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2.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 9(1): 61, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Israel hosts nearly 70,000 migrant careworkers. Migrant careworkers work and live with populations extremely vulnerable to the novel Coronavirus, including the elderly and people with pre-existing physical conditions. This rapid assessment aimed to explore psychosocial status and mental wellbeing of migrant careworkers in Israel during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and determine risk and protective factors associated with mental distress, anxiety, and depression. METHODS: This quantitative study was conducted via an online survey. The online survey collected social and demographic data, including country of origin, residence, age, sex, and time in Israel. In addition, questions were asked about knowledge of COVID-19 guidelines, access to supplies, and COVID-related racism. Respondents also completed a psychosocial screening tools, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 (HSCL-10), which was used to screen for depression and anxiety. RESULTS: As of May 3rd, 2020, 307 careworkers responded to the online survey, of whom 120 (39.1%) were found symptomatic using the HSCL-10. Separating the HSCL-10 into subscales, 28.0% were symptomatically anxious, and 38.1% were symptomatic for depression. In multivariate regression, emotional distress was associated with household food insecurity (OR: 5.85; p < 0.001), lack of confidence to care for oneself and employer during the pandemic (OR: 3.85; p < 0.001), poorer general health (OR: 2.98; p < 0.003), non-Philippine country of origin (OR: 2.83; p < 0.01), female sex (OR: 2.34; p < 0.04),, and inversely associated with age (p < 0.03). While 87.6% of careworkers reported having access to hand sanitization materials regularly, only 58.0% had regular access to a medical grade mask, and 21.5% reported household food insecurity. Moreover, 40.0% of careworkers claimed to lack confidence to care for themselves and their employer during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Migrant careworkers exhibited high levels of mental distress during the COVID-19 lockdown, associated with lack of confidence or resources to properly care for themselves and their employer. Guidelines and support programs specific to the carework sector, that respect their rights and guard their health, must be developed as part of a coordinated COVID-19 response.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Angústia Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1771, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guaranteeing the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of populations living in fragile and humanitarian settings is essential and constitutes a basic human right. Compounded by the inherent vulnerabilities of women in crises, substantial complications are directly associated with increased risks of poor SRHR outcomes for displaced populations. The migration of Venezuelans, displaced due to current economic circumstances, is one of the largest in Latin America's history. This study aims to provide an overview of the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues affecting migrant Venezuelan women in the state of Roraima, Brazil. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted from 24 to 30 November 2019. Data collection covered various issues involving access to and use of SRH services by 405 migrant Venezuelan women aged 18-49 years. The Minimum Initial Service Package readiness assessment tools, available from the Inter-Agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises, were used in the data collection. RESULTS: Most commonly, the women reported unmet family planning needs. Of these, a significant proportion reported being unable to obtain contraceptive methods, particularly long-acting reversible contraceptives, either due to the woman's inability to access them or their unavailability at healthcare centres. Although a significant proportion of women were largely satisfied with the attention received at the maternity hospital, both before and during childbirth, 24.0% of pregnant or postpartum women failed to receive any prenatal or postnatal care. CONCLUSION: Meeting the essential SRHR needs of migrant Venezuelan women in Roraima, Brazil is a challenge that has yet to be fully addressed. Given the size of this migrant population, the Brazilian healthcare system has failed to adapt sufficiently to meet their needs; however, problems with healthcare provision are similar for migrants and Brazilian citizens. Efforts need to be encouraged not only in governmental health sectors, but also with academic, non-governmental and international organisations, including a coordinated approach to ensure a comprehensive SRHR response. Given the current high risks associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, meeting the SRHR needs of migrant populations has become more critical than ever.


