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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 394-400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study examined the potential for 'Smart Food' with respect to contributing to the Sustainable Development Goal 2 of ending malnutrition by 2030, using a small-scale capacity building case study in Oe Be Village, Myingyan district, Mandalay region, Myanmar. Within the study site, refined white rice is the major staple, followed by vegetables and animal source food in inadequate quantities. The protein intake in this particular dry zone community meets only 50% of the daily requirement and even less for those children aged less than 23 months. Therefore, to determine the acceptance and opportunity for legumes and millets which are produced locally, nutritious formulations were introduced for various age groups. In addition, a sensory evaluation of the recipes was conducted to test the acceptance of the nutritious products. RESULTS: Two weeks of the inclusion of millets and pigeonpea in the diets of children aged 6-23 months had a positive impact on wasting, stunting and underweight (P = 0.002, 0.014 and 0.023, respectively). Moreover, the acceptability of these new food products by the children was found to be high. These results indicate an unexplored opportunity for specific millets rich in iron, zinc and calcium, as well as for pigeonpea rich in protein, if prepared in a culturally acceptable way. CONCLUSION: The impact and acceptability of this small scale and short-term intervention indicate the potential for Smart Food products in filling the nutrition gap arising from the traditional food consumption habits in the dry zones of Myanmar. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Cajanus/química , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Milhetes/química , Mianmar , Estado Nutricional , População Rural
2.
Food Chem ; 305: 125452, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514050

RESUMO

Flakes are an assortment of grain products mainly consumed for breakfast. Most of them are important source of nutrients including minerals. Twenty commercial flakes from different raw materials were included in this study, both gluten (barley, rye, spelt, wheat) and gluten-free (amaranth, buckwheat, corn, quinoa, millet, oat, rice, teff). The content of minerals (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn), dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), tannins and phytates was determined. Moreover, the phytates:mineral molar ratios and the percentage of the realization of mineral requirements were calculated. For the first time the mineral bioavailability from the gluten and gluten-free flakes was evaluated and compared. It allowed indicating amaranth and teff products as flakes with the highest impact on the realization of daily requirements for minerals, especially for magnesium and iron. This aspect is particularly important for people on a gluten-free diet who often represent mineral deficiencies.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Minerais/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Taninos/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Milhetes/química , Milhetes/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 294: 79-86, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126508

RESUMO

Millet bran was fermented with Bacillus natto and the changes of structural, physicochemical and functional properties of its dietary fiber were investigated. Results showed that B. natto fermentation enhanced soluble DF content from 2.3% to 13.2%, and soluble DF/insoluble DF ratio from 3.1% to 19.9%. SEM and FTIR assay indicated that fermentation led to the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, thereby forming more porous and loose structure and polysaccharides. The binding capacities such as water and oil holding capacity, swelling capacity as well as cholesterol, bile salts, nitrite ion and glucose adsorption capacity were improved, while cation exchange capacity was not significantly changed. The total phenolic content and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity increased significantly. Overall, fermentation of millet bran by B. natto improved the structural and functional properties of its DF, which could be applied as a functional ingredient in food products.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Milhetes/metabolismo , Adsorção , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Celulose/metabolismo , Colesterol/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Fenóis/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
Food Chem ; 282: 134-140, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711097

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to provide new approach in creating gluten-containing and gluten-free breads without additives by combining thermal and hydrothermal pretreatments of flours (rye, oat, sorghum and millet). The applied methodology included determinations of chemical composition of flours and breads, water absorption index, empirical and fundamental rheological measurements, and scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, colour, textural and sensory evaluations of breads. Novel rye, oat, sorghum and millet breads based on the blend of heat treated and extruded corresponding flours in ratio 70:30 were produced by conventional breadmaking process. All breads were characterized by increased fibre content and had appearance similar to common wheat bread. Gluten-free breads were harder, less elastic with more granular structure due to higher degree of starch crystallinity. Mixolab curves indicated on many possible ways for further breads optimisation.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Adsorção , Avena/química , Avena/metabolismo , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Glutens/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Milhetes/química , Milhetes/metabolismo , Reologia , Secale/química , Secale/metabolismo , Sorghum/química , Sorghum/metabolismo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 163: 502-513, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075454

