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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(17)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466354

RESUMO

Interactions between cultural heritage, tourism, and pedagogy deserve investigation in an as-built environment under a macro- or micro-perspective of urban fabric. The heritage site of Shih Yih Hall, Lukang, was explored. An Augmented Reality Tourism System (ARTS) was developed on a smartphone-based platform for a novel application scenario using 3D scans converted from a point cloud to a portable interaction size. ARTS comprises a real-time environment viewing module, a space-switching module, and an Augmented Reality (AR) guide graphic module. The system facilitates scenario initiations, projection and superimposition, annotation, and interface customization, with software tools developed using ARKit® on the iPhone XS Max®. The three-way interaction between urban fabric, cultural heritage tourism, and pedagogy was made possible through background block-outs and an additive or selective display. The illustration of the full-scale experience of the smartphone app was made feasible for co-relating the cultural dependence of urban fabric on tourism. The great fidelity of 3D scans and AR scenes act as a pedagogical aid for students or tourists. A Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ) evaluation verified the usefulness of ARTS.


Assuntos
Migração Humana/tendências , Smartphone , Software , Ensino/tendências , China , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389345

RESUMO

This paper takes issue with the notion behind some genetic sampling of populations that there are autochthonous groups (designated tribal) in India, and that to give a group, its 'anthropological name' [sic] is valid. The archaeological and textual evidence of the earliest known Indo-Europeans and Indo-Iranians is given in bare outline. Possible trails of the Indo-Aryans of Iron-age South Asia are detected in archaeological records, immigration through mountains in the northwest with horses and two-humped camels, and also incursions of small groups of horse-riders, from Vidarbha all the way south to the Tamil country.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Animais , Camelus , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , História Antiga , Cavalos , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Filogenia
3.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389347

RESUMO

Data from archaeology, linguistics, population genetics, and from early Vedic texts, which deal with religion, mythology and rituals, have to be assembled and closely compared in order to gain a comprehensive picture of the early 'Aryans'. Such interdisciplinary dialogue is necessary in order to establish areas of overlap of data. This paper attempts to indicate a western Central Asian origin of the Indo-Aryan speakers, in the steppe belt near the Urals, from where they moved, via the Inner Asian Mountain belt and Bactria, into India. Their gradual migration entailed acculturation with previous populations, their languages and cultures.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Animais , Comportamento Ritualístico , Equidae , Feminino , Genética Populacional/métodos , História Antiga , Cavalos , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino
4.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389349

RESUMO

When and where was the Rigveda (Rv) composed? How are the Vedic people related to the vast Harappan archaeological tradition? These quintessential questions have no direct answers. At our current level of understanding, archaeology and sacred texts constitute two distinct streams which do not intersect. We must therefore collate evidence from different sources and try to produce a synthesis. It is particularly important to take note of archaeological evidence from Central Asia, because it has not received the attention it deserves. What is well known in science must be kept in mind in the case of history also. A theory to be valid must explain each and every fact (known at present or to be known in future) in a selfconsistent manner. Conversely, even if there is one piece of evidence that a theory is unable to explain, it should be put on hold, modified or even rejected.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Arqueologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Animais , Comportamento Ritualístico , DNA Antigo/análise , Domesticação , Secas , Feminino , Genética Populacional/métodos , História Antiga , Cavalos , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Melhoramento Vegetal/história
5.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389351

RESUMO

This paper addresses the theme of the seminar from the perspective of historical linguistics. It introduces the construct of 'language family' and then proceeds to a discussion of contact and the dynamics of linguistic exchange among the main language families of India over several millennia. Some prevalent hypotheses to explain the creation of India as a linguistic area are presented. The 'substratum view' is critically assessed. Evidence from historical linguistics in support of two dominant hypotheses - 'the Aryan migration view''and 'the out-of-India hypothesis' - is presented and briefly assessed. In conclusion, it is observed that the current understanding in historical linguistics favours the Aryan migration view though the 'substratum view' is questionable.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Linguagem/história , Linguística/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Comportamento Ritualístico , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino
6.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389353