Assuntos
Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Saúde Sexual , Venezuela/etnologia
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 386-395, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030459

RESUMO

The use of violence and aggression on civilians during the war has become one of the most prominent military events of the 20th and 21st centuries, resulting in an increasing number of refugees and displaced persons in the midst of regional and tribal conflicts. We are witnessing a daily increase in the number of migrants when people are fleeing from their homes because of human rights violations, persecution, poverty, and conflict. When found in "host" countries, they often encounter bad conditions, with uncertainty and instability. Many come to Europe in search of economic and personal opportunities for progress, where they face different types of process of acculturation. 'Place loss', acute and chronic trauma, family disorders, and family reunification issues became more and more important issues. Refugees, asylum seekers and irregular migrants have a higher risk for certain mental health disorders, including posttraumatic stress, depression and psychosis. In addition to being exposed to various risk factors for mental disorders, migrants often face barriers to access to adequate health care to address these issues. Some of the biggest challenges for migrant populations within "host" countries include: lack of knowledge of health care rights and health systems; poor knowledge of the language; different belief systems and cultural expectations of health care; and the general lack of trust in experts and in government. The rates of depressive and anxiety disorders usually increase over time, and poor mental health is associated with poor socioeconomic conditions - particularly with social isolation and unemployment. Acculturative stress often implies a high discrepancy in the acculturation between parents and their children. This dislocation of families in new conditions has been caused by the different degrees of acceptance of "new culture" by children and parents, which causes serious difficulties, especially in bilingual terms.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados , Migrantes , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sexual violence can have a destructive impact on the lives of people. It is more common in unstable conditions such as during displacement or migration of people. On the Greek island of Lesvos, Médecins Sans Frontières provided medical care to survivors of sexual violence among the population of asylum seekers. This study describes the patterns of sexual violence reported by migrants and asylum seekers and the clinical care provided to them. METHODS: This is a descriptive study, using routine program data. The study population consisted of migrants and asylum seekers treated for conditions related to sexual violence at the Médecins Sans Frontières clinic on Lesvos Island (September 2017-January 2018). RESULTS: There were 215 survivors of sexual violence who presented for care, of whom 60 (28%) were male. The majority of incidents reported (94%) were cases of rape; 174 (81%) of survivors were from Africa and 185 (86%) of the incidents occurred over a month before presentation. Half the incidents (118) occurred in transit, mainly in Turkey, and 76 (35%) in the country of origin; 10 cases (5%) occurred on Lesvos. The perpetrator was known to the survivor in 23% of the cases. The need for mental health care exceeded the capacity of available mental care services. CONCLUSION: Even though the majority of cases delayed seeking medical care after the incident, it is crucial that access to mental health services is guaranteed for those in need. Such access and security measures for people in transit need to be put in place along migration routes, including in countries nominally considered safe, and secure routes need to be developed.


Assuntos
Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Campos de Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/psicologia , Sociedades Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia
6.
Sante Publique ; 32(2): 229-237, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The HIV self-test has been on sale in France since September 2015. What is the point of view of pharmacists and key populations with regard to accessing self-tests in community pharmacies ? METHOD: One year after the HIV self-test came onto the market, the points of view of pharmacists and key populations with regard to HIV were collected during six focus groups: the pharmacists themselves; people who had already used HIV self-tests; potential users from two key populations with regard to HIV: migrants from sub-Saharan Africa and men who have sex with men; potential users from populations with active sex lives but not particularly vulnerable with regard to HIV: young adults (<25 years of age), multi-partner heterosexual adults. RESULTS: The HIV self-test in community pharmacies is perceived by all participants as a significant step forward for accessing screening for HIV. However, issues around discretion and anonymity were seen to create significant tensions with regard to accessing the test itself, but also the information necessary to use it correctly both at a technical level and above all concerning how to interpret test results. CONCLUSION: Although the present study underlines the role of the pharmacist as a significant public health actor in the dispensation of the self-test, the sales price and questions of anonymity are seen as major obstacles. Priority actions include renewing communication campaigns concerning the existence and the use of the product for the upcoming generations of young people but also specific campaigns targeting more vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Autocuidado , Migrantes/psicologia , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Grupos Focais , França , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Farmácias , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3555-3558, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875397