RESUMO

Details of glyphosate uptake are not fully elucidated, and although this herbicide promotes important alterations in the plant phenotype few hours after its application (early responses), a detailed description of the presumable changes in plant anatomy is still poorly assessed by now. Due to glyphosate effects over leaf permeability, the use of an inert fluorescent tracer may allow the observation of the uptake event in situ. In addition, microscopic markers might put a light on the recognition of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) species or varieties, which may vary in C3 and C4 species due to their putative distinct leaf anatomy. Here we aimed (i) to provide a new technique to track the route of glyphosate formulation towards leaf tissues using a fluorescent tracer, and (ii) to describe the early specific microscopic alterations in GR and GS -C3 or -C4 caused by the glyphosate formulation. Roundup Transorb® was applied in seedlings cultivated in a greenhouse and response alterations in leaf anatomy were described. Lucifer Yellow CH (LYCH) was applied over the same region where glyphosate formulation was previously applied to track the alterations in leaf permeability caused by this herbicide. LYCH successfully tracked the glyphosate formulation uptake, reaching the vascular bundles of GS species, and becoming retained in leaf tissues of GR species. All species exhibited a decrease in chlorophyll content at the site of glyphosate application regardless of their photosynthetic metabolism or susceptibility. GS species showed alterations in chloroplast morphology and activity of non-enzymatic antioxidants (carotenoids and flavonoids), in addition to symptoms indicating a process of accelerated cell senescence. A specific type of cell necrosis (hypersensitive response) was observed in GR-C4 species as a way to prevent the translocation of this herbicide, while GR-C3 species accumulated phenolic compounds inside the vacuole, probably sequestrating and inactivating the glyphosate action. This study provides a reliable tool to track glyphosate formulation uptake in situ and is the first attempt to the identification of early specific microscopic markers caused by glyphosate formulation.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Resistência a Herbicidas , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Clorofila/metabolismo , Glicina/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 20(6): 595-605, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953355

RESUMO

This research studies the influence of substrate on the antioxidant activity of alcohol extracts of Paecilomyces hepiali. We used corn, rice, millet, and peas as substrates. Antioxidant activity was measured with the DPPH radical scavenging method. Concentrations of extracts (6.25, 3.12, 1.56, 0.78, and 0.39 mg/mL) were applied in all evaluations. Overall antioxidant activity was expressed as the concentration of substrate that decreased DPPH radical levels by 50% (IC50DPPH) for 7 methanol and 7 ethanol extracts. A comparison of IC50DPPH allowed us to conclude that the methanol extracts are more active in scavenging stable DPPH radicals than are the ethanol extracts. The substrate with antioxidant properties most suitable for cultivation of P. hepiali was rice supplemented with non-defatted soy flour. The extract most effective in scavenging stable radicals was the methanol extract of sample 4 (IC50DPPH = 2.33 mg/mL) cultivated on rice with nondefatted soy flour. The methanol extract of sample 7 cultivated on peas was less effective (IC50DPPH = 11.50 mg/mL). By crystallizing these extracts, we managed to obtain sufficient quantities of 6 samples in a solid state, for which infrared spectra were measured and confirmed the presence of amino acids in the extracts.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Paecilomyces/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Etanol/química , Etanol/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Metanol/química , Metanol/farmacologia , Milhetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Milhetes/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/metabolismo , Paecilomyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paecilomyces/metabolismo , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Fenóis , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/metabolismo
7.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 125(3): 333-338, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157871

RESUMO

In this study, various grains such as rice, millet, corn, barley and wheat were used as raw materials for monacolin K production by solid-state fermentation of Monascus ruber. Among these substrates, millet was found to be the best one for monacolin K production, by which the yield reached 7.12 mg/g. For enhanced monacolin K production, the effects of fermentation time, charge amount, initial moisture content and inoculum volume were systematically investigated in the solid-state fermentation of M. ruber. Moreover, complementary carbon source and nitrogen source were added for further improving the production of monacolin K. Results showed that the maximum production of monacolin K (19.81 mg/g) could be obtained at the optimal conditions. Compared with the traditional red mold rice, using millet as substrate is promising for high production of monacolin K in the solid-state fermentation of M. ruber.