RESUMO

The history of the racial classification of the people of India can be looked at in three temporal phases: (1) at the national level, the initial studies of racial classification attempted along with the Census of India; (2) at the regional level, studies by anthropologists and statisticians following systematic sampling and statistical procedures were conducted after the initial national-level studies and (3) population-specific studies in different regions across the country including micro-evolutionary studies of individual populations followed the regional studies. Initially the racial classification was part of the Census survey conducted by British anthropologists in some parts of the country among castes and tribes and was based on a few physical traits. This was followed by a systematic anthropometric survey in particulars regions (e.g., UP, Bengal, etc.) by anthropologists and statisticians. This was followed by population specific micro-evolutionary studies across different regions by numerous anthropologists investigating the role of selection, drift, migration and admixture and other population structure variables among endogamous castes and tribes.


Assuntos
Antropologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Linguagem/história , Antropometria/métodos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Classe Social/história
7.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389357

RESUMO

The Indo-European debate has been going on for a century and a half. Initially confined to linguistics, race-based anthropology and comparative mythology, it soon extended to archaeology, especially with the discovery of the Harappan civilization, and peripheral disciplines such as agriculture, archaeometallurgy or archaeoastronomy. The latest entrant in the field, archaeogenetics, is currently all but claiming that it has finally laid to rest the whole issue of a hypothetical migration of Indo-Aryan speakers to the Indian subcontinent in the second millennium BCE. This paper questions the finality of this claim by pointing to inherent limitations, methodological issues and occasional biases in current studies as well as in the interpretation of archaeological evidence.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Linguagem/história , Linguística/métodos , Agricultura/história , Antropologia/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Astronomia/história , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Metalurgia/história
8.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389359

RESUMO

To reconstruct and explain patterns of genetic diversity of modern humans, understanding their past and present genetic profile is crucial. While genomes of contemporary people can provide information about present day population structure, analysis of ancient genomes may provide unprecedented insights about the past demographic events that have shaped the contemporary gene pool. Population genetics has recently witnessed an explosion in studies on ancient human population histories, primarily from Europe and America. South Asia has no representation in the ancient genomics literature, despite the wealth of archaeological richness in the form of human skeletal remains that exist in collections all over the country. Representing one-fifth of present day humanity calls for understanding the demographic history of south Asia not merely as a prerequisite but as an urgent need to understand its genetic variations on a global scale. Although the overall picture is taking form, new archaeological and genetic information from the region has started to reveal a more complex scenario of ancient human migrations and admixtures than was ever known before. In this article, we discuss a meaningful insight on the current status of ancient DNA (aDNA) research in India. We have also summarized a few but important aDNA studies, which have been successfully carried out in India. Furthermore, we have highlighted the potential opportunity of aDNA research in the Indian subcontinent.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Genética Populacional , Migração Humana/tendências , Linguagem/história , Antropologia/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Evolução Biológica , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Variação Genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Seleção Genética
9.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389361

RESUMO

The South Asian populations have a mosaic of ancestries likely due to the interactions of long-term populations of the landmass and those of East andWest Eurasia. Apart from prehistoric dispersals, there are some known population movements to India. In this study,we focussed on the migration of Jewish and Parsi populations on temporal and spatial scales. The existence of Jewish and Parsi communities in India are recorded since ancient times. However, due to the lack of high-resolution genetic data, their origin and affiliation with other Indian and non-Indian populations remains shrouded in legends. Earlier genetic studies on populations of Indian Jews have found evidence for a minor shared ancestry of Indian Jews with Middle Eastern (Jews) populations, whereas for Parsis, the Iranian link was proposed. Recently, in our high-resolution study, we were able to quantify the admixture dynamics of these groups, which has suggested a male-biased admixture. Here, we added the newly available ancient samples and revisited the interplay of genes and cultures. Thus, in this study we reconstructed a broad genetic profile of Indian Jews and Parsis to paint a fine-grained picture of these ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Genética Populacional , Migração Humana/tendências , Judeus/história , Aculturação , Antropologia/métodos , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Variação Genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Irã (Geográfico)/etnologia , Judeus/genética , Masculino
10.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389363

