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1.
Food Chem ; 303: 125393, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466028

RESUMO

Extraction of free and bound phenols from millet in acidic and basic hydrolytic conditions were compared for the first time. Acidic hydrolysis was able to extract the highest amount of total phenolic compounds (up to 178 mg/100 g) while the basic hydrolysis underestimates the phenolic concentration. Our findings pointed out for the first time that methyl ferulate is naturally present as bound phenol in millet. Response Surface Methodology was then applied to both acidic and basic hydrolytic extractive conditions: the acidic procedure, optimized in terms of extractive time and temperature and concentration of the acidic mean, gave the best results, allowing definition of Method Operable Design Region and quantitation of the total amount of phenols in millet samples in a single extractive step. This optimized method is suitable for further accurate investigations of the typical phenols of the numerous varieties of this recently re-discovered minor cereal.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Fenóis/análise , Hidrólise , Milhetes/química
2.
Food Chem ; 305: 125452, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514050

RESUMO

Flakes are an assortment of grain products mainly consumed for breakfast. Most of them are important source of nutrients including minerals. Twenty commercial flakes from different raw materials were included in this study, both gluten (barley, rye, spelt, wheat) and gluten-free (amaranth, buckwheat, corn, quinoa, millet, oat, rice, teff). The content of minerals (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn), dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), tannins and phytates was determined. Moreover, the phytates:mineral molar ratios and the percentage of the realization of mineral requirements were calculated. For the first time the mineral bioavailability from the gluten and gluten-free flakes was evaluated and compared. It allowed indicating amaranth and teff products as flakes with the highest impact on the realization of daily requirements for minerals, especially for magnesium and iron. This aspect is particularly important for people on a gluten-free diet who often represent mineral deficiencies.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Minerais/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Taninos/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Milhetes/química , Milhetes/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 394-400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study examined the potential for 'Smart Food' with respect to contributing to the Sustainable Development Goal 2 of ending malnutrition by 2030, using a small-scale capacity building case study in Oe Be Village, Myingyan district, Mandalay region, Myanmar. Within the study site, refined white rice is the major staple, followed by vegetables and animal source food in inadequate quantities. The protein intake in this particular dry zone community meets only 50% of the daily requirement and even less for those children aged less than 23 months. Therefore, to determine the acceptance and opportunity for legumes and millets which are produced locally, nutritious formulations were introduced for various age groups. In addition, a sensory evaluation of the recipes was conducted to test the acceptance of the nutritious products. RESULTS: Two weeks of the inclusion of millets and pigeonpea in the diets of children aged 6-23 months had a positive impact on wasting, stunting and underweight (P = 0.002, 0.014 and 0.023, respectively). Moreover, the acceptability of these new food products by the children was found to be high. These results indicate an unexplored opportunity for specific millets rich in iron, zinc and calcium, as well as for pigeonpea rich in protein, if prepared in a culturally acceptable way. CONCLUSION: The impact and acceptability of this small scale and short-term intervention indicate the potential for Smart Food products in filling the nutrition gap arising from the traditional food consumption habits in the dry zones of Myanmar. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Cajanus/química , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Milhetes/química , Mianmar , Estado Nutricional , População Rural
4.
Food Chem ; 299: 125115, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288161

RESUMO

The nutritional and antinutritional components of minor millets were correlated with mixolab dough mixing behavior and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. Total arabinoxylan (r = -0.53, p < 0.05) and dietary fiber (r = -0.66, p < 0.05) content significantly (p < 0.05) increased protein weakening. Peak viscosity negatively correlated with phenolic (r = -0.55, p < 0.05) content. The dietary fiber and phenolics suppressed retrogradation. Protein digestibility negatively correlated with tannin (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), phytic acid (r = -0.69, p < 0.05), phenolics (r = -0.79, p < 0.05), flavonoids (r = -0.72, p < 0.05) and total dietary fiber content (r = -0.84, p < 0.05). A positive correlation of resistant starch (RS) with total dietary fiber (r = 0.85, p < 0.05), phenolics (r = 0.89, p < 0.05), flavonoids (r = 0.83, p < 0.05), phytic acid (r = 0.43, p < 0.05) and tannin content (r = 0.79, p < 0.05) was observed. Millets predicted lower glycemic index than wheat and it was found to be negatively associated with the RS (r = -0.96, p < 0.05) and total dietary fiber content (r = -0.89, p < 0.05) and positively correlated (r = 0.98, p < 0.05) with rapidly digestible starch. The millets may be diversified for personalized nutrition and development of functional food.