Assuntos
Lovastatina/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Monascus/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Carbono/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Milhetes/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(30): 23915-23925, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875293

RESUMO

With the boom in industrialization, there is an increase in the level of heavy metals in the soil which drastically affect the growth and development of plants. Nickel is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, but elevated level of Ni causes stunted growth, chlorosis, nutrient imbalance, and alterations in the defense mechanism of plants in terms of accumulation of osmolytes or change in enzyme activities like guiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Ni-induced toxic response was studied in seedlings of finger millet, pearl millet, and oats in terms of seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, total chlorophyll, proline content, and enzymatic activities. On the basis of germination and growth parameters of the seedling, finger millet was found to be the most tolerant. Nickel accumulation was markedly lower in the shoots as compared to the roots, which was the highest in finger millet and the lowest in shoots of oats. Plants treated with a high concentration of Ni showed significant reduction in chlorophyll and increase in proline content. Considerable difference in level of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity of antioxidative enzymes indicates generation of redox imbalance in plants due to Ni-induced stress. Elevated activities of POD and SOD were observed with high concentrations of Ni while CAT activity was found to be reduced. It was observed that finger millet has higher capability to maintain homeostasis by keeping the balance between accumulation and ROS scavenging system than pearl millet and oats. The data provide insight into the physiological and biochemical changes in plants adapted to survive in Ni-rich environment. This study will help in selecting the more suitable crop species to be grown on Ni-rich soils.


Assuntos
Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/química , Milhetes/metabolismo , Níquel/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Catalase/química , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Milhetes/química , Níquel/química , Oxirredução , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidases/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superóxido Dismutase/química
9.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183261, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820887

RESUMO

A germplasm assembly of 128 finger millet genotypes from 18 countries was evaluated for seedling-stage phosphorus (P) responses by growing them in P sufficient (Psuf) and P deficient (Pdef) treatments. Majority of the genotypes showed adaptive responses to low P condition. Based on phenotype behaviour using the best linear unbiased predictors for each trait, genotypes were classified into, P responsive, low P tolerant and P non-responsive types. Based on the overall phenotype performance under Pdef, 10 genotypes were identified as low P tolerants. The low P tolerant genotypes were characterised by increased shoot and root length and increased root hair induction with longer root hairs under Pdef, than under Psuf. Association mapping of P response traits using mixed linear models revealed four quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Two QTLs (qLRDW.1 and qLRDW.2) for low P response affecting root dry weight explained over 10% phenotypic variation. In silico synteny analysis across grass genomes for these QTLs identified putative candidate genes such as Ser-Thr kinase and transcription factors such as WRKY and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH). The QTLs for response under Psuf were mapped for traits such as shoot dry weight (qHSDW.1) and root length (qHRL.1). Putative associations of these QTLs over the syntenous regions on the grass genomes revealed proximity to cytochrome P450, phosphate transporter and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) genes. This is the first report of the extent of phenotypic variability for P response in finger millet genotypes during seedling-stage, along with the QTLs and putative candidate genes associated with P starvation tolerance.