RESUMO

Due to its unique geographical position, juxtaposed in the middle of south-central Asia, east Asia and Southeast Asia, the South Asian Region (SAS) has repeatedly come into contact with people from adjacent regions throughout history and prehistory. The antiquity of the populations and the intricate history of admixture have shaped SAS as one of the most genetically diverse regions in the world. In this article we review our current understanding of the peopling and populations structure of SAS. We do not attempt to be exhaustive but summarize the salient conclusions that have been reached using genetic data and evaluate their robustness. We also identify the unanswered questions and suggest possible approaches that may lead to their answers.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupos Étnicos , Genética Populacional , Migração Humana/tendências , Linguagem/história , Antropologia/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Ásia/etnologia , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , História Antiga , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(14): 14287-14299, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864039

RESUMO

The objective of the study is to examine the impact of natural disasters on external migration, price level, poverty incidence, health expenditures, energy and environmental resources, water demand, financial development, and economic growth in a panel of selected Asian countries for a period of 2005-2017. The results confirm that natural disasters in the form of storm and flood largely increase migration, price level, and poverty incidence, which negatively influenced country's economic resources, including enlarge healthcare expenditures, high energy demand, and low economic growth. The study further presented the following results: i) natural resource depletion increases external migration, ii) FDI inflows increase price level, iii) increase healthcare spending and energy demand decreases poverty headcount, iv) poverty incidence and mortality rate negatively influenced healthcare expenditures, v) industrialization increases energy demand, and vi) agriculture value added, fertilizer, and cereal yields required more water supply to produce greater yield. The study emphasized the need to magnify the intensity of natural disasters and create natural disaster mitigation unit to access the human and infrastructure cost and attempt quick recovery for global prosperity.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Migração Humana , Desastres Naturais/economia , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Agricultura/economia , Ásia , Migração Humana/tendências , Pobreza , Abastecimento de Água/economia
12.
Enferm. glob ; 18(53): 582-594, ene. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183427

RESUMO

Introducción: En España, desde el 2000 hasta el 2010, existían medidas que fomentaban la igualdad en salud y acceso a los servicios sanitarios de la población inmigrante. Con el inicio de la crisis y las reducciones del gasto público en salud, se instauraron medidas, que no solo tienen consecuencias negativas para este colectivo sino también para la salud pública en general, viéndose en aumento el número de casos de enfermedades importadas, también relacionadas con el aumento de viajes internacionales.Objetivos: Evaluar la presencia de enfermedades importadas en España y conocer la problemática del inmigrante en el Sistema Sanitario. Método: Revisión bibliográfica de estudios en lengua inglesa y castellana publicados entre 2007 y 2017 recogidos varias bases de datos y en informes de instituciones y organizaciones científicas.Resultados: Se obtuvo un total de 173 artículos indexados en las bases de datos. De estos, 32 se ajustaron a los criterios de inclusión, de los que se seleccionaron 15 para responder a los objetivos.15 producciones se adaptaron al objetivo del presente estudio. Los estudios afirman que los movimientos poblacionales como migraciones o a viajes internacionales, elevan la presencia de enfermedad importada en España. Esto junto con las medidas legislativas impuestas por el gobierno en materia de sanidad, dificultan al inmigrante irregular la posibilidad de acceder al Sistema Sanitario español. Destacan además otras dificultades para el inmigrante como son el idioma y el desconocimiento del correcto acceso y uso de las prestaciones sanitarias.Conclusión: Todo esto, crea desconfianza en el inmigrante, el cual aplaza el contacto con el servicio sanitario, pudiendo llegar a ocasionar un grave problema en la salud pública, principalmente por el retraso en el diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento de enfermedades infecciosas importadas


