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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 10-13, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917781

RESUMO

Tailoring communicable disease preparedness and response strategies to unique population movement patterns between an outbreak area and neighboring countries can help limit the international spread of disease. Global recognition of the value of addressing community connectivity in preparedness and response, through field work and visualizing the identified movement patterns, is reflected in the World Health Organization's declaration on July 17, 2019, that the 10th Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (1). In March 2019, the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI), Uganda, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MOH) Uganda and CDC, had previously identified areas at increased risk for Ebola importation by facilitating community engagement with participatory mapping to characterize cross-border population connectivity patterns. Multisectoral participants identified 31 locations and associated movement pathways with high levels of connectivity to the Ebola outbreak areas. They described a major shift in the movement pattern between Goma (DRC) and Kisoro (Uganda), mainly through Rwanda, when Rwanda closed the Cyanika ground crossing with Uganda. This closure led some travelers to use a potentially less secure route within DRC. District and national leadership used these results to bolster preparedness at identified points of entry and health care facilities and prioritized locations at high risk further into Uganda, especially markets and transportation hubs, for enhanced preparedness. Strategies to forecast, identify, and rapidly respond to the international spread of disease require adapting to complex, dynamic, multisectoral cross-border population movement, which can be influenced by border control and public health measures of neighboring countries.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação da Comunidade , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
2.
Science ; 367(6474): 147-148, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919210
3.
Integr Zool ; 15(1): 32-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983102

RESUMO

Despite studies on range shifts being abundant, the problem of dispersal barriers limiting climate migrants' movement is yet to be fully included into any modeling framework. For this reason, we introduce a novel concept whereby the interplay of range shifts and dispersal barriers of a particular spatial configuration can threaten the persistence of populations under a climate change scenario. We named this concept "C-trap," based on the topographic shape of such barriers. After elaborating on the theoretical features of C-traps, we provide a simple method that combines environmental data and future climate projections to locate them spatially. We use this method to determine where high C-trap densities have the potential to further threaten the conservation of endangered, endemic animals across the world's terrestrial realm, in a climate change scenario. Our methodology detected potential C-traps for the study system, with areas of high density mostly located in east Europe, south Asia and North America. However, finer-scale analyses are required to assess the magnitude of the threat locally. Dispersal barriers add an additional dimension to range shift studies and can ultimately prevent otherwise successful climate migrants from tracking their climatic niche. The methodology presented here is simple and flexible enough to be adapted to a wide range of taxa and locations as well as the fast development of range shift modeling. Therefore, we encourage researchers to include the effects of anthropogenic dispersal barriers in range shifts models and in the planning of effective conservation strategies with reference to climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Migração Humana , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos
4.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 566-582, dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1045914

RESUMO

A partir da perspectiva da chamada "Psicologia Social Crítica", este artigo toma como base o sintagma identidade-metamorfose-emancipação, desenvolvido por Antônio da Costa Ciampa, para discutir a necessária desnaturalização do termo migrante, cuja vivência singular sempre será atravessada por referências de classe, gênero, raça/etnicidade e nacionalidade. Explicita-se o imperativo de um deslocamento de olhar do processo migratório em si para o migrante que, enquanto sujeito, atribui significados e sentidos particulares aos diversos condicionamentos a que está exposto a partir de suas histórias e projetos de vida. Em vista disso, o presente trabalho propõe um enfoque que supere as dicotomias existentes entre as abordagens micro e macroestruturais, considerando a percepção singular do migrante com relação às determinações históricas, políticas, econômicas, sociais e culturais envolvidas tanto no lugar de origem quanto de destino. Para tanto, foi feita uma revisão bibliográfica acerca das contribuições históricas de alguns importantes autores da temática migratória, além da diferenciação entre as principais teorias desenvolvidas sobre esse fenômeno, para que seja possível a compreensão da abordagem proposta e sua relação com os estudos migratórios.(AU)


From the perspective of the so-called "Critical Social Psychology", this article is based on the syntagm identity-metamorphosis-emancipation, developed by Antônio da Costa Ciampa, to discuss the necessary denaturalization of the term migrant, whose unique experience will always be crossed by references of class, gender, race/ethnicity and nationality. The imperative of a shifting of the view of the migratory process itself to the migrant, who, as subject, attributes meanings and particular senses to the various conditions to which he is exposed from his stories and life projects. Considering this, the present work proposes an approach that overcomes the existing dichotomies between the micro and macro-structural perspectives, considering the singular perception of the migrant in relation to the historical, political, economic, social and cultural determinations involved in the place of origin and of destination. To do so, it was made a bibliographical review about the historical contributions of some important authors of the migratory theme, besides the differentiation between the main theories developed on this phenomenon, to understand the proposed approach and its relation with the migratory studies.(AU)