Assuntos
Milhetes/genética , Fósforo/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Plântula/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Milhetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Milhetes/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0178730, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28570666

RESUMO

Panicle development is an important agronomic trait that aids in determining crop productivity. Foxtail millet and its wild ancestor green foxtail have recently been used as model systems to dissect gene functions. Here, we characterized a recessive mutant of foxtail millet, loose-panicle 1 (lp1), which showed pleiotropic phenotypes, such as a lax primary branching pattern, aberrant branch morphology, semi-dwarfism, and enlarged seed size. The loose panicle phenotype was attributed to increased panicle lengths and decreased primary branch numbers. Map-based cloning, combined with high-throughput sequencing, revealed that LP1, which encodes a novel WRKY transcription factor, is responsible for the mutant phenotype. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that LP1 belongs to the Group I WRKY subfamily, which possesses two WRKY domains (WRKY I and II). A single G-to-A transition in the fifth intron of LP1 resulted in three disorganized splicing events in mutant plants. For each of these aberrant splice variants, the normal C2H2 motif in the WRKY II domain was completely disrupted, resulting in a loss-of-function mutation. LP1 mRNA was expressed in all of the tissues examined, with higher expression levels observed in inflorescences, roots, and seeds at the grain-filling stage. A subcellular localization analysis showed that LP1 predominantly accumulated in the nucleus, which confirmed its role as a transcriptional regulator. This study provides novel insights into the roles of WRKY proteins in regulating reproductive organ development in plants and may help to develop molecular markers associated with crop yields.


Assuntos
Milhetes/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Milhetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 170(1): 245-52, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26201681

RESUMO

Although addition of selenium (Se) is known to increase Se in crops, it is unclear whether exogenous Se is linked to nutritional and functional components in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). In this study, we examined the potential of increasing Se and yellow pigment (YP) in foxtail millet grain by foliar application of Se. Field experiments were conducted during the growing season of foxtail millet in 2013 and 2014 to assess the effects of foliar spray of sodium selenite (10-210 g Se ha(-1)) on the yield, Se uptake and accumulation, total YP, and microminerals in the grain. Average grain yields with Se application were 5.60 and 4.53 t ha(-1) in the 2 years, showing no significant differences from the unfertilized control. However, grain Se concentration increased linearly with Se application rate, by 8.92 and 6.09 µg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1) (maximum grain recovery rates of Se fertilizer, 52 and 28 %). Likewise, total grain YP concentration markedly increased by 0.038 and 0.031 mg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1). Grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by Se application. This study indicated that foliar application of Se effectively and reliably increased the concentrations of Se and YP in foxtail millet grain without affecting the yield or mineral micronutrient concentrations. Thus, foliar-applied selenite has a significant potential to increase the concentrations of selenium and YP (putative lutein (Shen, J Cereal Sci 61:86-93, 2015; Abdel-Aal, Cereal Chem 79:455-457, 2002; Abdel-Aal, J Agric Food Chem 55:787-794, 2007)) of foxtail millet and, thus, the health benefits of this crop.


Assuntos
Milhetes/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/administração & dosagem , Selênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
12.
Plant Sci ; 242: 89-97, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26566827

RESUMO

Protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies contribute to high mortality among considerable proportion of the current 7.2 billion global populations, especially children. Although poverty and diets poor in nutrition are prime reasons for prevalence of malnutrition, nutritionally dense crops offer an inexpensive and sustainable solution to the problem of malnutrition. Remarkably, millets are nutritionally superior to major non-millet cereals. They especially are rich in dietary fibers, antioxidants, phytochemicals and polyphenols, which contribute broad-spectrum positive impacts to human health. However, millets have received lesser research attention universally, and considering this, the present review was planned to summarize the reports available on nutrition profile of millets and non-millet cereals to provide a comparative insight on importance of millets. It also emphasizes the need for research on deciphering nutritional traits present in millets and to develop strategies for introgressing these traits into other conventional staple crops using germplasm and 'omics' technologies. In some millet species, excellent 'omics' and germplasm panels have started to get available which can act as a starting point for understanding as well as of introgressing healthful traits across millets and non-millet cereals.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Milhetes/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteômica/métodos
13.
Animal ; 9(7): 1120-30, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25735210

RESUMO

A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Milhetes/metabolismo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Modelos Estatísticos , Soja/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
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