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is a common enteric parasite of humans and animals associated with inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. Over the years, the Malaysian thriving economy has been facilitated largely by migrant workers from developing countries, and there is concern that diseases endemic to their countries may be imported. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the current status of Blastocystis infection as well as subtypes (STs) from fecal samples among migrant workers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Overall, almost a third of the study cohort (30.9%; n = 68/220) screened were infected with Blastocystis sp. predominantly with ST3 (54.5%; n = 12), followed by ST1 (36.4%; n = 8) and ST2 (9.1%; n = 2). Infection levels was almost similar among the different sectors; manufacturing (32.8%), domestic service (32.3%), and food service (27.3%) with common symptoms for infection included stomach and abdominal pain or discomfort and diarrhea (48.5%; n = 33). None of the socio-demographic risk factors evaluated were significant. Therefore, this study warrants continuous monitoring as well as understanding the impact of transmission among the migrant community with the local population especially those involved in food service sector.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Animais , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/diagnóstico , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962038

RESUMO

Background: Infections are a leading cause of refugee morbidity. Recent data on the rate of airway infections and factors influencing their spread in refugee reception centers is scarce. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of de-identified medical records with a focus on respiratory infections in underage refugees was conducted at two large German refugee reception centers. Results: In total, medical data from n = 10,431 refugees over an observational period of n = 819 days was analyzed. Among pediatric patients (n = 4289), 55.3% presented at least once to the on-site medical ward with an acute respiratory infection or signs thereof. In 38.4% of pediatric consultations, acute airway infections or signs thereof were present. Airway infections spiked during colder months and were significantly more prevalent amongst preschool and resettled children. Their frequency displayed a positive correlation with the number of refugees housed at the reception centers. Conclusions: We show that respiratory infections are a leading cause for morbidity in young refugees and that their rate is influenced age, season, status, and residential density. This illustrates the need to protect refugee children from contracting airway infections which may also reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Habitação Popular , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 56(3): 373-377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959804

RESUMO

We aimed to compare COVID-19-specific and all-cause mortality rates among natives and migrants in Italy and to investigate the clinical characteristics of individuals dying with COVID-19 by native/migrant status. The mortality rates and detailed clinical characteristics of natives and migrants dying with COVID-19 were explored by considering the medical charts of a representative sample of patients deceased in Italian hospitals (n = 2,687) between February 21st and April 29th, 2020. The migrant or native status was assigned based on the individual's country of birth. The expected all-cause mortality among natives and migrants living in Italy was derived by the last available (2018) dataset provided by the Italian National Institute of Statistics. Overall, 68 individuals with a migration background were identified. The proportions of natives and migrants among the COVID-19-related deaths (97.5% and 2.5%, respectively) were similar to the relative all-cause mortality rates estimated in Italy in 2018 (97.4% and 2.6%, respectively). The clinical phenotype of migrants dying with COVID-19 was similar to that of natives except for the younger age at death. International migrants living in Italy do not have a mortality advantage for COVID-19 and are exposed to the risk of poor outcomes as their native counterparts.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albânia/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , França/etnologia , Efeito do Trabalhador Sadio , Registros Hospitalares , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/etnologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1442, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in older rural-to-urban migrant workers (aged 50 and above) in mainland China, little known about their depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify depressive symptoms among older rural-to-urban migrant workers, as well as explored the factors leading to differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and their rural counterparts (older rural dwellers) and urban counterparts (older urban residents) in mainland China. The results provided a comprehensive understanding of the depressive symptoms of older rural-to-urban migrant workers, and had great significance for improving the depressive symptoms for this vulnerable group. METHODS: Data were derived from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) conducted in 2015, and coarsened exact matching (CEM) method was employed to control confounding factors. This study employed a Chinese version 10-item short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D 10) to measure depressive symptoms, and used the Social-Ecological Model as a framework to explore influential factors related to depressive symptoms. Specifically, the approach of Fairlie's decomposition was used to parse out differences into observed and unobserved components. RESULTS: After matching, our findings indicated that the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older rural-to-urban migrant workers was lower than older rural dwellers; and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older rural-to-urban migrant workers was higher than older urban residents. Fairlie's decomposition analysis indicated that type of in-house shower, sleeping time at night and ill in the last month were proved to be major contributors to the differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and older rural dwellers; self-reported health and sleeping time at night were proved to be major contributors to the differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and older urban residents. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and their rural and urban counterparts did exist. Our findings contributed to a more reliable understanding in depressive symptoms among older rural-to-urban migrant workers. Our findings would be of referential significance for improving older rural-to-urban migrant workers' depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1477, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many migrants suffer from discrimination and poor health in China. We sought to examine the associations between experiences of discrimination and self-reported health among internal migrants in China, as well as the mediators of social integration and perceived stress. METHODS: The data was obtained from a specific survey of migrants, as a part of the National Health and Family Planning Dynamic Monitoring for Migrants conducted in 2014. A total of 15,999 migrants aged 15 to 59 years were recruited by a stratified, multistage clustered sampling procedure in eight Chinese cities. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was conducted. RESULTS: The results indicated that experiences of discrimination were associated with worse self-reported health (ß = - 0.32, P < 0.001), less social integration (ß = - 0.25, P < 0.001), as well as higher perceived stress (ß = 0.21, P < 0.01). Both objectively measured socioeconomic status (ß = 0.21, P < 0.001) and subjective social status (ß = 0.21, P < 0.01) had significantly positive correlations with self-reported health. CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination, social exclusion and perceived stress experienced by migrants have significant implications on their health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Preconceito/psicologia , Autorrelato , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica Populacional , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 41(315): 28-30, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951693