Introduction: In Spain, from 2000 to 2010, there were measures that promoted equality in health and permitted access to health services for the immigrant population. Because of the economic crisis and the reductions in public expenditure on health, security measures were put in place, which not only had negative consequences for this group, also for public health in general. Therefore, the number of imported diseases cases have increased in direct relation to international travels.Objectives: To evaluate the presence of imported diseases in Spain and to know the problem of the immigrant in the Health System.Method: the literature review of studies in English and Spanish published between 2007 and 2017, including several databases and reports from institutions and scientific organizations.Results: A total of 173 articles indexed in the databases were obtained. 32 of these articles were adjusted to the inclusion criteria, of which 15 were selected to respond to the objectives. The studies affirm that population movements such as migrations or international trips, increase the presence of imported diseases in Spain. In addition, legislative measures imposed by the government on health matters, complicate access to the Spanish Health System for irregular immigrants. They also highlight other difficulties for the immigrant, such as the language and the lack of knowledge of the correct access and use of health services.Conclusion: The sum of all the above mentioned, creates lack of confidence in the immigrant, which postpones contact with the health service, and may lead to a serious problem in public health, mainly due to the delay in the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of imported infectious diseases


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Espanha/epidemiologia , Migração Humana/tendências , Barreiras de Comunicação , Fatores de Risco
13.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 106 f p. tab, fig, graf.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-998967

RESUMO

Barcos de imigrantes sobrecarregados, tragédias de navios naufragados, grande quantidade de pessoas atravessando a pé fronteiras entre países e intermináveis listas de óbitos tornaram-se rotina. Em 2017, existiam 68,5 milhões de migrantes forçados no mundo, dos quais 25,4 milhões de refugiados, 3,1 milhões de solicitantes de refúgio e 40 milhões de deslocados internos: a maior crise de migrantes forçados desde a segunda guerra mundial. No Brasil, no mesmo ano, houve 33.866 novas solicitações de refúgio, um aumento de 228% em relação a 2016, que se somam às 52.231 solicitações de refúgio que aguardam avaliação e decisão. A migração forçada pode ter impacto negativo direto nas condições de saúde desses indivíduos, com doenças e agravos como tuberculose, sífilis, hipertensão, diabetes mellitus, obesidade, depressão, ansiedade, transtorno de estresse pós-traumático, sequelas de torturas, mutilações e violência sexual. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar, entre solicitantes de refúgio atendidos pela Cáritas Arquidiocesana do Rio de Janeiro (Cáritas-RJ) em 2016 e 2017, o perfil sociodemográfico, as trajetórias de migração e algumas condições de saúde autorrelatadas. Foi realizado um estudo transversal que utilizou dados secundários, constantes de 738 formulários referentes ao período de estudo, preenchidos na Cáritas-RJ. Foram realizadas análises descritivas das variáveis categóricas e calculadas as frequências absolutas e relativas. As trajetórias do país de origem até o Brasil foram apresentadas em mapas temáticos. Foram identificados 45 países de nascimento, havia predomínio de solicitantes de refúgio e 20,3% relataram serem apátridas. A maior parte, 62,7%, era do sexo masculino, 96,9% adultos, com idade média de 30,2 anos, 73,5% solteiros, 86,9% com ensino médio ou superior e apenas 4,4% desempregados no país de origem antes da vinda para o Brasil. Entre os motivos para solicitação de refúgio, destacaram-se possuir fundado temor de perseguição por opinião política, por violação de direitos humanos e por correr risco de ser vítima de tortura. Para chegar ao Brasil, 78,8% viajaram somente de avião. 11,2% afirmaram ter alguma doença ou agravo, sendo as mais frequentes hipertensão arterial, asma, HIV/aids, diabetes, alergia, anemia, doença cardíaca e dorsalgias. Apenas 2,2% relataram fazer algum tratamento médico ou psicológico; 2,0% relaram deficiências físicas, 0,6% deficiências auditivas e 6,0% deficiências visuais. Recomenda-se que essa população seja uma das prioridades das ações de equipes de saúde, entre outros setores. Políticas públicas que podem afetar as experiências pós-migração incluem a necessidade de prestação continuada de serviços que aumentem acesso aos serviços de saúde, garantam moradia, trabalho e renda