Assuntos
Pão , Milhetes , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacocinética , Amido/farmacocinética , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Índice Glicêmico , Milhetes/química , Panicum/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Reologia , Setaria (Planta)/química , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Viscosidade , Xilanos/análise
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 134: 308-315, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075330

RESUMO

In this study, the physicochemical and in vitro digestion of millet starch with different moisture content after microwave treatment were investigated. The structure and property changes of native (NA) and microwave treated (MT) millet starches were characterized using Brabender viscometer, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microwave treatment caused a decrease of the peak viscosity, swelling power, ΔH and relative crystalline, and an increase of the transparency, TO, TC, and ΔT. The extent of these changes depended on the moisture content of starches. The in vitro enzymatic digestibility of samples increased greatly, especially at a moisture content of >40%. It is interesting to note that the peak of the hydroxyl group shifted toward the lower wavenumber direction and the decrease of peak intensities at 1047 cm-1 and 1022 cm-1 in FT-IR spectra indicated that higher moisture content enhanced the inter-molecular hydrogen bonding and caused more serious damage to the crystalline and amorphous regions. Cracks and center cavities were observed on the granules surface and the original appearance of starch disappeared gradually as the moisture content increases. In conclusion, high moisture content can enhance the effect of the microwave to millet starch.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Micro-Ondas , Milhetes/química , Amido/química , Fenômenos Ópticos , Amido/metabolismo , Viscosidade
6.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 70(6): 714-724, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969135

RESUMO

Millets can be sustainable food sources in future agronomy because of its ability to flourish in harsh climatic conditions, however limited studies exist on the nutritional and hypoglycaemic properties of millets. This study is intended to identify millets as potential functional food ingredients based on their nutrient profile and in vitro starch digestibility. Seven millet types exhibiting diverse structures and compositions were investigated. Chemical composition revealed that depending on the millet type, millets are excellent sources of insoluble dietary fibre, lipids and minerals, these components had values ranging from 9.3-56.7 mg/g, 11.5-31.7% and 2.1-8.0%, respectively. Linoleic and oleic were the major unsaturated fatty acids detected in all the millet types. Millets were also found to be rich in free and bound phenolic acids. Kodo millet was found to have the highest free and bound phenolic contents. Expected glycemic index of millets ranged between 42.7 and 58.3, hence making them some valuable low GI food sources for diabetics. The obtained results may suggest that millets with its superior nutrient profile and hypoglycaemic property could be a promising ingredient for the functional food industry.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional , Milhetes/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Farinha/análise , Indústria Alimentícia , Índice Glicêmico , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Índia , Lipídeos/análise , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Grãos Integrais/química
7.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987409

RESUMO

In this experiment, a new type of nutritional drink-millet skim milk beverage-was developed based on combining skim milk with millet and nutritional resource utilization. The effects of NaHCO3 concentrations in soaking water (0, 0.5 g/100 mL, and 1.0 g/100 mL) and blanching time (0, 15, and 30 min) on the physicochemical properties of millet skim milk were studied. The parameter changes caused by the above treatment were evaluated via color analysis, physicochemical analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Soaking in water containing NaHCO3 had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on pH, specific gravity, viscosity, and stability. The blanching treatment had a significant (p < 0.05) influence on the total solids of the samples. However, blanching only slightly affected the physical properties of the samples. In addition, soaking and blanching treatments had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the b* value of millet skim milk beverage, whereas there was no significant (p > 0.05) change in L* and a*. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the blanching treatment had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on band 5 and band 6 and that the soaking treatment also had a significant effect on the bands of 6 and 7 (p < 0.05). By analyzing the substantial effects, we concluded that the optimum process conditions were soaking with 0.5 g/100 mL NaHCO3 solution and blanching for 15 min.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Leite/química , Milhetes/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Pigmentos da Retina
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 132: 871-879, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902718