RESUMO

The family provides a holding and benevolent environment, allowing the subject to construct himself psychically. Beyond the family, the group of belonging allows an individual to feel that he or she exists. During migration, belonging can be broken: loss of country, language, family, social status, etc. In France, a reception programme for migrants in families helps them to integrate and rebuild their lives. The initial family dynamic is modified. Some important points need to be taken into account during this reception: motivations, consequences on family dynamics and psychological reshuffling.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Afeganistão/etnologia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Public Health ; 185: 394-399, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In Italy, a recent irregular movement of people raised concerns among the host population on possible introduction of diseases that have long been controlled in the host countries. This study evaluates the health conditions of illegal immigrants landed on the north-eastern Sicilian territory, to provide information on the clinical and epidemiologic burden of infectious diseases among migrants and how the local population feel about these landings. STUDY DESIGN: The study design is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: The study considered all migrants landed illegally in the city of Messina, Sicily, between January 2014 and July 2018. Analysing the data of hospital admissions and disease notifications, we calculated the frequency of infectious diseases among migrant population. Furthermore, through a survey conducted by a well-known online newspaper, we analysed the perception that the local population has about the health risk represented by migrants. RESULTS: In the considered five-year period, 108 landings, for a total of 38,608 migrants occurred at the Messina port. The percentage of hospitalisation was rather low (3.5%), and it concerned mainly pregnant women. The notifications of infectious diseases were contained, with exception of scabies and tuberculosis. Finally, from the online survey, resulted that there is a large part of local population that considers migrants a potential danger to community health. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that the presence of migrants should not have to date any impact on the health conditions of the resident population. However, monitoring over time the health of migrants and screening for infectious diseases as soon as possible after landing are advantageous for both migrants and host country.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Sicília/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1918-1926, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815500

RESUMO

The number of Asian migrants working in sub-Saharan developing countries like Angola has been increasing. Their malaria risk, prevention, and care-seeking practices have not been characterized. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 733 Chinese and Southeast Asian migrants in Angola. Respondents were interviewed and provided blood samples. Samples were analyzed to detect Plasmodium antigen and characterize host anti-Plasmodium response. Positive samples were genotyped using the pfs47 marker. Most respondents (72%; 95% CI: 68-75) reported using bed nets, but less than 1% reported using chemoprophylaxis. Depending on the assay, 1-4% of respondents had evidence of active malaria infection. By contrast, 55% (95% CI: 52-59) were seropositive for Plasmodium antibodies. Most infections were Plasmodium falciparum, but infection and/or exposure to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae was also detected. Seroprevalence by time in Angola showed most exposure occurred locally. One respondent had sufficiently high parasitemia for pfs47 genotyping, which showed that the infection was likely locally acquired despite recent travel to home country. Asian migrants to Angola are at substantial risk of malaria. Employers should consider enhanced malaria prevention programs, including chemoprophylaxis; embassies should encourage prevention practices. Angolan healthcare workers should be aware of high malaria exposure in Asian migrants.


