observed in fecal samples with formed feces with no diarrhea (p < 0.01), and high genetic polymorphism was observed in class I fecal samples. The presence of zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes in dairy calves suggests the possibility of transmitting zoonotic infections to humans. It provides the basic data on dynamic change of E. bieneusi in calves.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Estudos Longitudinais , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108828, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866940

RESUMO

Raw milk is a continued threat to public health due to possible contamination with zoonotic pathogens. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal disease. Although there has been some evidence, the role and potential risk of raw milk of dairy animals in the transmission dynamics of E. bieneusi is not clear. Therefore, we aimed to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in raw milk of dairy animals in several farms of the Central Anatolia Region. We also investigated if there is a relation between the presence of E. bieneusi and mastitis. Genomic DNAs from a total of 450 raw milk including 200, 200 and 50 samples from cattle, sheep and water buffalo respectively were analyzed using nested PCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer of E. bieneusi. Totally milk samples of 9 (4.5%) dairy cattle, 36 (18.0%) sheep, and 1 (2.0%) water buffalo were PCR-positive. A significant relationship was determined between mastitis and the presence of E. bieneusi. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of eight genotypes: two known (ERUSS1, BEB6) and six novel genotypes (named as TREb1 to TREb6). The genotype ERUSS1 and BEB6 were the most common genotypes, found in all cattle and sheep farms. Phylogenetic analysis clustered all the identified genotypes in Group 2. This study provides novel findings that contribute to the transmission dynamics and molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi. Our study also highlighted the potential risk of raw milk for public health with respect to microsporidia infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/genética , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Leite/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fazendas , Feminino , Genótipo , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/transmissão , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Turquia
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 438, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rodents, globally overpopulated, are an important source for zoonotic disease transmission to humans, including Enterocytozoon bieneusi (one of the most prevalent zoonotic pathogens). Here, we studied the prevalence and performed genetic analyses of E. bieneusi in rodents from the Hainan Province of China. METHODS: A total of 603 fresh fecal samples were gathered from 369 wild rats, 117 bamboo rats, 93 Asiatic brush-tailed porcupine and 24 red-bellied squirrels. The wild rats were identified to the species level by amplification of a 421-bp region of the cytb gene from fecal DNA using PCR. Genotype analysis was performed by amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA of E. bieneusi using PCR. RESULTS: Seven wild rat species were identified. The average rate of infection with E. bieneusi was 15.8% (95/603) with 18.7% (69/369) in wild rats, 11.9% (25/210) in farmed rodents and 4.2% (1/24) in red-bellied squirrels. Sixteen E. bieneusi genotypes were identified, including 9 known genotypes (D, Type IV, PigEBITS7, Peru8, Peru11, ESH02, S7, EbpA and CHG5), and 7 novel genotypes (HNR-I to HNR-VII). Genotype D (44.2%, 42/95) predominated, followed by PigEBITS7 (20.0%, 19/95), HNR-VII (15.8%, 15/95), Type IV (5.3%, 5/95), HNR-III (2.1%, 2/95), HNR-VI (2.1%, 2/95) and each of the remaining 10 genotypes (1.1%, 1/95). The phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region of E. bieneusi divided the identified genotypes into the following four groups: Group 1 (n = 13), Group 2 (n = 1), Group 12 (n = 1), and the novel Group 13 (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of E. bieneusi in rodents from Hainan, China. The zoonotic potential of the identified E. bieneusi genotypes suggested that the rodents poses a serious threat to the local inhabitants. Thus, measures need to be taken to control the population of wild rats in the areas investigated in this study, along with identification of safe methods for disposal of farmed rodent feces. Additionally, the local people should be made aware of the risk of disease transmission from rodents to humans.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Roedores/microbiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Genes Fúngicos , Variação Genética , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Porcos-Espinhos/microbiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Ratos/parasitologia , Sciuridae/microbiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3033-3040, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748039