RESUMO

A novel peroxidase (FMBP) was extracted and purified from foxtail millet bran in our previous study and it possessed excellent anti-colon cancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, the active fragment of FMBP responsible for the anti-colon cancer effects remains unclear. In present, three different truncated sequences of FMBP were designed and cloned into a plasmid vector (pMal-s). Three recombinant segments were successfully expressed in host strain Escherichia coli DH5α induced by IPTG (0.3 mM) at 37 °C for 4 h, respectively named MBP-FMBP-1, MBP-FMBP-2 and MBP-FMBP-3. MTT assay showed that only MBP-FMBP-2 possessed significant anti-colon cancer activity, and its anti-colon cancer activity was equivalent to FMBP. Further, the results showed that MBP-FMBP-2 significantly reversed the 5-Fu resistance in human colorectal cancer HCT-8/Fu cell through inhibiting cell proliferation, promoting cell apoptosis and increasing the intracellular accumulation of 5-Fu. RT-PCR and western blot assays showed that MBP-FMBP-2 also decreased the expression levels of multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). These results indicate that MBP-FMBP-2 is the effective segment of FMBP which exhibits anti-colon cancer activity and has potential as an outstanding chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Milhetes/química , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Clonagem Molecular , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Peroxidase/química , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia
9.
Food Chem ; 282: 134-140, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711097

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to provide new approach in creating gluten-containing and gluten-free breads without additives by combining thermal and hydrothermal pretreatments of flours (rye, oat, sorghum and millet). The applied methodology included determinations of chemical composition of flours and breads, water absorption index, empirical and fundamental rheological measurements, and scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, colour, textural and sensory evaluations of breads. Novel rye, oat, sorghum and millet breads based on the blend of heat treated and extruded corresponding flours in ratio 70:30 were produced by conventional breadmaking process. All breads were characterized by increased fibre content and had appearance similar to common wheat bread. Gluten-free breads were harder, less elastic with more granular structure due to higher degree of starch crystallinity. Mixolab curves indicated on many possible ways for further breads optimisation.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Adsorção , Avena/química , Avena/metabolismo , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Glutens/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Milhetes/química , Milhetes/metabolismo , Reologia , Secale/química , Secale/metabolismo , Sorghum/química , Sorghum/metabolismo
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(4): 2030-2036, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Millet porridge is a major complementary food used in Uganda but it is limited in protein and micronutrients such as zinc and beta-carotene. Addition of milk and vegetable powders are known to greatly improve the nutrient content of millet flour. However, there was limited information on the shelf stability of the resultant composite flour. This study aimed at assessing the effect of milk and vegetable powders on the shelf stability of millet-based composite flour. RESULTS: There was a general increase in the moisture content, peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), thiobaturic acid (TBA) and total plate count (TPC) of both composite and millet flours over the eight weeks storage period. However, higher moisture content, PV, FFA, TBA and TPC values were recorded in the composite flour compared to millet flour (control) at each sampling interval. Sensory evaluation results revealed that panelists preferred porridges prepared from millet only compared to those from composite flour. The degree of liking of porridges from both composite and millet flours generally decreased over the storage period. However, both porridges were deemed as acceptable by the end of the storage period. The TPC also remained below 105 cfu g-1 which is the maximum limit recommended by the Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS). CONCLUSION: The study findings indicated that the addition of milk and vegetable powders negatively affected the stability of the composite flour. We recommend further studies to stabilize the product during storage. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Leite/química , Milhetes/química , Pós/química , Verduras/química , Animais , Bovinos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Uganda
11.
Br J Nutr ; 121(1): 30-41, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396372