Assuntos
Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/imunologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Angola/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 353-359, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Latent tuberculosis (LTBI) case-finding and treatment are a focus of TB elimination in Australia. We sought the perspectives of migrants from two high-burden countries likely to be targeted by this strategy. METHODS: To understand perceptions of migrant groups in Australia on LTBI screening, 28 in-depth interviews were conducted with Indian and Pakistani community members recruited purposively through local organisations in the Illawarra region, New South Wales. Drawing on local TB policy, data collected qualitatively was analysed using framework methodologies. RESULTS: Australia's immigration system prioritises migrants of higher socioeconomic status. Participants supported elimination but perceived TB as a disease of the poor and not relevant to them. Lack of understanding of LTBI and sensitivity to being 'targeted' are further barriers to screening participation. CONCLUSION: Information provision and targeting rationale are an essential preamble to LTBI screening. Migration appears to modify cultural attitudes to TB, but not significantly. Despite less stigma surrounding TB in Australian contexts, testing privacy and confidentiality, and limiting public identification of specific groups remain important to program acceptability. Implications for public health: Progress towards TB elimination can be enhanced by consulting with targeted communities, using existing networks for communication and service provision; emphasising prevention benefits.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Tuberculose Latente/etnologia , Tuberculose Latente/psicologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1219, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migrant workers are a susceptible population to the hepatitis b virus (HBV) and a vulnerable spot in China's immunization procedures. There is no free HBV immunization program for migrant workers in China, so understanding migrant workers' motivation to receive the HBV vaccine is the first step in designing effective immunization policies. METHODS: A fully specified protection motivation theory (PMT) model of HBV vaccination intention among migrant workers was specified. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of 406 migrant workers in three migrant-dense industries in Tianjin, China. Principal component factor analysis was used to produce PMT factors and nested binary logistic regression modeling was applied to assess the associations between protection motivation and HBV vaccination intention of migrant workers. RESULTS: The nested binary logistic regression model suggested that the severity factor and self-efficacy factor were positively related to HBV vaccination intention (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.25-3.71; OR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.62-4.66) while the response costs was negatively related to the HBV vaccination motivation (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.29-0.83). The socio-demographic variables showed that younger, married and good self-rated health status participants were statistically associated with the intention of taking the HBV vaccine. Sex, education level and income group were not significantly associated with vaccination intention. The migrant-industry variables showed that migrant location had a strong effect on migrant workers' vaccination intention. CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic, migrant-industry variables and PMT factors (severity, self-efficacy and response costs) were statistically associated with migrant workers' intention to vaccinate. Our results suggest that health policy makers should provide more information to migrants on HBV severity; inform migrant workers on where, when and how to get the HBV vaccine; tap into work organizations as a location for vaccinations; and identify migrant worker subgroups for targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Intenção , Motivação , Migrantes/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21553, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756212

RESUMO

In Taiwan, legal migrant workers and almost all citizens are covered under the National Health Insurance program. Work-related injuries and various traumatic events constitute 2 major reasons for seeking medical care among migrant workers. Therefore, we conducted this retrospective study to delineate the clinical features of migrant workers with trauma and determine differences in trauma management between migrant workers and citizens under the current medical care and insurance system.We retrospectively reviewed the data of all patients with trauma who were discharged from adult wards between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016. We identified 5854 citizens and 110 migrant workers during the chart review. Data related to the prehospital period, emergency department, hospital course, and prognosis were collected and compared between migrant workers and citizens.More than half of the traumatic events among migrant workers occurred at factory, farm, or mine locations (migrant workers vs all citizens: 57.3% vs 11.5%), whereas most traumatic events among citizens occurred at street and home or dormitory locations (street: migrant workers vs all citizens: 17.3% vs 52.5%; home or dormitory: migrant workers vs all citizens: 0.9% vs 14.3%). Compared with citizens, migrant workers had lower scores in injury severity scores and new injury severity scores, but higher scores in revised trauma score and trauma and injury severity scores. The hospital course and prognosis were similar between migrant workers and citizens.Compared with citizens, migrant workers had a higher incidence of work-related injury and sustained less severe injuries. Under the coverage of the current health care and insurance system in Taiwan, migrant workers with trauma and work-related injuries receive comparable medical care and prognoses to citizens.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236821, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745106