Desde la perspectiva de la llamada "Psicología Social Crítica", este artículo se basa en el sintagma identidad-metamorfosis-emancipación, desarrollado por Antônio da Costa Ciampa, para discutir la necesaria desnaturalización del término migrante, cuya vivencia singular siempre será atravesada por referencias de clase, género, raza/etnicidad y nacionalidad. Es explícito el imperativo de un desplazamiento de una mirada del proceso migratorio en sí al migrante que, como sujeto, atribuye significados y sentidos particulares a los diversos condicionamientos a que está expuesto desde sus historias y proyectos de vida. En vista de ello, el presente trabajo propone un enfoque que supere las dicotomías existentes entre los enfoques micro y macroestructurales, considerando la percepción singular del migrante con relación a las determinaciones históricas, políticas, económicas, sociales y culturales implicadas tanto en el lugar de origen como en el de destino. Con este fin, se realizó una revisión bibliografica acerca de las contribuciones históricas de algunos importantes autores del tema migratorio, además de la diferenciación entre las principales teorías desarrolladas sobre ese fenómeno, para que sea posible la comprensión del enfoque propuesto y su relación con los estudios migratorios.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Psicologia Social , Migração Humana , Identificação Social
6.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 197, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that infects the human stomach, has high genetic diversity. Because its evolution is parallel to human, H. pylori is used as a tool to trace human migration. However, there are few studies about the relationship between phylogeography of H. pylori and its host human. METHODS: We examined both H. pylori DNA and the host mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome DNA obtained from a total 119 patients in the Dominican Republic, where human demography consists of various ancestries. DNA extracted from cultured H. pylori were analyzed by multi locus sequence typing. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome DNA were evaluated by haplogroup analyses. RESULTS: H. pylori strains were divided into 2 populations; 68 strains with African group (hpAfrica1) and 51 strains with European group (hpEurope). In Y-chromosomal haplogroup, European origin was dominant, whereas African origin was dominant both in H. pylori and in mtDNA haplogroup. These results supported the hypothesis that mother-to-child infection is predominant in H. pylori infection. The Amerindian type of mtDNA haplogroup was observed in 11.8% of the patients; however, Amerindian type (hspAmerind) of H. pylori was not observed. Although subpopulation type of most hpAfrica1 strains in Central America and South America were hybrid (hspWAfrica/hpEurope), most Dominican Republic hpAfrica1 strains were similar to those of African continent. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic features of H. pylori, mtDNA, and Y haplogroups reflect the history of colonial migration and slave trade in the Dominican Republic. Discrepancy between H. pylori and the host human genotypes support the hypothesis that adaptability of hspAmerind H. pylori strains are weaker than hpEurope strains. H. pylori strains in the Dominican Republic seem to contain larger proportion of African ancestry compared to other American continent strains.


Assuntos
Helicobacter pylori/genética , Migração Humana , Adulto , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos Y , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , República Dominicana , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/classificação , Genética Humana , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogeografia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 438, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections affect predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged populations in sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia and the Americas. Previous mathematical modelling studies have evaluated optimal intervention strategies to break STH transmission in clusters of villages. These studies assumed that villages are closed independent units with no movement of people in or out of communities. Here we examine how human population movement, for example, of seasonal migrant labourers, affect the outcome of mass drug administration (MDA) programmes. RESULTS: We used a stochastic individual-based metapopulation model to analyse the impact of human population movement at varying rates on STH elimination efforts. Specifically, we looked at seasonal clumped movement events of infected individuals into a village. We showed that even if on average 75% of the entire resident population within a village are treated, an annual rate of 2-3% of the population arriving from an untreated source village can reduce the probability of STH elimination to less than 50% in high-prevalence settings. If a village is infection-free, an annual movement rate of 2-3% from an infected source village imposes a risk of re-introduction of STH of 75% or higher, unless the prevalence in the source village is less than 20%. Even a single arrival of 2-3% of the population can impose a risk of re-introducing STH of 50% or greater depending on the prevalence in the source village. The risk of re-introduction also depends on both the age group of moving individuals and STH species, since the pattern of cross-sectional age-prevalence and age-intensity profiles of infection in the human host are species-specific. CONCLUSIONS: Planning for STH elimination programmes should account for human mobility patterns in defined regions. We recommend that individuals arriving from areas with ongoing STH transmission should receive preventive chemotherapy for STHs. This can most easily be implemented if migration is seasonal and overlaps with treatment rounds, e.g. seasonal migrant labour. Moreover, transmission hotspots in or near treatment clusters should be eliminated, for example, by implementing appropriate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) measures and targeting treatment to individuals living in hotspots.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/transmissão , Migração Humana , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Prevalência , População Rural , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Science ; 365(6457)2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488661