RESUMO

True ileal digestibility (TID) values of amino acid (AA) obtained using growing rats are often used for the characterisation of protein quality in different foods and acquisition of digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in adult humans. Here, we conducted an experiment to determine the TID values of AA obtained from nine cooked cereal grains (brown rice, polished rice, buckwheat, oats, proso millet, foxtail millet, tartary buckwheat, adlay and whole wheat) fed to growing Sprague-Dawley male rats. All rats were fed a standard basal diet for 7 d and then received each diet for 7 d. Ileal contents were collected from the terminal 20 cm of ileum. Among the TID values obtained, whole wheat had the highest values (P<0·05), and polished rice, proso millet and tartary buckwheat had relatively low values. The TID indispensable AA concentrations in whole wheat were greater than those of brown rice or polished rice (P<0·05), and polished rice was the lowest total TID concentrations among the other cereal grains. The DIAAS was 68 for buckwheat, 47 for tartary buckwheat, 43 for oats, 42 for brown rice, 37 for polished rice, 20 for whole wheat, 13 for adlay, 10 for foxtail millet and 7 for proso millet. In this study, the TID values of the nine cooked cereal grains commonly consumed in China were used for the creation of a DIAAS database and thus gained public health outcomes.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Digestão , Grão Comestível/química , Animais , China , Dieta , Fagopyrum/química , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Milhetes/química , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triticum/química
12.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 59(10): 1521-1533, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381376

RESUMO

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a class of oligomeric flavonoids found in a variety of plant foods. Intake of PAs in human diet has been associated with a reduced occurrence of various chronic disorders. Cereal and pseudocereal grains are staple food items. Grain genotypes containing PAs can be developed as functional foods to efficiently improve human health. This review summarises the occurrence of PAs in diverse grains, including rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, millets, buckwheat, and some forage grasses. Great diversity in PA structure and composition has been recorded. The biological activities of the grain PAs, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticancer, and antidiabetic capacities, are also reviewed. The bioavailability and metabolism of grain PAs in human digestive tract are discussed. Future research directions are suggested on how to improve our understandings of the chemistry of PAs in cereals and pseudocereals and of the biological properties for human health applications.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Proantocianidinas/análise , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antineoplásicos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dieta , Fagopyrum/química , Alimento Funcional/análise , Hordeum/química , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Milhetes/química , Oryza/química , Sorghum/química , Triticum/química
13.
Food Res Int ; 109: 583-588, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803486

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported a substantial decline in in vitro digestibility of proso millet protein upon cooking. In this study, several processing techniques and cooking solutions were tested with the objective of preventing the loss in pepsin digestibility. Proso millet flour was subjected to the following processing techniques: high pressure processing (200 and 600 MPa for 5 and 20 min); germination (96 h); fermentation (48 h); roasting (dry heating); autoclaving (121 °C, 3 h), and treatment with transglutaminase (160 mg/g protein, 37 °C, 2 h). To study the interaction of millet proteins with solutes, millet flour was heated with sucrose (3-7 M); NaCl (2-6 M); and CaCl2 (0.5-3 M). All processing treatments failed to prevent the loss in pepsin digestibility except germination and treatment with transglutaminase, which resulted in 23 and 39% increases in digestibility upon cooking, respectively, when compared with unprocessed cooked flours. Heating in concentrated solutions of sucrose and NaCl were effective in preventing the loss in pepsin digestibility, an effect that was attributed to a reduction in water activity (aw). CaCl2 was also successful in preventing the loss in digestibility but its action was similar to chaotrops like urea. Thus, a combination of enzymatic modification and cooking of millet flour with either naturally low aw substances or edible sources of chaotropic ions may be useful in processing of proso millet for development of novel foods without loss in digestibility. However, more research is required to determine optimum processing conditions.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Culinária/métodos , Digestão , Grão Comestível/química , Farinha/análise , Milhetes/química , Pepsina A/química , Fermentação , Temperatura Alta , Fatores de Tempo , Transglutaminases/química
14.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(1): 1-8, 2 abr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-912730

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of different seeding rates and cutting heights on production and composition of millet. Two randomized block design experiments were performed. In the first trial, 32 parcels (1.2 × 1.2 m) were used for evaluation of seeding rate of 24, 35, 50 and 60 kg/ha. Three cuts were carried out to evaluate plant height, fresh and dry mass yield, dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) concentration and in situ DM and NDF digestibility. In the second trial, 20 parcels (1.2 × 3.0 m) were used to evaluate 20, 30, 40 and 50 cm of cutting heights for two growing cycles, performing the evaluations previously listed. Seeding rate linearly increased plant height, fresh and dry mass production, and tended to linearly decrease dry matter in situ digestibility, without effects on forage composition. Cutting height had no effect on crude protein (CP) concentration, but linearly increased plant height, dry mass production, DM content and tended to decrease NDF in situ digestibility and ADL content. Thus, the use of the highest evaluated seeding rates (60 kg/ha) and cutting height (50 cm) increased forage production; however, the use of the lowest residual height increased forage quality.(AU)