RESUMO

There has been a growing number of sexual health and blood-borne virus (SHBBV) surveys specifically administered to migrant populations. The purpose of this scoping review is to collate available information about how SHBBV surveys have been administered in migrant populations and the effect that mode of administration has on data quality, reliability and other practical considerations, e.g. response rates (RR) and social desirability bias. A methodological framework for scoping reviews was applied. SHBBV survey studies administered to international migrants published since 2000 were included if they contained some description of mode of administration. Ninety one studies were identified for inclusion from Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Google Scholar and supplementary grey literature. 'Interview only' was the most common mode of administration (n = 48), predominately comprising face-to-face interviews. Thirty six studies reported data from 'self-completed' surveys only, with pen-and-paper being most common (n = 17). Few studies (n = 7) combined interview and self-completed methods of survey administration. Sixty one studies did not report (or only partially reported) RR or the data necessary to calculate RR. Of the studies that reported RR, most were missing other key information including method of recruitment, consent procedures and whether incentives were offered. Strengths and limitations of all administration modes are summarised. Guidelines to inform future SHBBV survey research in migrant populations are presented.


Assuntos
Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Saúde Sexual , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde da População , Saúde Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Viroses
19.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 611-620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although some studies have reported a higher incidence of HIV infection among non-US-born people than among US-born people, national data on this topic are scarce. We compared the epidemiology of HIV infection between US-born and non-US-born residents of the United States and examined the characteristics of non-US-born people with diagnosed HIV infection by region of birth (ROB). METHODS: We used a cross-sectional study design to produce national, population-based data describing HIV infection among US-born and non-US-born people. We analyzed National HIV Surveillance System data for people with HIV infection diagnosed during 2010-2017 and reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We compared data on demographic characteristics, transmission risk category, and stage 3 infection (AIDS) classification within 3 months of HIV diagnosis, by nativity and ROB. RESULTS: During 2010-2017, 328 317 children and adult US residents were diagnosed with HIV infection and were reported to CDC: 214 973 (65.5%) were US-born, 50 301 (15.3%) were non-US-born, and 63 043 (19.2%) were missing data on country of birth. After adjusting for missing country of birth, 266 147 (81.1%) people were US-born and 62 170 (18.9%) were non-US-born. This group accounted for 15 928 of 65 645 (24.2%) HIV diagnoses among girls and women and 46 242 of 262 672 (17.6%) HIV diagnoses among boys and men. A larger percentage of non-US-born people than US-born people had stage 3 infection (AIDS) at HIV diagnosis (31.2% vs 23.9%). Among non-US-born people with HIV diagnoses, 19 876 (39.5%) resided in the South. CONCLUSIONS: Characterizing non-US-born people with HIV infection is essential for developing effective HIV interventions, particularly in areas with large immigrant populations.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237532, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776982

RESUMO

Resettlement, as a major imperial policy in the Inca empire, appears to have been a widespread mechanism for labor mobilization and the dismantling of rebellions. While multiple ethnohistorical references exist regarding resettlement in the central Andes, the extent of this policy in the imperial provinces is still unknown, especially in cases of economic intensification that might have required more labor force. The δ18O isotope is a good proxy for human mobility when comparing the childhood isotopic signature in the teeth enamel and the local water signature at the place of death. If applied to the study of an archaeological sequence, we can observe the expansion or reduction of a population's displacement within a territory, if they received foreigners, and in general, how their social interaction and networks changed over time. In a marginal provincial setting of the Inca empire, such as Copiapó valley in Chile, the study of δ18O isotope can enable us to observe if the alleged economic intensification in metallurgical production implied the massive arrival of foreign populations. Significantly, the Late Horizon does not evidence a great change in terms of mobility, compared to previous periods in Copiapó valley. Thus, the isotopic evidence can more clearly illuminate the social and political dynamics of an imperial provincial setting, where economic activities demanded by the Inca state were mainly carried out by the local labor force.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Esmalte Dentário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esmalte Dentário/metabolismo , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Peru , Dinâmica Populacional
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