RESUMO

By sequencing 523 ancient humans, we show that the primary source of ancestry in modern South Asians is a prehistoric genetic gradient between people related to early hunter-gatherers of Iran and Southeast Asia. After the Indus Valley Civilization's decline, its people mixed with individuals in the southeast to form one of the two main ancestral populations of South Asia, whose direct descendants live in southern India. Simultaneously, they mixed with descendants of Steppe pastoralists who, starting around 4000 years ago, spread via Central Asia to form the other main ancestral population. The Steppe ancestry in South Asia has the same profile as that in Bronze Age Eastern Europe, tracking a movement of people that affected both regions and that likely spread the distinctive features shared between Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic languages.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Fazendas/história , Migração Humana/história , População/genética , Ásia Central , Ásia Sudeste , Fluxo Gênico , História Antiga , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(17)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466354

RESUMO

Interactions between cultural heritage, tourism, and pedagogy deserve investigation in an as-built environment under a macro- or micro-perspective of urban fabric. The heritage site of Shih Yih Hall, Lukang, was explored. An Augmented Reality Tourism System (ARTS) was developed on a smartphone-based platform for a novel application scenario using 3D scans converted from a point cloud to a portable interaction size. ARTS comprises a real-time environment viewing module, a space-switching module, and an Augmented Reality (AR) guide graphic module. The system facilitates scenario initiations, projection and superimposition, annotation, and interface customization, with software tools developed using ARKit® on the iPhone XS Max®. The three-way interaction between urban fabric, cultural heritage tourism, and pedagogy was made possible through background block-outs and an additive or selective display. The illustration of the full-scale experience of the smartphone app was made feasible for co-relating the cultural dependence of urban fabric on tourism. The great fidelity of 3D scans and AR scenes act as a pedagogical aid for students or tourists. A Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ) evaluation verified the usefulness of ARTS.


Assuntos
Migração Humana/tendências , Smartphone , Software , Ensino/tendências , China , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3670, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431628

RESUMO

Situated at over 5,000 meters above sea level in the Himalayan Mountains, Roopkund Lake is home to the scattered skeletal remains of several hundred individuals of unknown origin. We report genome-wide ancient DNA for 38 skeletons from Roopkund Lake, and find that they cluster into three distinct groups. A group of 23 individuals have ancestry that falls within the range of variation of present-day South Asians. A further 14 have ancestry typical of the eastern Mediterranean. We also identify one individual with Southeast Asian-related ancestry. Radiocarbon dating indicates that these remains were not deposited simultaneously. Instead, all of the individuals with South Asian-related ancestry date to ~800 CE (but with evidence of being deposited in more than one event), while all other individuals date to ~1800 CE. These differences are also reflected in stable isotope measurements, which reveal a distinct dietary profile for the two main groups.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/citologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , DNA/genética , Fósseis , Dieta , Migração Humana , Humanos , Índia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Datação Radiométrica
13.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389345

RESUMO

This paper takes issue with the notion behind some genetic sampling of populations that there are autochthonous groups (designated tribal) in India, and that to give a group, its 'anthropological name' [sic] is valid. The archaeological and textual evidence of the earliest known Indo-Europeans and Indo-Iranians is given in bare outline. Possible trails of the Indo-Aryans of Iron-age South Asia are detected in archaeological records, immigration through mountains in the northwest with horses and two-humped camels, and also incursions of small groups of horse-riders, from Vidarbha all the way south to the Tamil country.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Animais , Camelus , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , História Antiga , Cavalos , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Filogenia
14.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389347

RESUMO

Data from archaeology, linguistics, population genetics, and from early Vedic texts, which deal with religion, mythology and rituals, have to be assembled and closely compared in order to gain a comprehensive picture of the early 'Aryans'. Such interdisciplinary dialogue is necessary in order to establish areas of overlap of data. This paper attempts to indicate a western Central Asian origin of the Indo-Aryan speakers, in the steppe belt near the Urals, from where they moved, via the Inner Asian Mountain belt and Bactria, into India. Their gradual migration entailed acculturation with previous populations, their languages and cultures.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Animais , Comportamento Ritualístico , Equidae , Feminino , Genética Populacional/métodos , História Antiga , Cavalos , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino
15.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389349

RESUMO

When and where was the Rigveda (Rv) composed? How are the Vedic people related to the vast Harappan archaeological tradition? These quintessential questions have no direct answers. At our current level of understanding, archaeology and sacred texts constitute two distinct streams which do not intersect. We must therefore collate evidence from different sources and try to produce a synthesis. It is particularly important to take note of archaeological evidence from Central Asia, because it has not received the attention it deserves. What is well known in science must be kept in mind in the case of history also. A theory to be valid must explain each and every fact (known at present or to be known in future) in a selfconsistent manner. Conversely, even if there is one piece of evidence that a theory is unable to explain, it should be put on hold, modified or even rejected.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Arqueologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Animais , Comportamento Ritualístico , DNA Antigo/análise , Domesticação , Secas , Feminino , Genética Populacional/métodos , História Antiga , Cavalos , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Melhoramento Vegetal/história
16.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389351