Boats overloaded with immigrants, tragedies of wrecked ships, a great amount of people crossing borders between countries, and endless death certificates have become routine. By 2017, there were 68.5 million forced migrants worldwide, including 25.4 million refugees, 3.1 million asylum seekers and 40 million internally displaced persons, the largest crisis of forced migrants since the Second World War. In the same year, in Brazil, there were 33,866 new requests for refuge, an increase of 228% compared to 2016, which adds up to the 52,231 requests for refuge awaiting evaluation and decision. Forced migration may have a direct negative impact on the health status of these individuals, with diseases and conditions such as tuberculosis, syphilis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, torture, mutilation and sexual violence. The objective of this study was to analyze the socio-demographic profile, migration trajectories and some self-reported health conditions among refugee applicants cared for by Caritas Archdiocesan of Rio de Janeiro (Cáritas-RJ) in 2016 and 2017. A cross-sectional study was carried out using secondary data, consisting of 738 forms related to the study period completed in Caritas-RJ. Descriptive analysis of categorical variables was conducted, as well as the calculation of absolute and relative frequencies. The trajectories from the country of origin to Brazil were presented in thematic maps. 45 countries of birth were identified, asylum seekers were predominant and 20.3% reported being stateless. The majority, 62.7%, were male, 96.9% were adults, with an average age of 30.2 years old, 73.5% were single, 86.9% were with high school or higher degree and only 4.4% unemployed in the country of origin before coming to Brazil. Among the reasons for requesting shelter were the fear of persecution for political opinion, for violation of human rights and for being at risk of torture. To arrive in Brazil, 78.8% traveled only by airplane. 11.2% reported having some disease or injury, being the most frequent hypertension, asthma, HIV/aids, diabetes, allergy, anemia, heart disease and back pain. Only 2.2% reported having medical or psychological treatment; 2.0% reported physical disabilities, 0.6% hearing impairments and 6.0% visual impairments. Recommended that this population be one of the priorities of the actions of health teams, among other sectors. Public policies that may affect post-migration experiences include the need for continued provision of services that increase access to health services, guaranteeing housing, work, and income


Assuntos
Humanos , Refugiados , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Global/tendências , Epidemiologia , Migração Humana/tendências , Brasil
14.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 145 f p. tab, fig.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-995860

RESUMO

O objetivo central desta dissertação é refletir sobre o processo de refúgio e a relação deste com a saúde mental de mulheres naturais da República Democrática do Congo (RDC), residentes no Rio de Janeiro. Essa dissertação foi realizada a partir de um estudo qualitativo, de abordagem etnográfica, composto por observação participante e entrevistas, realizado em uma instituição de acolhimento a esta população - a Caritas RJ. A partir das falas dessas mulheres, este trabalho traz ponderações sobre como o Brasil que, até o momento, detém uma legislação favorável à questão do refúgio (lei 9.474 de 1997), na realidade, não apresenta providências de acordo com o que se comprometeu e contribui para a manutenção de vulnerabilidades. Ao analisar as trajetórias das mulheres negras, congolesas, refugiadas em território nacional, me apoio nos conceitos de precarização da vida e sofrimento social, para associar os contextos de violência persistentes e suas interferências em quadros mentais. Neste sentido, foi possível notar a ampla capacidade de resiliência apresentada por elas e sua relação com a religião e a cultura. Entre os adoecimentos, foi observado maior presença de quadros de natureza somatoforme, ansiosa e depressiva (Transtornos Mentais Comuns - TMC). Diante deste contexto, as propostas da Saúde Mental Global (SMG), com tratamentos baseados em evidências e particularizados entre diferentes culturas, podem beneficiar esse grupo