Os efeitos de diferentes taxas de semeadura e altura de corte na produção e composição bromatológica do milheto foram avaliados em dois experimentos executados em delineamento em blocos casualizados. No primeiro experimento, foram utilizadas 32 parcelas (1,2 x 1,2 m) e avaliadas as taxas de semeadura de 24, 35, 50 e 60 kg/ha. Três cortes foram realizados para avaliar a altura das plantas, a produção de massa fresca e seca, os teores de matéria seca (MS), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), proteína bruta (PB) e lignina, assim como a digestibilidade in situ da matéria seca e FDN. No segundo experimento, 20 parcelas (1,2 x 3,0 m) foram usadas para avaliar o efeito das alturas de corte de 20, 30, 40 e 50 cm, sobre as variáveis previamente citadas. De acordo com o aumento da taxa de semeadura, houve aumento linear da altura das plantas e da produção de massa seca e fresca e tendência de redução linear da digestibilidade in situ da matéria seca, sem afetar a composição da forragem. A altura de corte não afetou a concentração de proteína bruta, mas aumentou linearmente a altura das plantas, a produção de massa seca e o teor de matéria seca e tendeu a reduzir a digestibilidade in situ da FDN e a concentração de lignina. Assim, o emprego de maiores taxas de semeadura (60 kg/ha) e de altura de corte (50 cm) aumentam a produção de forragem, enquanto que menores alturas de corte aumentam a qualidade da forragem.(AU)


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Lignina/análise , Milhetes/química , Pastagens/análise
15.
Food Res Int ; 106: 825-833, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579993

RESUMO

Millet plays a major role in food security in Africa and Asia. In addition to being a rich source of nutrients, millet contains many phytochemicals that are potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds are related to its cooking properties. In this study, 172 metabolites and 3 cooking quality traits of millet from the same two cultivars grown both organically and conventionally were analyzed. The results indicated that the differences in the metabolities and cooking quality of the millets could be attributed mostly to the cultivar and whether the millet was grown conventionally or organically. Organic growing conditions only enhanced the accumulation of some carbohydrates such as fructose and glucose. Therefore, cultivar selection was important in organic millet cultivation. The relationships between metabolites and cooking quality traits showed that, overall, 57.43% of the variation in the cooking quality matrix was explained by metabolome matrix, which indicated that some chemical compounds could also be used to evaluate the cooking qualities of millet. These results could contribute to breeding millet to improve its the nutritional properties and cooking qualities.


Assuntos
Culinária , Grão Comestível/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Metaboloma , Milhetes/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Milhetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paladar
16.
Food Res Int ; 103: 361-370, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29389625

RESUMO

The present study is an evaluation of iron and zinc bioaccessibility of fermented maize, sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet from five different locations in Zimbabwe. Iron and zinc contents ranged between 3.22 and 49.7 and 1.25-4.39mg/100gdm, respectively. Fermentation caused a reduction of between 20 and 88% of phytic acid (PA) while a general increase in soluble phenolic compounds (PC) and a decrease of the bound (PC) was observed. Bioaccessibility of iron and zinc ranged between 2.77 and 26.1% and 0.45-12.8%, respectively. The contribution of the fermented cereals towards iron and zinc absolute requirements ranged between 25 and 411% and 0.5-23% with higher contribution of iron coming from cereals that were contaminated with extrinsic iron. Populations subsisting on cereals could be more at risk of zinc rather than iron deficiency.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Fermentação , Ferro/análise , Milhetes/química , Sorghum/química , Zea mays/química , Zinco/análise , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Milhetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Milhetes/microbiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/microbiologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/microbiologia , Zimbábue
17.
Nutrients ; 10(2)2018 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373493