RESUMO

This paper addresses the theme of the seminar from the perspective of historical linguistics. It introduces the construct of 'language family' and then proceeds to a discussion of contact and the dynamics of linguistic exchange among the main language families of India over several millennia. Some prevalent hypotheses to explain the creation of India as a linguistic area are presented. The 'substratum view' is critically assessed. Evidence from historical linguistics in support of two dominant hypotheses - 'the Aryan migration view''and 'the out-of-India hypothesis' - is presented and briefly assessed. In conclusion, it is observed that the current understanding in historical linguistics favours the Aryan migration view though the 'substratum view' is questionable.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Linguagem/história , Linguística/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Comportamento Ritualístico , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino
17.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389353

RESUMO

The history of the racial classification of the people of India can be looked at in three temporal phases: (1) at the national level, the initial studies of racial classification attempted along with the Census of India; (2) at the regional level, studies by anthropologists and statisticians following systematic sampling and statistical procedures were conducted after the initial national-level studies and (3) population-specific studies in different regions across the country including micro-evolutionary studies of individual populations followed the regional studies. Initially the racial classification was part of the Census survey conducted by British anthropologists in some parts of the country among castes and tribes and was based on a few physical traits. This was followed by a systematic anthropometric survey in particulars regions (e.g., UP, Bengal, etc.) by anthropologists and statisticians. This was followed by population specific micro-evolutionary studies across different regions by numerous anthropologists investigating the role of selection, drift, migration and admixture and other population structure variables among endogamous castes and tribes.


Assuntos
Antropologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Linguagem/história , Antropometria/métodos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Classe Social/história
18.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389355

RESUMO

Scientists and social scientists often read the same text differently. They also construct categories having the same nomenclature independently. Many of us also work in isolated domains, rarely reading texts researched and documented by others. We conduct our research within the defined format of our disciplines. We engage with others only when contestations emerge and challenge some of the rooted paradigms of each other's disciplines. This paper reflects the reactions of a social scientist to texts on population genetics and attempts to arrive at the genetic theory of the origin of ethnological history of human populations in India. Inadvertently, most of these intensely researched and passionately documented DNA evidence present a serious challenge to the discourse of cultural pluralism and social diversity that the humanist perspective of science and social science takes pride in documenting. This paper is based on secondary resource materials and the methodology adopted is that of narrative research.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Diversidade Cultural , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Linguagem/história , Características Culturais/história , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , História Antiga , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Classe Social/história
19.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389357

RESUMO

The Indo-European debate has been going on for a century and a half. Initially confined to linguistics, race-based anthropology and comparative mythology, it soon extended to archaeology, especially with the discovery of the Harappan civilization, and peripheral disciplines such as agriculture, archaeometallurgy or archaeoastronomy. The latest entrant in the field, archaeogenetics, is currently all but claiming that it has finally laid to rest the whole issue of a hypothetical migration of Indo-Aryan speakers to the Indian subcontinent in the second millennium BCE. This paper questions the finality of this claim by pointing to inherent limitations, methodological issues and occasional biases in current studies as well as in the interpretation of archaeological evidence.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Linguagem/história , Linguística/métodos , Agricultura/história , Antropologia/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Astronomia/história , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Metalurgia/história
20.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389359

RESUMO

To reconstruct and explain patterns of genetic diversity of modern humans, understanding their past and present genetic profile is crucial. While genomes of contemporary people can provide information about present day population structure, analysis of ancient genomes may provide unprecedented insights about the past demographic events that have shaped the contemporary gene pool. Population genetics has recently witnessed an explosion in studies on ancient human population histories, primarily from Europe and America. South Asia has no representation in the ancient genomics literature, despite the wealth of archaeological richness in the form of human skeletal remains that exist in collections all over the country. Representing one-fifth of present day humanity calls for understanding the demographic history of south Asia not merely as a prerequisite but as an urgent need to understand its genetic variations on a global scale. Although the overall picture is taking form, new archaeological and genetic information from the region has started to reveal a more complex scenario of ancient human migrations and admixtures than was ever known before. In this article, we discuss a meaningful insight on the current status of ancient DNA (aDNA) research in India. We have also summarized a few but important aDNA studies, which have been successfully carried out in India. Furthermore, we have highlighted the potential opportunity of aDNA research in the Indian subcontinent.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Genética Populacional , Migração Humana/tendências , Linguagem/história , Antropologia/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Evolução Biológica , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Variação Genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Seleção Genética
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