RESUMO

We assessed the potential contribution of hospitals to contaminations of wastewater by enteric protists, including Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in raw wastewater. Wastewater samples were collected from storage tanks in two hospitals and one associated wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai, China, from March to November 2009. Enteric pathogens were detected and identified using PCR and DNA sequencing techniques. Among a total of 164 samples analyzed, 31 (18.9%), 45 (27.4%), and 122 (74.4%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi, respectively. Altogether, three Cryptosporidium species, four G. duodenalis assemblages, and 12 E. bieneusi genotypes were detected. Cryptosporidium hominis, G. duodenalis sub-assemblage AII, and E. bieneusi genotype D were the dominant ones in wastewater from both hospitals and the wastewater treatment plant. A similar distribution in genotypes of enteric pathogens was seen between samples from hospitals and the wastewater treatment plant, suggesting that humans are one of the major sources for these pathogens and hospitals are important contributors of enteric parasites in urban wastewater. Data from this study might be useful in the formulation of preventive measures against environmental contamination of waterborne pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 367, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most frequently detected microsporidian species in humans and animals. Currently, to the best of our knowledge, no information on E. bieneusi infection in Himalayan marmots (Marmota himalayana) and Alashan ground squirrels (Spermophilus alashanicus) is available worldwide. The aim of the present study was to understand the occurrence and genetic characterizations of E. bieneusi in Himalayan marmots and Alashan ground squirrels in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTPA), Gansu Province, China. METHODS: A total of 498 intestinal contents were collected from 399 Himalayan marmots and 99 Alashan ground squirrels in QTPA. These samples were screened for the presence of E. bieneusi by using nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. The ITS-positive sequences were aligned and phylogenetically analyzed to determine the genotypes of E. bieneusi. RESULTS: The average infection rate of E. bieneusi was 10.0% (50/498), with 11.8% (47/399) in Himalayan marmots and 3.0% (3/99) in Alashan ground squirrels. A total of 7 distinct E. bieneusi genotypes were confirmed: 1 known genotype, YAK1 (n = 18) and 6 novel genotypes, named as ZY37 (n = 27), HN39 (n = 1), HN96 (n = 1), SN45 (n = 1), XH47 (n = 1) and ZY83 (n = 1). All the genotypes obtained in the present study were classified into group 1. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of E. bieneusi in Himalayan marmots and Alashan ground squirrels in China. The identification of genotype YAK1 in the two rodent species expanded the host range of this genotype. All the seven genotypes were clustered into zoonotic group 1, suggesting that these animal species can be potential epidemiological vectors of zoonotic microsporidiosis caused by E. bieneusi and pose a threat to ecological security. It is necessary to strengthen management practices and surveillance in the investigated areas to reduce the risk of E. bieneusi infection from the two rodent species to humans.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Marmota/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Sciuridae/microbiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
20.
J Parasitol ; 106(4): 464-470, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640465

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium species and microsporidia, which can cause zoonotic intestinal infections in humans, have become an emerging public health concern. It seems that the identification and genotyping of these parasites are necessary for the prevention, control, and establishment of appropriate treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution and zoonotic transmission routes of Cryptosporidium species and microsporidia to humans referred to medical laboratories of Kurdistan Province, Iran. A total of 1,383 stool samples were collected and investigated. Cryptosporidium spp. and microsporidia were detected using microscopic methods (i.e., formol-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and modified trichrome staining methods). DNA was extracted from positive samples, and specific fragments of the Cryptosporidium GP60 gene and microsporidia SSU rRNA gene were amplified. Furthermore, positive samples were sequenced for genotype identification and bioinformatics analysis. Based on the microscopic analysis of 1,383 stool samples, 5 (0.36%) and 6 (0.43%) samples were considered positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and microsporidia spores, respectively. Molecular analysis of positive samples identified the isolates as Cryptosporidium parvum and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. According to comparative phylogenetics, cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis may occur via zoonotic transmission in this region. Therefore, proper control and health education are strongly recommended to prevent zoonotic diseases.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Microsporídios/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Biologia Computacional , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Microsporídios/classificação , Microsporídios/genética , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
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