RESUMO

From anecdotal evidence that traditional African sorghum and millet foods are filling and provide sustained energy, we hypothesized that gastric emptying rates of sorghum and millet foods are slow, particularly compared to non-traditional starchy foods (white rice, potato, wheat pasta). A human trial to study gastric emptying of staple foods eaten in Bamako, Mali was conducted using a carbon-13 (13C)-labelled octanoic acid breath test for gastric emptying, and subjective pre-test and satiety response questionnaires. Fourteen healthy volunteers in Bamako participated in a crossover design to test eight starchy staples. A second validation study was done one year later in Bamako with six volunteers to correct for endogenous 13C differences in the starches from different sources. In both trials, traditional sorghum and millet foods (thick porridges and millet couscous) had gastric half-emptying times about twice as long as rice, potato, or pasta (p < 0.0001). There were only minor changes due to the 13C correction. Pre-test assessment of millet couscous and rice ranked them as more filling and aligned well with postprandial hunger rankings, suggesting that a preconceived idea of rice being highly satiating may have influenced subjective satiety scoring. Traditional African sorghum and millet foods, whether viscous in the form of a thick porridge or as non-viscous couscous, had distinctly slow gastric emptying, in contrast to the faster emptying of non-traditional starchy foods, which are popular among West African urban consumers.


Assuntos
Dieta , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Milhetes/química , Saúde da População Rural , Resposta de Saciedade , Sementes/química , Sorghum/química , Adulto , Isótopos de Carbono , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/etnologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mali , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oryza/química , Tubérculos/química , Saúde da População Rural/etnologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Triticum/química , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 41: 382-388, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29137765

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of high power ultrasound (US) probe in varying intensities and times (18.4, 29.58, and 73.95 W/cm2 for 5, 12.5 and 20 min respectively) on functional properties of millet protein concentrate (MPC) was investigated, and also the structural properties of best modified treatment were evaluated by FTIR, DSC, Zeta potential and SDS-PAGE techniques. The results showed the solubility in all US treated MPC was significantly (p < .05) higher than those of the native MPC. Foaming capacity of native MPC (271.03 ±â€¯4.51 ml) was reduced after US treatments at low intensities (82.37 ±â€¯5.51 ml), but increased upon US treatments at high intensities (749.7 ±â€¯2 ml). In addition, EAI and ES increased after US treatments. One of the best US treatments that can improve the functional properties of MPC was 73.95 W/cm2 for 12.5 min that resulted in reduction of molecular weight and increase nearly 36% in the negative surface charge that was confirmed by SDS-page and Zeta potential results, respectively.


Assuntos
Milhetes/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sonicação , Estabilidade Proteica , Solubilidade , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
J AOAC Int ; 101(3): 643-646, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28964274

RESUMO

Ambient ionization represents a new generation of MS ion sources and is used for the rapid ionization of small molecules under ambient conditions. The combination of ambient ionization and MS allows the analysis of multiple food samples with simple or no sample treatment or in conjunction with prevailing sample preparation methods. Two ambient ionization methods, desorptive electrospray ionization (DESI) and direct analysis in real time (DART) have been adapted for food safety application. Both ionization techniques provide unique advantages and capabilities. DART has been used for a variety of qualitative and quantitative applications. In particular, mycotoxin contamination of food and feed materials has been addressed by DART-MS. Applications to mycotoxin analysis by ambient ionization MS and particularly DART-MS are summarized.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Micotoxinas/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Malus/química , Malus/microbiologia , Leite/química , Milhetes/química , Milhetes/microbiologia , Triticum/química , Triticum/microbiologia , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/microbiologia
20.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 125(3): 333-338, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157871

RESUMO

In this study, various grains such as rice, millet, corn, barley and wheat were used as raw materials for monacolin K production by solid-state fermentation of Monascus ruber. Among these substrates, millet was found to be the best one for monacolin K production, by which the yield reached 7.12 mg/g. For enhanced monacolin K production, the effects of fermentation time, charge amount, initial moisture content and inoculum volume were systematically investigated in the solid-state fermentation of M. ruber. Moreover, complementary carbon source and nitrogen source were added for further improving the production of monacolin K. Results showed that the maximum production of monacolin K (19.81 mg/g) could be obtained at the optimal conditions. Compared with the traditional red mold rice, using millet as substrate is promising for high production of monacolin K in the solid-state fermentation of M. ruber.


Assuntos
Lovastatina/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Monascus/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Carbono/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Milhetes/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
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