The main goal of this dissertation is to reflect on the refugee process and the relationship between it and the mental health of women from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) residing at Rio de Janeiro. This is a qualitative study with an ethnographic approach composed of participant observation and interviews, performed at a host institution for this population - Caritas RJ. Based on the statements of these women, this work brings forward considerations about how Brazil, which until now has legislation favorable to the issue of refuge (Law 9.474 of 1997), in fact, does not present provisions according to what it has committed and contributes to the maintenance of vulnerabilities. In analyzing the trajectories of black Congolese women refugees in the national territory, I use as a theoretical base the concepts of precariousness of life and social suffering in order to associate persistent contexts of violence and their interference in mental conditions. In this sense, it was possible to note the wide capacity of resilience presented by them and their relation to religion and culture. Among the diseases, there was a greater presence of somatoform, anxious and depressive conditions (Common Mental Disorders - CMD). Given this context, Global Mental Health (MCH) proposals with evidence-based and individualized treatments among different cultures may benefit this group


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Refugiados/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Mulheres/psicologia , Brasil , Saúde Mental/tendências , Congo/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Migração Humana/tendências
15.
Pap. psicol ; 39(2): 96-103, mayo-ago. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180261

RESUMO

En este trabajo realizamos una breve panorámica de la situación de las migraciones internacionales poniendo de relieve las distintas dimensiones psicológicas y sociales de este complejo fenómeno. Desde una visión positiva de las personas que emigran (emprendedora, proactiva, etc.) describimos algunos factores contextuales y personales que sitúan a esas personas en riesgo psicosocial. Para cada uno de estos factores proponemos algunas estrategias de intervención desde los modelos y teorías de la Psicología


In this work, we examine the situation of international migrations, highlighting the different psychological and social dimensions of this complex phenomenon. From a positive view of the people who emigrate (enterprising, proactive, etc.), we describe some contextual and personal factors that place these people at psychosocial risk. For each of these factors, we propose a number of intervention strategies from the psychological theories


Assuntos
Humanos , Migração Humana/tendências , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Impacto Psicossocial , Fatores de Risco , Marginalização Social/psicologia , Emprego/economia , Emprego/psicologia , Gênero e Saúde
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 165, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential instability during pregnancy has been linked to poor health outcomes. As a first step toward providing better health care to pregnant migrant women, the size and characteristics of this population and factors associated with mobility during pregnancy should be studied. METHODS: Using the "Monitoring Data of Chinese Migrants" for 2012, from the Chinese National Population and Family Planning Commission, this study explored mobility patterns during pregnancy and associated factors among migrants within China. From a library of 158,556 participants, two subsamples were selected. Percentages, with chi-squared tests, and means and standard deviations, with ANOVAs, were adopted to describe mobility patterns during pregnancy (always staying in sending area, mainly staying in sending area, mainly staying in receiving area, and always staying in receiving area) and delivery location choice. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associated factors. RESULTS: We found that the percentage of migrants always or mainly staying in receiving areas during pregnancy rose from nearly 40% in 1985 to more than 80% in 2012, while the percentage of migrants who were mobile between receiving and sending areas during pregnancy fluctuated between 30 and 40% before 1995, and between 40 and 45% after 1995, decreasing to around 40% after 2008. The percentage of respondents who chose to deliver in receiving areas fluctuated but increased from 10% in 1985 to more than 50% in 2011. Among respondents who had delivered during the last year of the survey period, families with older pregnant women (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.13), their own housing (OR = 5.66, 95% CI 2.45-13.05), longer time in the receiving area (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.09-1.20), and strong will to integrate (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.15-1.51) always stayed in the receiving area during pregnancy, rather than the sending area, and families with broadly similar characteristics were inclined to choose the receiving area for their delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The mobility patterns of pregnant migrant women in China have been changing in recent years, with the percentage of them staying in receiving areas during pregnancy and delivering there increasing. Individual and family characteristics were also associated with mobility patterns and delivery location choice.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Migração Humana/tendências , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biosci Trends ; 12(2): 126-131, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760356

RESUMO

There has been little evidence of the relationship between children and absence of parents in Botswana literature; and it is still the case that absence of parents increases the risk of injuries to their children. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of parental migration among left behind young people aged 10 years to 24 years in Botswana and examine patterns of injuries from immigrant families. This is a population-based crosssection from which a dataset was created by compiling data from two different sources for the period of 2010 to 2015. All the variables were transformed into natural logarithms so as to avoid outliers and normalize the variables. All statistical modeling was carried out using Statistical Analysis System version 6.1. Left behind young people were associated with higher risk of injuries especially in motor vehicle accidents 391(40%), fire 264 (27%), and burns 162 (16%) except for drowning, machinery and poisoning. Parental migration is the most important issue in the total number of injuries. Correlation coefficient shows that non-left behind, the greater the chance to be classified under the poisoning cases (r = 0.888) and is lower compared to the left behind (r = 0.471). This study shows clearly that injuries take an insufficiently high toll on children's health and on society. Additionally, if parental migration trends continue, Botswana's burden of injuries are expected to rise in the next 10 years.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Afogamento/epidemiologia , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Migração Humana/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/tendências , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Biosci Trends ; 12(2): 132-141, 2018 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29607873

RESUMO

In addition to birth and death, migration is also an important factor that determines the level of population aging in different regions, especially under the current context of low fertility and low mortality in China. Drawing upon data from the fifth and sixth national population census of 287 prefecture-level cities in China, this study explored the spatial patterns of population aging and its trends from 2000 to 2010 in China. We further examined how the large-scale internal migration was related to the spatial differences and the changes of aging by using multivariate quantitative models. Findings showed that the percentage of elder cities (i.e. proportion of individuals aged 65 and above to total population is higher than 7%) increased from 50% to 90% in the total 287 cities within the decade. We also found that regional imbalances of population aging have changed since 2000 in China. The gap of aging level between East zone and the other three zones (i.e. West, Central, and North-east) has considerably narrowed down. In 2000, Eastern region had the greatest number (65) of and the largest proportion (74.7%) of elder cities among all four regions. By 2010, the proportion (87.4%) of elder cities in the eastern region was slightly lower than Central (91.4%), Western (88.2%) and North-east sectors (91.2%). Results from multivariate quantitative models showed that the regional differences of population aging appear to be affected much more by the large-scale internal migration with clear age selectivity and orientation preference than by the impact of fertility and mortality. Population aging is expected to continue in China, which will in turn exacerbate regional imbalances. Policies and implications are discussed to face the challenges that the divergent aging population may present in China.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Censos , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilidade , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Geografia , Migração Humana/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/tendências
20.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2018. 98 f p.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-986248

RESUMO

O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a construção de um fluxo para o atendimento de refugiadas congolesas no âmbito da Atenção Primária em Saúde (APS) no município do Rio de Janeiro. Para tal, parto das narrativas dos operadores da saúde do município que lidam, direta ou indiretamente, com essa população. A metodologia utilizada foi a análise de documentos protocolares e discurso de gestores e profissionais da ponta dos serviços de saúde no tangente à incorporação dessa população aos serviços de saúde do município. A pesquisa contribui para a construção de um campo de estudos migratórios na Saúde Coletiva, já que a experiência migratória influencia os processos de saúde e doença dessa população


The purpose of this dissertation is to analyse the construction of care for Congolese refugees in Primary Health Care (PHC) in the city of Rio de Janeiro. To this end, I analysed narratives of health workers of the municipality that deal with this population, directly or indirectly. The methodology used was the analysis of protocol documents and discourse of managers and health professionals of the health services that receive Congolese people. This research aims to contribute to the construction of a field of migratory studies in Public Health, since experiences of migration tend to influence health processes of this population


Assuntos
Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Refugiados , Brasil , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Antropologia Médica , Migração Humana/tendências
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